Rotorua (New Zealand electorate)

Rotorua is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate, returning one Member of Parliament to the New Zealand House of Representatives. It was first established in 1919, and has existed continuously since 1954. The current MP for Rotorua is Todd McClay of the National Party,[1] who won the electorate in the 2008 general election from incumbent Labour MP Steve Chadwick.

Rotorua electorate boundaries used since the 2014 election

Population centresEdit

In the 1918 electoral redistribution, the North Island gained a further three electorates from the South Island due to faster population growth. Only two existing electorates were unaltered, five electorates were abolished, two former electorate were re-established, and three electorates, including Rotorua, were created for the first time.[2]

The original electorate, which was formed through the 1918 electoral redistribution, had a long coastline along the Bay of Plenty, and incorporated, beside Rotorua, the towns and villages of Whakatāne, Taupō, Tokoroa, Putāruru, Mangakino, Edgecumbe, Tāneatua, and Murupara.[3] In the 1922 electoral redistribution, the electorate lost some area to the Bay of Plenty electorate, and a larger area to the Waikato electorate.[4] The 1927 electoral redistribution saw Rotorua become landlocked, with the Tauranga electorate taking the coastline including Tāneatua and Edgecumbe, and Whakatāne going to the Bay of Plenty electorate. The electorate moved south and took in Lake Taupō, with Tūrangi just beyond the southern boundary located in the Waimarino electorate. The electorate also grew in the north-west, gaining the town of Matamata.[5]

In the 1937 electoral redistribution, the electorate shifted further south again. Matamata was lost again, and the peaks of Tongariro, Ngauruhoe, and Ruapehu now formed the boundary to the Waimarino electorate.[6] The 1946 electoral redistribution saw the Rotorua electorate abolished, with the Bay of Plenty electorate moving west and incorporating the town of Rotorua, most of the southern area going to the Waimarino electorate including the town of Taupō, and some area in the north-west going to the Waikato electorate including Tokoroa.[7]

The First Labour Government was defeated in the 1949 election and the incoming National Government changed the Electoral Act, with the electoral quota once again based on total population as opposed to qualified electors, and the tolerance was increased to 7.5% of the electoral quota. There was no adjustments in the number of electorates between the South and North Islands, but the law changes resulted in boundary adjustments to almost every electorate through the 1952 electoral redistribution; only five electorates were unaltered.[8] Five electorates were reconstituted (including Rotorua) and one was newly created, and a corresponding six electorates were abolished; all of these in the North Island.[9] These changes took effect with the 1954 election.[10] The electorate was again landlocked and much smaller than prior to its abolition. Significant settlements included Rotorua, Tokoroa, Taupō, and Mangakino, with Lake Taupō forming the southern boundary.[11]

DemographicsEdit

Over forty per cent of the population of Rotorua is under the age of thirty, much of this because 37% of the electorate's residents are Māori, who are on the whole younger than the national average (22.7 years old versus a national average of 35.9).[12] There are also fewer voters earning over $30,000 per year, with the majority of workers coming from working class and semi-skilled professionals. Rotorua also has more unemployed people (6.5%) than most electorates, being ranked 52nd in the nation.

The country quota applied until 1945 and the Rotorua electorate was initially classed as fully rural. Based on the 1926 New Zealand census, the 1927 Electoral Redistribution determined that 24% of the electorate's population was urban. Based on the 1936 census, the 1937 Electoral Redistribution determined that 36% of the electorate's population was urban.[13]

The current Rotorua electorate is positioned in the Bay of Plenty region in the central North Island. It is dominated by the town of Rotorua, and also contains the Eastern Bay of Plenty towns of Kawerau, Murupara and Galatea, the last two of which are located on the outskirts of Te Urewera National Park. In 2008, its boundaries were extended to the geographical bay, with the addition of coastline stretching from a cluster of rural towns including Pukehina and Maketu to the outskirts of Te Puke.

