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Population centresEdit

The original electorate from 1861 to 1881 included the South Auckland towns of Papatoetoe, Papakura, Pukekohe and Waiuku, and west of Waiuku to the West Coast. When reconstituted in 1890 the northern boundary was north of Papakura, and (with the growth of Auckland) now excluded Papatoetoe.

In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, and Franklin was one of eight electorates to be re-created for the 1890 election.[1]

The 1981 census had shown that the North Island had experienced further population growth, and three additional general seats were created through the 1983 electoral redistribution, bringing the total number of electorates to 95.[2] The South Island had, for the first time, experienced a population loss, but its number of general electorates was fixed at 25 since the 1967 electoral redistribution.[3] More of the South Island population was moving to Christchurch, and two electorates were abolished, while two electorates were recreated. In the North Island, six electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated (including Franklin), and six electorates were abolished.[4]

The 1987 electoral redistribution took the continued population growth in the North Island into account, and two additional general electorates were created, bringing the total number of electorates to 97. In the South Island, the shift of population to Christchurch had continued.[5] Overall, three electorates were newly created, three electorates were recreated, and four electorates were abolished (including Franklin). All of those electorates were in the North Island. Changes in the South Island were restricted to boundary changes.[6] These changes came into effect with the 1987 election.[7]

HistoryEdit

The electorate existed from 1861 to 1881 as a two-member electorate, when it was split into the Franklin North and Franklin South electorates.One of the first MP's, Marmaduke Nixon was killed in action in 1864 whilst leading an assault on a Māori village during the Invasion of the Waikato, forcing the 1864 by-election.[8] In 1890 it was reconstituted, to 1978 and then from 1984–87, and 1993–96. From 1978 to 1984 it was renamed the Rangiriri electorate, and from 1987 to 1993 it was renamed the Maramarua electorate but in 1993 it reverted to "Franklin". In 1996 with MMP, the area became part of the Port Waikato electorate.

The single-member electorate was first represented by Ebenezer Hamlin from 1890 to 1893 when he retired.[9] Benjamin Harris defeated the future Prime Minister William Massey in 1893, but the 1896 contest had the opposite outcome.[10] From 1896 to 1925 Franklin was represented by the Reform Party's Massey, known as Farmer Bill, the Prime Minister from 1912 to 1925. Ewen McLennan then held the electorate for one term before he retired, and was replaced by Massey's son Jack Massey.[11]

In 1935 Franklin was won by Arthur Sexton of the Country Party, but he lost the seat in 1938 to Jack Massey, now standing for the National Party. He held the seat until 1957, when he was deselected by the National Party in favour of Alfred E. Allen. Alf Allen held the seat until 1972, when he retired[12] and was replaced by future National minister Bill Birch, who held the seat over the remaining three periods that the seat existed.[13]

Members of ParliamentEdit

Multi-member electorateEdit

Key

 Independent    Conservative    Liberal    Reform    Country Party    National  

Election Winners
1861 election Robert Graham Marmaduke Nixon
1864 by-election Theodore Haultain
1866 election
1868 by-election William Turnbull Swan
1871 election William Thorne Buckland Archibald Clark
1874 by-election Joseph May
1876 election Hugh Lusk Ebenezer Hamlin
1878 by-election Richard Hobbs
1879 election Benjamin Harris
(Electorate abolished 1881–1890, see Franklin North and Franklin South)

Single-member electorateEdit

Election Winner
1890 election Ebenezer Hamlin
1893 election Benjamin Harris
1896 election William Massey
1899 election
1902 election
1905 election
1908 election
1911 election
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election
1925 by-election Ewen McLennan
1925 election
1928 election Jack Massey
1931 election
1935 election Arthur Sexton
1938 election Jack Massey
1943 election
1946 election
1949 election
1951 election
1954 election
1957 election Alfred E. Allen
1960 election
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election Bill Birch
1975 election
(Electorate abolished 1978–1984, see Rangiriri)
1984 election Bill Birch
(Electorate abolished 1987–1993, see Maramarua)
1993 election Bill Birch
(Electorate abolished in 1996; see Port Waikato)

