Country Party (New Zealand)

The Country Party of New Zealand was a political party which appealed to rural voters. It was represented in Parliament from 1928 to 1938. Its policies were a mixture of rural advocacy and social credit theory.

New Zealand Country Party
LeaderHarold Rushworth
Founded1922
Dissolved1938; 82 years ago (1938)
Split fromReform Party
Succeeded bySocial Credit Party[1]
IdeologyAgrarianism
Social Credit
Political positionCentre
International affiliationNone
Colours     Green

HistoryEdit

The Country Party had its origins in the Auckland Farmers' Union, a branch of the New Zealand Farmers' Union which covered most of the upper North Island. In the 1920s, members of this branch increasingly came to believe that the Reform Party, which traditionally enjoyed much support in rural areas, was now putting the interests of farmers behind those of businesses in the city. The Auckland branch was also strongly influenced by the social credit theory of monetary reform, promoted by C. H. Douglas. Many farmers believed that the country's financial system did not treat them fairly, and that they were being exploited by big-city bankers and moneylenders.

The Auckland branch grew increasingly frustrated with the Farmers' Union leadership, which did not support having an independent rural party. Eventually members of the Auckland branch established the Country Party without the Union's backing.[2] In 1928, the branch broke away from the Union altogether, giving its full backing to the Country Party. Because of this geographical basis, the Country Party was largely confined to the upper North Island.

In the 1925 elections, the Country Party fielded five candidates, but only won 0.3% of the vote. In the 1928 elections, however, the party won 1.6% of the vote, and Harold Rushworth, its candidate in the Bay of Islands seat, was narrowly elected. In Parliament, the Country Party tended to align itself with the growing Labour Party, primarily because both parties were distrustful of the financial and banking industries.

In the 1931 elections, the Country Party increased its share of the vote to 2.3%, and Rushworth kept his seat. In the 1935 elections, the party's share of the vote dropped slightly, but it won two seats – Rushworth, aided by the Labour Party's decision not to stand a candidate against him, was re-elected, while Arthur Sexton was elected in the Franklin electorate.

In the 1938 elections, the Country Party lost both its seats as Labour decided to contest them. Rushworth had retired (partly because of Labour's intervention) and Sexton was defeated by the National Party. The party won only 0.23% of the vote, and disappeared soon afterwards. Most rural voters who had supported it turned to the National Party, which incorporated the Reform Party. Later, however, the Social Credit Party would gain a certain amount of success in rural areas using much the same formula – some see the Country Party as a forerunner to the more long-lived Social Credit.[3]

Country Party, 1969Edit

The Country Party was revived for the 1969 election by Clifford Stanley Emeny of New Plymouth (1920–2000), a World War II air force veteran. The party put forward candidates in 15 seats, and they attracted 6,715 votes. Emeny stood in Stratford where he got 1130 votes, the largest vote for the party; and in Egmont, New Plymouth, Tauranga and Waimarino. The other seats contested were Ashburton, Hamilton West, Otago, Pahiatua, Raglan, Rangitikei, Rodney, Waikato, Waitomo and Wallace.

The Country Party had changed its name to the Liberal Reform Party in 1970. In the 1972 election, Emeny stood as a Liberal Reform candidate.[4]

Electoral resultsEdit

 
Harold Rushworth, party leader and MP, 1928-38.
Election Candidates # of seats won Total votes % of popular vote
1925
5
0 / 80
2,398
0.35%
1928
5
1 / 80
11,990
1.59%
1931
6
1 / 80
16,710
2.34%
1935
5
2 / 80
9,468
1.67%
1938
5
0 / 80
2,199
0.23%
1969
15
0 / 84
6,715
0.08%

Electorate resultsEdit

1925 general electionEdit

Electorate
Candidate
Votes
%
Bay of Islands
Hugh Sweeny
1,424
19.0%
Raglan
Robert Duxfield
222
3.1%
Rotorua
Frank Colbeck
204
2.8%
Thames
Alexander Ross
409
5.4%
Waikato
F. C. S. Lawson
139
2.0%

1928 general electionEdit

Electorate
Candidate
Votes
%
Bay of Islands
Harold Rushworth
3,820
47.8%
Franklin
Harry Mellsop
3,821
49.2%
Rotorua
S. H. Judd
624
7.5%
Tauranga
Frank Colbeck
1,758
23.0%
Waikato
P. Keegan
1,897
24.4%

1931 general electionEdit

Electorate
Candidate
Votes
%
Bay of Islands
Harold Rushworth
4,970
56.9%
Franklin
Harry Mellsop
2,511
32.4%
Kaipara
Albert Robinson
2,924
36.9%
Rotorua
D. R. F. Campbell
1,411
15.0%
Tauranga
Frank Colbeck
1,803
24.2%
Waikato
Solomon Ziman
3.091
43.2%

1935 general electionEdit

Electorate
Candidate
Votes
%
Bay of Islands
Harold Rushworth
6,004
59.4%
Franklin
Arthur Sexton
4,803
51.4%
Tauranga
Alexander Ross
2,243
21.8%
Waikato
Solomon Ziman
1,221
12.6%
Waitomo
J. H. Penniket
2,431
23.7%

1938 general electionEdit

Electorate
Candidate
Votes
%
Eden
Albert Robinson
155
1.0%
Franklin
Arthur Sexton
1,564
14.8%
Kaipara
James Scott-Davidson
257
2.7%
Raglan
Albert James Gallichan
115
1.2%
Tauranga
H. C. Barker
78
0.7%

By-electionsEdit

By-election
Candidate
Votes
%
Raglan, 1927
Cornelius Augustus Magner
532
8.8%
Bay of Islands, 1929
Harold Rushworth
4,385
52.9%
Hauraki, 1931
Alexander Ross
513
6.3%

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Gully, John Sidney (1966). "Social Credit Political League". In McLintock, A. H. (ed.). An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Ministry for Culture and Heritage / Te Manatū Taonga. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  2. ^ "Farmer Party Evangelist Ross Leads Secession". NZ Truth. 11 October 1924. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  3. ^ Gully 1966.
  4. ^ Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.

External linksEdit

  • McLintock, A. H. (1966). "COUNTRY PARTY". Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 15 May 2015.