HistoryEdit

An electorate based around Rotorua has been a part of the New Zealand electoral landscape since the 1919 election, with a gap from 1946 to 1954. Previously the town of Rotorua was in the East Coast electorate (from 1871), then the East Coast electorate again (from 1890), then the Bay of Plenty electorate (from 1893), and then (just) in the Tauranga electorate again (from 1911 to 1919).[14]

William Henry Wackrow was nominated in March 1922 as the opposition candidate for that year's election.[15] Wackrow withdrew in November[16] and was replaced by Cecil Clinkard, who lost against the incumbent, Frank Hockly of the Reform Party.[17]

Geoffrey Sim of the National Party won the 1943 election. When the Rotorua electorate was abolished for the 1946 election, Sim successfully stood in Waikato electorate instead.[18]

After the electorate was re-established through the 1952 Electoral Redistribution, Ray Boord of the Labour Party won the 1954 election.[19] Boord served two parliamentary terms and was beaten by National's Harry Lapwood in the 1960 election.[20] Lapwood served for six parliamentary terms and retired in 1978.[21]

Lapwood was succeeded by his party colleague Paul East in the 1978 election. East also served six parliamentary terms until 1996. With the advent of Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) voting in 1996, the Rotorua electorate was greatly expanded to include areas previously part of the Eastern Bay of Plenty and Tarawera electorates. Both Tarawera and Rotorua were safe National Party electorates, and in the ensuing battle for the nomination, the two incumbents, East and Max Bradford, faced off for a Rotorua nomination eventually secured by Bradford, with East securing a high list position.[22]

Bradford won the 1996 election with a nearly 6,000 votes margin.[23] Despite both electorates being reasonably loyal to the National Party, Bradford's tenure as MP for Rotorua was just three years, before being ousted by Labour MP Steve Chadwick in the 1999 election. Chadwick's initial majority of 4,978 votes blew out to over 7,500 in 2002 before it was reined in to just 662 in 2005, as the National Party consolidated the centre-right vote, with its biggest gains being in the provincial North Island. In 2005, Chadwick's party was less popular than their candidate, coming 1,645 votes behind National.

In 2008 Chadwick was defeated by National candidate Todd McClay who won the electorate with a majority of 5,067 votes. In the 2011 election McClay again returned as the member for Rotorua, increasing his majority to 7,357 votes. In 2014, McClay was elected as MP for a third term beating television personality Tamati Coffey by a similar majority to that in the previous election.

Rotorua is also an electorate where the New Zealand First party does well, with its biggest appeal among provincial New Zealanders, and as results in 1996 indicate, Māori: in the three most recent elections, New Zealand First has polled around three per cent higher in Rotorua than it did in the rest of New Zealand.

Members of Parliament for RotoruaEdit

Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Key

  Reform     United     Labour     National  

Election Winner
1919 election Frank Hockly
1922 election
1925 election
1928 election Cecil Clinkard
1931 election
1935 election Alexander Moncur
1938 election
1943 election Geoffrey Sim
(Electorate abolished 1946–1954, see
Bay of Plenty, Waimarino, and Waikato)
1954 election Ray Boord
1957 election
1960 election Harry Lapwood
1963 election
1966 election
1969 election
1972 election
1975 election
1978 election Paul East
1981 election
1984 election
1987 election
1990 election
1993 election
1996 election Max Bradford
1999 election Steve Chadwick
2002 election
2005 election
2008 election Todd McClay
2011 election
2014 election
2017 election
2020 election

List MPs from RotoruaEdit

Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person also unsuccessfully contested the Rotorua electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms began and ended at general elections.

Election Winner
1999 election Max Bradford
2008 election Steve Chadwick
2014 election Fletcher Tabuteau
2017 election

Election resultsEdit

2020 electionEdit

2020 general election: Rotorua [24]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Todd McClay 16,212 43.29 -10.08 10,951 28.65 -19.68
Labour Claire Mahon 15,387 41.09 +10.17 17,845 46.68 +14.38
Green Kaya Sparke 1,887 5.04 +0.80 1,816 4.75 +0.61
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 1,412 3.77 -4.93 1,383 3.62 -6.28
ACT Pete Kirkwood 1,053 2.81 3,463 9.06 +8.73
New Conservative Alan Tāne Solomon 564 1.51 +1.19 703 1.84 +1.57
Advance NZ Kiri Ward 563 1.50 518 1.36
ONE Kari-Ann Varcoe 372 0.99 177 0.46
Opportunities   606 1.59 -1.12
Māori Party   347 0.91 -0.35
Legalise Cannabis   179 0.47 +0.15
Vision NZ   141 0.37
Outdoors   50 0.13 +0.07
Sustainable NZ   21 0.05
Social Credit   16 0.04 +0.02
TEA   8 0.02
Heartland   4 0.01
Informal votes 701 260
Total Valid votes 37,450 38,228
National hold Majority 825 2.20 -20.25