Election resultsEdit

1993 electionEdit

1993 general election: Franklin[14]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Bill Birch 7,723 43.01
Alliance Judy Bischoff 4,180 23.28
Labour Shane Te Pou 2,776 15.46
NZ First Patra de Coudray 2,567 14.29
Christian Heritage Roelof Voschezang 321 1.78
McGillicuddy Serious Dominic Charles Worthington 192 1.06
Independent Ian Wilson 132 0.73
Natural Law Jan Flynn 62 0.34
Majority 3,543 19.73
Turnout 17,953 80.17
Registered electors 22,392

1984 electionEdit

1984 general election: Franklin[15]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Bill Birch 10,501 51.46
Labour Roy Harwood 5,291 25.93
NZ Party Noel McGuire 2,880 14.11
Social Credit Alan Scott 1,600 7.84
Values M Haines 131 0.64
Majority 5,210 25.53
Turnout 20,403 89.87
Registered electors 22,701

1975 electionEdit

1975 general election: Franklin[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Bill Birch 10,844 64.89 +6.97
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing 3,239 19.38
Social Credit Geoff Morell 1,657 9.91 -0.36
Values Jock Hutton 950 5.68
Socialist Unity J G Roberts 21 0.12
Majority 7,605 45.50 +16.28
Turnout 16,711 81.13 -6.60
Registered electors 20,597

1972 electionEdit

1972 general election: Franklin[16]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Bill Birch 8,300 57.92
Labour Geoff Braybrooke 4,112 28.69
Social Credit Geoff Morell 1,472 10.27
Liberal Reform Thomas Edward Keven 361 2.51
New Democratic M H Lawson 84 0.58
Majority 4,188 29.22
Turnout 14,329 87.73 +1.88
Registered electors 16,333

1969 electionEdit

1969 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Alfred E. Allen 8,900 62.76 +5.97
Labour Tai Tuhimata 3,405 24.01
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,875 13.22 -1.52
Majority 5,495 38.75 -0.56
Turnout 14,180 85.85 -0.70
Registered electors 16,516

1966 electionEdit

1966 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Alfred E. Allen 7,343 56.79 -9.15
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing 2,260 17.48 -4.08
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,907 14.74 +2.25
Independent Malcolm John Muir 1,419 10.97
Majority 5,083 39.31 -5.07
Turnout 12,929 86.55 -0.75
Registered electors 14,938

1963 electionEdit

1963 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Alfred E. Allen 8,690 65.94 +2.60
Labour Ron Ng-Waishing 2,841 21.56
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,646 12.49 +4.32
Majority 5,849 44.38 +9.52
Turnout 13,177 87.30 -1.90
Registered electors 15,093

1960 electionEdit

1960 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Alfred E. Allen 9,442 63.34 +3.28
Labour Howard Preston 4,245 28.47
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,219 8.17 -1.59
Majority 5,197 34.86 +4.98
Turnout 14,906 89.20 -1.86
Registered electors 16,710

1957 electionEdit

1957 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Alfred E. Allen 8,522 60.06
Labour Christopher Mountford 4,281 30.17
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,386 9.76 -2.49
Majority 4,241 29.88
Turnout 14,189 91.06 +3.49
Registered electors 15,581

1954 electionEdit

1954 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 7,299 63.97 -5.13
Labour Percival Peacock 2,712 23.77
Social Credit Thomas Allan Wheeler 1,398 12.25
Majority 4,587 40.20 +2.00
Turnout 11,409 87.57 -0.55
Registered electors 13,027

1951 electionEdit

1951 general election: Franklin[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 9,691 69.10 -0.77
Labour Arthur Faulkner 4,333 30.89
Majority 5,358 38.20 -1.54
Turnout 14,024 88.12 -4.33
Registered electors 15,914

1949 electionEdit

1949 general election: Franklin[18]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 9,635 69.87 +4.48
Labour John Parsons 4,154 30.12
Majority 5,481 39.74 +8.96
Turnout 13,789 92.45 -1.57
Registered electors 14,915