2017 electionEdit

2017 general election: Rotorua[25]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Todd McClay 18,788 53.37 -2.42 17,390 48.33 -3.54
Labour Ben Sandford 10,887 30.92 -2.75 11,622 32.3 +11.21
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 3,062 8.70 +1.35 3,561 9.90 -2.26
Green Richard Gillies 1,491 4.24 1,488 4.14 -2.58
Māori Party Wendy Biddle 702 1.99 454 1.26 -0.17
Independent Rachel Clark 162 0.46
Conservative Owen Patterson 114 0.32 -1.5 97 0.27 -3.73
Opportunities   974 2.71
ACT   120 0.33 -0.09
Legalise Cannabis   116 0.32 -0.15
Ban 1080   66 0.18 -0.12
People's Party   30 0.08
Outdoors   23 0.06
United Future   19 0.05 -0.16
Democrats   8 0.02 -0.03
Internet   8 0.02 -0.78[a]
Mana   8 0.02 -0.78[b]
Informal votes 379 133
Total Valid votes 35,585 36,117
National hold Majority 7,901 22.45 +0.34

2014 electionEdit

2014 general election: Rotorua[26]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Todd McClay 18,145 55.79 −1.38 17,660 51.87 +0.60
Labour Tamati Coffey 11,297 33.67 +1.54 7,181 21.09 −0.86
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,466 7.35 +0.28 4,139 12.16 +1.61
Conservative Michael Davidson 610 1.82 −1.13 1,361 4.00 +0.99
ACT Lyall Russell 132 0.39 +0.39 142 0.42 −0.43
Green   2,289 6.72 −1.85
Māori Party   486 1.43 +0.15
Internet Mana   272 0.80 −0.24
Legalise Cannabis   160 0.47 −0.03
Ban 1080   101 0.30 +0.30
United Future   72 0.21 −0.61
Independent Coalition   33 0.10 +0.10
Democrats   16 0.05 +0.01
Civilian   11 0.03 +0.03
Focus   4 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 328 122
Total Valid votes 33,548 34,049
National hold Majority 7,418 22.11 −1.93

2011 electionEdit

2011 general election: Rotorua[27]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National  Y Todd McClay 17,188 56.17 +2.26 16,159 51.27 +0.92
Labour Steve Chadwick 9,831 32.13 -6.35 6,919 21.95 -8.08
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,166 7.08 +7.08 3,326 10.55 +4.21
Conservative Daryl Smith 903 2.95 +2.95 948 3.01 +3.01
Mana Grant Rogers 510 1.67 +1.67 327 1.04 +1.04
Green   2,700 8.57 +3.58
Māori Party   404 1.28 -0.50
ACT   269 0.85 -1.78
United Future   258 0.82 -0.02
Legalise Cannabis   159 0.50 +0.06
Libertarianz   19 0.06 +0.02
Alliance   15 0.05 -0.05
Democrats   14 0.04 +0.02
Informal votes 835 307
Total Valid votes 30,598 31,517
National hold Majority 7,357 24.04 +8.62

Electorate (as at 26 November 2011): 42,886[28]

2008 electionEdit

2008 general election: Rotorua[29]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Todd McClay 17,700 53.91 +15.31 16,836 50.35 +8.46
Labour  N Steve Chadwick 12,635 38.48 -2.29 10,044 30.04 -6.63
Green Raewyn Saville 1,665 5.07 +1.36 1,666 4.98 +1.21
Kiwi Daryl Smith 365 1.11 +1.11 183 0.55 +0.55
United Future Arthur Solomon 241 0.73 -6.22 282 0.84 -2.12
RAM Grant Rogers 145 0.44 +0.44 24 0.07 +0.07
Libertarianz Fred Stevens 82 0.25 +0.25 15 0.04 +0.01
NZ First   2,122 6.35 -2.89
ACT   879 2.63 +1.44
Māori Party   596 1.78 +0.22
Progressive   200 0.60 -0.26
Family Party   193 0.58 +0.58
Bill and Ben   186 0.56 +0.56
Legalise Cannabis   147 0.44 +0.18
Alliance   33 0.10 +0.03
Pacific   13 0.04 +0.04
Workers Party   8 0.02 +0.02
Democrats   7 0.02 -0.03
RONZ   4 0.01 -0.02
Informal votes 364 154
Total Valid votes 32,833 33,438
National gain from Labour Majority 5,065 15.43 +13.25

2005 electionEdit

2005 general election: Rotorua[30]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour  Y Steve Chadwick 12,420 40.77 -10.63 11,350 36.67 -0.96
National Gil Stehbens 11,758 38.60 +14.88 12,965 41.89 +21.46
United Future Russell Judd 2,119 6.96 +1.63 916 2.96 -4.12
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2,055 6.75 -2.53 2,860 9.24 -7.21
Green Raewyn Saville 1,131 3.71 -0.14 1,168 3.77 -2.13
Destiny Elaine Herbert 604 1.98 +1.98 397 1.28 +1.28
ACT Carl Peterson 378 1.24 +1.24 367 1.19 -4.15
Māori Party   484 1.56 +1.56
Progressive   267 0.86 -0.69
Legalise Cannabis   83 0.23 -0.66
Alliance   20 0.06 -0.83
Christian Heritage   16 0.05 -1.18
Democrats   16 0.05 +0.05
Libertarianz   10 0.03 +0.03
Family Rights   9 0.03 +0.03
RONZ   9 0.03 +0.03
Direct Democracy   7 0.02 +0.02
One NZ   5 0.02 -0.05
99 MP   4 0.01 +0.01
Informal votes 326 125
Total Valid votes 30,465 30,950
Labour hold Majority 662 2.17 -25.51

2002 electionEdit

2002 general election: Rotorua[31]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour  Y Steve Chadwick 14380 51.40 +1.70 10700 37.63 -0.80
National Malcolm Short 6636 23.72 -8.88 5809 20.43 -10.30
NZ First Fletcher Tabuteau 2595 9.28 +5.60 4677 16.45 +10.64
United Future Russell Judd 1490 5.33 +5.33 2014 7.08 +7.08
Green Richard Kake 1078 3.85 -0.37 1679 5.90 +0.61
NZ Equal Rights Party Cliff Lee 806 2.88 +0.07
Christian Heritage Ross Prichard 391 1.40 -0.86 350 1.23 -1.19
Independent Reg Turner 232 0.83 +0.83
Progressive David Espin 194 0.69 +0.69 442 1.55 +1.55
Alliance Julie Poupard 175 0.63 -1.75 252 0.89 -5.98
ACT   1518 5.34 -0.48
ORNZ   791 2.78 +2.78
Legalise Cannabis   156 0.55 -0.53
Mana Māori Movement   28 0.10 -0.09
One NZ   19 0.07 -0.03
NMP   1 0.00 -0.01
Informal votes 335 114
Total Valid votes 27977 28436
Labour hold Majority 7744 27.68 +10.59

1999 electionEdit

1999 general election: Rotorua[32][33]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
Labour Steve Chadwick 14,474 49.70 11,299 38.42 +15.27
National  N Max Bradford 9,496 32.60 -8.10 9,037 30.73 -5.31
Green Lynne Dempsey 1,230 4.22 1,557 5.29
NZ First Robert Dixon 1,070 3.67 1,708 5.81 -12.37
NZ Equal Rights Party Cliff Lee 819 2.81
Alliance Pirihira Kaio 692 2.38 2,018 6.86 -2.90
Christian Heritage Ross Prichard 657 2.26 713 2.42 -1.99
Christian Democrats Andrew James Parr 619 2.13 536 1.82
Natural Law Martin Sharp 68 0.23 27 0.09 +0.02
ACT   1,710 5.82 +1.12
Legalise Cannabis   316 1.07 -0.33
United NZ   144 0.49 -0.09
Libertarianz   127 0.43 +0.42
Animals First   55 0.19 +0.02
Mana Māori Movement   54 0.18 +0.11
McGillicuddy Serious   42 0.14 -0.20
One NZ   29 0.10
Mauri Pacific   16 0.05
The People's Choice   9 0.03
NMP   4 0.01
South Island   3 0.01
Freedom Movement   1 0.00
Republican   1 0.00
Informal votes 545 264
Total Valid votes 29,125 29,406
Labour gain from National Majority 4,978 17.09

1996 electionEdit

1996 general election: Rotorua[34]
Notes:

Blue background denotes the winner of the electorate vote.
Pink background denotes a candidate elected from their party list.
Yellow background denotes an electorate win by a list member, or other incumbent.
A  Y or  N denotes status of any incumbent, win or lose respectively.