1946 electionEdit

1946 general election: Franklin[19]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 8,545 65.39 +4.42
Labour Alex Gunn 4,522 34.60
Majority 4,023 30.78 +0.31
Turnout 13,067 94.02 +3.51
Registered electors 13,898

1943 electionEdit

1943 general election: Franklin[20]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 6,572 60.97 +8.64
Labour Aaron Best 3,287 30.49
Democratic Labour Daniel Patrick Lloyd 598 5.54
Real Democracy Ernest Moss 235 2.18
Informal votes 86 0.79 -0.44
Majority 3,285 30.47 +11.05
Turnout 10,778 90.51 -4.19
Registered electors 11,907

1938 electionEdit

1938 general election: Franklin[21][22]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Jack Massey 5,542 52.33 +8.27
Labour Ernest Piggott 3,485 32.91
Country Party Arthur Sexton 1,564 14.77 -36.62
Majority 2,057 19.42
Informal votes 37 0.35
Turnout 10,628 94.70
Registered electors 11,223

1935 electionEdit

1935 general election: Franklin[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Country Party Arthur Sexton 4,803 51.39
Reform Jack Massey 4,118 44.06 -12.77
Democrat B C Fyers 368 3.93
Majority 685 7.32
Informal votes 57 0.60
Turnout 9,346 +13.49

1931 electionEdit

1931 general election: Franklin[24][25]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Jack Massey 4,968 64.16
Country Party Harry Oswald Mellsop 2,511 32.43
Independent John Humphries Edwards[nb 1] 264 3.41
Majority 2,457 31.73
Informal votes 55 0.71
Turnout 7,798 82.56
Registered electors 9,445

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Edwards was chosen by the local committee of the Labour Party, but was not endorsed by the national executive[26]

1925 by-electionEdit

1925 Franklin by-election
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform Ewen McLennan 6,056 72.96
Labour John Sommerville Montgomerie[27] 2,245 27.04
Informal votes 43 0.5
Majority 3,811 45.91
Turnout 8,344
Reform hold Swing

1922 electionEdit

1922 general election: Franklin[28][29]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform William Massey 5,276 66.70 -1.72
Liberal Joseph Rea 2,526 31.94 +12.92
Informal votes 108 1.36 +0.82
Majority 2,750 34.76 -14.66
Turnout 7,910 88.73 -3.40
Registered electors 8,914

1919 electionEdit

1919 general election: Franklin[30]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform William Massey 4,195 68.42 -3.40
Liberal Joseph Rea 1,165 19.02
Labour Ernest Piggott 637 10.38
Informal votes 134 2.18 +1.17
Majority 3,030 49.42 +5.78
Turnout 6,131 85.33 +0.99
Registered electors 7,185

1914 electionEdit

1914 general election: Franklin[31]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform William Massey 4,818 71.82 +4.83
Liberal Arthur Glass 1,890 28.17
Informal votes 68 1.01 +0.30
Majority 2,928 43.64 -8.85
Turnout 6,708 84.34 +3.87
Registered electors 7,953

1911 electionEdit

1911 general election: Franklin[32]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Reform William Massey 3,779 66.99 -4.37
Liberal John McLarin 1,816 32.20 -3.69
Informal votes 46 0.81 -0.67
Majority 1,963 34.79 +8.07
Turnout 5,641 80.47 +2.04
Registered electors 7,010

1908 electionEdit

1908 general election: Franklin[33]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Massey 2,781 62.62 +5.04
Liberal John McLarin 1,594 35.89
Informal votes 66 1.48 -0.97
Majority 1,187 26.72 -9.10
Turnout 4,441 78.43 -7.48
Registered electors 5,662

1905 electionEdit

1905 general election: Franklin[34]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Massey 3,120 57.58 -9.29
Liberal William Wilson McCardle 2,165 39.95
Informal votes 133 2.45 +1.96
Majority 955 17.62 -16.61
Turnout 5,418 85.91 +15.10
Registered electors 6,306

1902 electionEdit

1902 general election: Franklin[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Massey 2,297 66.87 +1.08
Liberal Alfred Richard Harris 1,121 32.63
Informal votes 17 0.49
Majority 1,176 34.23 +2.65
Turnout 3,435 70.81 -7.09
Registered electors 4,851