Party Candidate Votes % ±% Party votes % ±%
National Max Bradford 12,124 40.70 10,734 36.04
Alliance Keith Ridings 6,228 20.91 -10.78 2,909 9.76
NZ First Charles Sturt 5,029 16.88 5,417 18.18
Labour Rosemary Michie 4,149 13.93 6,895 23.15
Christian Coalition Geoff Winter 834 2.80 1,316 4.41
ACT Stephen Wrathall 371 1.24 1,402 4.70
Conservatives Dennis Quirke 225 0.75 74 0.24
Progressive Green Allan Williams 192 0.64 102 0.34
McGillicuddy Serious Adrian Holroyd 183 0.61 102 0.34
Te Tawharau Hawea Vercoe 183 0.61 11 0.03
Natural Law Frank Gwynne 37 0.12 22 0.07
Legalise Cannabis   417 1.40
United NZ   174 0.58
Animals First   52 0.17
Green Society   24 0.08
Mana Māori Movement   22 0.07
Ethnic Minority   12 0.04
Superannuitants & Youth   12 0.04
Libertarianz   3 0.01
Asia Pacific   2 0.00
Advance NZ   1 0.00
Informal votes 198 80
Total Valid votes 29,783 29,783
National hold Majority 5,896 19.79

1993 electionEdit

1993 general election: Rotorua[35]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 5,893 34.18 -22.69
Alliance Keith Ridings 5,464 31.69
Labour John Chadwick 5,018 29.10
Christian Heritage B Kohath 374 2.16
Independent Reg Turner 164 0.95
McGillicuddy Serious Graeme Cairns 147 0.85
Defence Movement R Reed 133 0.77
Natural Law Martin Sharp 47 0.27
Majority 429 2.48 -28.38
Turnout 17,240 80.65 -0.66
Registered electors 21,376

1990 electionEdit

1990 general election: Rotorua[36]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 9,710 56.87 +1.22
Labour Bruce Raitt 4,440 26.00
Green Ronald Reed 1,732 10.14
NewLabour Kevin John Goddard 725 4.24
Independent Clifford Owen Lee 229 1.34
Social Credit Margaret Lynley Crosby 170 0.99
Democrats Trevor Barnard 66 0.38
Majority 5,270 30.86 +17.29
Turnout 17,072 81.31 -11.99
Registered electors 20,995

1987 electionEdit

1987 general election: Rotorua[37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 9,883 55.32 +10.17
Labour Rosemary Michie 7,458 41.74
Democrats H O Dassler 523 2.92
Majority 2,425 13.57 +9.39
Turnout 17,864 93.30 -7.75
Registered electors 19,145

1984 electionEdit

1984 general election: Rotorua[37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 8,746 45.15 -0.20
Labour Brian Arps 7,935 40.96
NZ Party Ross Alan Aubertin 2,094 10.81
Social Credit Kevin Douglas Steele 594 3.06
Majority 811 4.18 -4.90
Turnout 19,369 101.05 +13.53
Registered electors 19,167

1981 electionEdit

1981 general election: Rotorua[37]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 7,709 45.35 +1.14
Labour Johnny W. Lepper 6,165 36.26
Social Credit J L Doel 3,124 18.37
Majority 1,544 9.08 -2.76
Turnout 16,998 87.52 +17.49
Registered electors 19,421

1978 electionEdit

1978 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Paul East 7,126 44.21
Labour Peter Tapsell 6,106 37.88 +1.82
Social Credit Graeme John Eustace 2,565 15.91
Values Margaret Jane Larsen 321 1.99
Majority 1,020 6.32
Turnout 16,118 70.03 -15.24
Registered electors 23,013

1975 electionEdit

1975 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 11,561 52.40 +3.94
Labour Peter Tapsell 7,956 36.06
Social Credit C F Smith 1,617 7.33
Values Lois McKinnon 925 4.19
Majority 3,605 16.34 +11.58
Turnout 22,059 85.27 -3.33
Registered electors 25,868

1972 electionEdit

1972 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 7,997 48.46 -1.44
Labour N F Pachoud 7,211 43.70
Social Credit R W Johnson 903 5.47
New Democratic R O Fairweather 330 2.00 -5.89
Liberal Reform C J Tapper 59 0.35
Majority 786 4.76 -2.93
Turnout 16,500 88.60 +0.59
Registered electors 18,623

1969 electionEdit

1969 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 7,772 49.90 -1.42
Labour Charles Bennett 6,574 42.20
Social Credit R O Fairweather 1,229 7.89
Majority 1,198 7.69 -8.14
Turnout 15,575 88.01 +5.57
Registered electors 17,695

1966 electionEdit

1966 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 7,450 51.32 -1.20
Labour Frank Knipe 5,152 35.50
Social Credit Edith Janette Lamason 2,465 16.98 +6.75
Majority 2,298 15.83 +0.56
Turnout 14,514 82.44 -7.88
Registered electors 17,605

1963 electionEdit

1963 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 7,623 52.52 +5.69
Labour James Phillip Cranston 5,406 37.25
Social Credit Edith Janette Lamason 1,485 10.23
Majority 2,217 15.27 +13.13
Turnout 14,514 90.32 +0.62
Registered electors 16,068

1960 electionEdit

1960 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Harry Lapwood 7,831 46.83
Labour Ray Boord 7,473 44.69 -8.59
Social Credit C R Tunnicliffe 1,416 8.46
Majority 358 2.14
Turnout 16,720 89.70 -3.73
Registered electors 18,638

1957 electionEdit

1957 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ray Boord 8,204 53.28 +4.76
National Murray Linton 6,195 40.23
Social Credit Herbert James Buckingham 998 6.48
Majority 2,009 13.04 +7.51
Turnout 15,397 93.43 -1.14
Registered electors 16,479

1954 electionEdit

1954 general election: Rotorua[38]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Ray Boord 7,211 48.52
National Percy Allen 6,389 42.99
Social Credit Hubert C. McCready 1,261 8.48
Majority 822 5.53
Turnout 14,861 94.57
Registered electors 15,714

1943 electionEdit

1943 general election: Rotorua[39][40]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Geoffrey Sim 5,304 49.74
Labour Alexander Moncur 4,589 43.03 -14.23
Democratic Labour William Henry Tong 521 4.88
Real Democracy Tom Godfrey Burnham 164 1.53
Informal votes 85 0.79 +0.12
Majority 715 6.70
Turnout 10,663 92.29 +0.62
Registered electors 11,553

1938 electionEdit

1938 general election: Rotorua[41]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alexander Moncur 6,211 57.26 +14.12
National Henry William Nixon 4,563 42.06
Informal votes 73 0.67 +0.11
Majority 1,648 15.19 +2.39
Turnout 10,847 91.67 +3.03
Registered electors 11,832

1935 electionEdit

1935 general election: Rotorua[42]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Labour Alexander Moncur 4,894 43.14 +10.60
Independent Frederick Doidge 3,442 30.34
United Cecil Clinkard 2,785 24.55 -8.60
Democrat H. Hugh Corbin[43] 223 1.97
Informal votes 64 0.56 -0.08
Majority 1,452 12.80 +12.19
Turnout 11,408 88.64 +8.81
Registered electors 12,870

1931 electionEdit

1931 general election: Rotorua[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
United Cecil Clinkard 3,117 33.15 -10.34
Labour Alexander Moncur 3,060 32.54
Independent Edward Earle Vaile 1,815 19.30
Country Party D R F Campbell[45] 1,411 15.01
Informal votes 61 0.64 -0.84
Majority 57 0.61 -1.80
Turnout 9,464 79.83 -4.27
Registered electors 11,855

1928 electionEdit

1928 general election: Rotorua[46]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
United Cecil Clinkard[47] 3,617 43.49 +21.59
Reform Frank Hockly 3,417 41.08 -18.61
Labour A. G. Christopher[47] 659 7.92
Country Party S. H. Judd 624 7.50
Informal votes 125 1.48 +0.91
Majority 200 2.40 -35.39
Turnout 8,442 84.10 -5.34
Registered electors 10,038

1925 electionEdit

1925 general election: Rotorua[48]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Frank Hockly 4,384 59.69 +6.54
Liberal Cecil Clinkard 1,608 21.90 -24.95
Labour John William Sumner[49] 1,148 15.63
Country Party Frank Colbeck[mb 1] 204 2.78
Informal votes 42 0.57 -0.53
Majority 2,776 37.80 +31.50
Turnout 7,386 89.44 -1.11
Registered electors 8,258