1899 electionEdit

1899 general election: Franklin[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Massey 2,458 65.79 -10.03
Liberal W Findlay Wilson 1,278 34.21
Majority 1,180 31.58 -19.48
Turnout 3,736 77.90
Registered electors 4,796

1896 electionEdit

1896 general election: Franklin[37][38][39]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative William Massey 2,184 55.76 +7.12
Liberal Benjamin Harris 1,710 43.66 -7.70
Informal votes 23 0.58
Majority 474 12.10
Turnout 3,917

1893 electionEdit

1893 general election: Franklin[40][41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Benjamin Harris 1,684 51.36 +3.21
Conservative William Massey 1,595 48.64
Majority 89 2.71
Turnout 3,279 79.55 +18.16
Registered electors 4,122

1890 electionEdit

1890 general election: Franklin[42]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Conservative Ebenezer Hamlin 732 51.84
Independent Liberal Benjamin Harris 680 48.15
Majority 52 3.68
Turnout 1,412 61.39
Registered electors 2,300

1874 by-electionEdit

1874 Franklin by-election[43]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent Joseph May 180 38.14
Independent William Goodfellow 156 33.05
Independent Frank Henry Troup 121 25.64
Independent William Woodward 9 1.91
Independent Joseph Dargaville 6 1.27
Turnout 472
Majority 24 5.08

1868 by-electionEdit

1868 Franklin by-election[44][45][46]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Independent William Turnbull Swan 619 53.04
Independent William Thorne Buckland 548 46.96
Turnout 1167
Majority 71 6.08

NotesEdit

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 123f.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 123.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 119–124.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 127f.
  6. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 123–128.
  7. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 127.
  8. ^ Barber, Laurie. "Nixon, Marmaduke George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
  9. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 202.
  10. ^ Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  11. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 217, 219.
  12. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 172.
  13. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  14. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 28.
  15. ^ Norton 1988.
  16. ^ a b Norton 1988, p. 227.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Norton 1988, p. 226.
  18. ^ "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  19. ^ "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  20. ^ "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  21. ^ "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. p. 2. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  22. ^ "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. LXXV (23181). 29 October 1938. p. 25. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  23. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1936. Archived from the original on 1 May 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
  24. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 2. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. LXVIII (21053). 11 December 1931. p. 22. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  26. ^ "Election Notes". The New Zealand Herald. LXVIII (21042). 28 November 1931. p. 17. Retrieved 15 November 2014.
  27. ^ "Reform Triumph". The Northern Advocate. 18 June 1925. p. 5. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  28. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1924. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  29. ^ Hislop 1923, pp. 1–6.
  30. ^ Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  31. ^ Hislop, J. (1915). The General Election, 1914. National Library. pp. 1–33. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  32. ^ "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 1–14. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  33. ^ "The General Election, 1908". National Library. 1909. pp. 1–34. Retrieved 14 April 2012.
  34. ^ The General Election, 1905. p. 3. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  35. ^ The General Election, 1902. National Library. 1903. p. 1. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  36. ^ "The General Election, 1899". Wellington: Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives. 19 June 1900. p. 2. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  37. ^ "List of Candidates". Hawera & Normanby Star. XXXIII (3411). 2 December 1896. p. 2. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  38. ^ "The New Parliament". Hawke's Bay Herald. XXXI (10478). 7 December 1896. p. 3. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  39. ^ "The Elections" (5739). Christchurch: The Star. 5 December 1896. p. 6. Retrieved 14 April 2010.
  40. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. p. 1. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  41. ^ "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013.
  42. ^ "The General Election, 1890". National Library. 1891. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
  43. ^ "The Franklin Election". The New Zealand Herald. XI (3876). 15 April 1874. p. 3. Retrieved 18 January 2019.
  44. ^ "Franklin Election". Daily Southern Cross. 14 July 1868.
  45. ^ "Franklyn Election". New Zealand Herald. 23 June 1868.
  46. ^ "Public Meeting at Tapu". Daily Southern Cross. 29 June 1868.

ReferencesEdit

  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.

External linksEdit