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ For biographical details of Frank Colbeck, please refer to his father's article

1922 electionEdit

1922 general election: Rotorua[17]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Frank Hockly 3,407 53.15 +2.70
Liberal Cecil Clinkard[50] 3,003 46.85
Informal votes 71 1.10 -0.22
Majority 404 6.30 -20.53
Turnout 6,481 90.55 +8.83
Registered electors 7,157

1919 electionEdit

1919 general election: Rotorua[51]
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Reform Frank Hockly 3,258 50.45
Liberal Malcolm Larney[52] 1,525 23.61
Labour George Thomas Jones 854 13.22
Independent W. C. Hewitt 497 7.70
Independent Patrick Keegan[53][nb 1] 324 5.02
Majority 1,733 26.83
Informal votes 86 1.31
Turnout 6,544 81.73
Registered electors 8,007

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Some sources list Keegan as an Independent Reform Party supporter

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 2017 Internet Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with Mana Party in the 2014 election
  2. ^ 2017 Mana Party swing is relative to the votes for Internet-Mana in 2014; it shared a party list with the Internet Party in the 2014 election

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Profile of Todd McClay on New Zealand Parliament website.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 75–80.
  3. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 78f.
  4. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 82f.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 86f.
  6. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 90f.
  7. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 94f.
  8. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 99f.
  9. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 95–100.
  10. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 99.
  11. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 90, 98.
  12. ^ “Average” Māori – who is she? Te Puni Kōkiri: Kōkiri 1, 2007
  13. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 79–95.
  14. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 38–75.
  15. ^ "The General Election". Auckland Star. Vol. LIII, no. 53. 4 March 1922. p. 6. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  16. ^ "The Election Campaign". The Press. Vol. LVIII, no. 17607. 9 November 1922. p. 14. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  17. ^ a b Hislop, J. (1923). The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. p. 2. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  18. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 234.
  19. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  20. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 184, 211.
  21. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 211.
  22. ^ "Part III – Party Lists of Successful Registered Parties" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  23. ^ "Electorate Candidate and Party Votes Recorded at Each Polling Place – Rotorua, 1996" (PDF). Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  24. ^ "Official Count Results - Rotorua". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 14 November 2020.
  25. ^ "Official Count Results – Rotorua". Wellington: New Zealand Electoral Commission. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  26. ^ Official Count Results – Rotorua, 2014
  27. ^ Official Count Results – Rotorua, 2011
  28. ^ "Enrolment statistics". Electoral Commission. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  29. ^ Official Count Results – Rotorua, 2008
  30. ^ Official Count Results – Rotorua, 2005
  31. ^ Official Count Results - Rotorua, 2002
  32. ^ Official Count Results - Electorate - Rotorua, 1999
  33. ^ Official Count Results - Party Vote - Rotorua, 1999
  34. ^ "Rotorua 46" (PDF). Electoral Commission. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  35. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1993. p. 97.
  36. ^ Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1990. p. 101.
  37. ^ a b c Norton 1988, p. 340.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i Norton 1988, p. 339.
  39. ^ "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  40. ^ "Electoral". The New Zealand Herald. Vol. 80, no. 24714. 14 October 1943. p. 6. Retrieved 16 May 2017.
  41. ^ "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  42. ^ "General Election". The Evening Post. Vol. CXX, no. 138. 7 December 1935. p. 11. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  43. ^ Tunnicliff, Shirley. "Lorelle Henderson Corbin". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  44. ^ The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 4. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  45. ^ "General Election". Auckland Star. Vol. LXII, no. 264. 7 November 1931. p. 11. Retrieved 2 December 2014.
  46. ^ The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 5. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
  47. ^ a b "The Rotorua Seat". The New Zealand Herald. Vol. LXV, no. 20102. 13 November 1928. p. 16. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  48. ^ The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 2. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  49. ^ "New Zealand Alliance". Auckland Star. Vol. LVI, no. 259. 2 November 1925. p. 16. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  50. ^ "Liberals Foregather". Auckland Star. Vol. LIII, no. 300. 19 December 1922. p. 7. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  51. ^ Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. p. 2. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  52. ^ "Rotorua Seat". Auckland Star. Vol. L, no. 282. 27 November 1919. p. 11. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  53. ^ "Interprovincial". Poverty Bay Herald. Vol. XLVI, no. 15041. 16 October 1919. p. 3. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.

External linksEdit