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Waimarino (New Zealand electorate)

Population centresEdit

In the 1911 electoral redistribution, the North Island gained a further seat from the South Island due to faster population growth. In addition, there were substantial population movements within each island, and significant changes resulted from this. Only four electorates were unaltered, five electorates were abolished, one former electorate was re-established, and four electorates, including Waimarino, were created for the first time.[1]

The Waimarino electorate was used in its initial form for the 1911 and 1914 elections.[2] The electorate was rural without any urban areas.[3] For the 1914 election, 73 polling stations were used, and at only 15 of them were more than 100 votes cast. These polling stations were in Taihape (878 votes), Ohakune (449), Raetihi (361), Manunui (331), Kakahi (279), Rangataua town hall (273), Owhango (270), Ohakune East (167), Fordell (163), Raurimu (158), Horopito (151), Upukongaroa [sic] (127), Umumuri (126), Piriaka (111), and Mataroa (107).[4] The electorate's area stretched from the South Taranaki Bight to Lake Taupo (but not Taupo itself), and from Taihape in the south-east to just outside Taumarunui in the north-west.[5]

In the 1918 Electoral Redistribution, the electorate moved further north. It no longer bordered onto the coast; that area was taken up by Rangitikei, which incorporated Taihape. Taumarunui was now within the electorate.[6]

The 1922 Electoral Redistribution resulted in only minimal boundary changes. Significantly, for the first time, part of the population in the electorate was classed as urban (2,144 of 14,587 people, or 14.7%).[7]

The 1927 Electoral Redistribution, which took effect with the 1928 election, resulted in more significant boundary changes. The southern boundary moved further north, the boundary near Lake Taupo moved significantly further south, and land was gained in the north-west to near the North Taranaki Bight including the town of Ohura. There was a slight decrease in the proportion of the population that was classed as urban (to 13.6%).[8]

The 1937 Electoral Redistribution, which took effect with the 1938 election, resulted in more boundary changes. Taihape moved back into the Waimarino electorate. The easternmost part of the electorate went to the Rotorua electorate including Turangi. In the north, some area was gained from the Waitomo electorate. The proportion of the population classed as urban increased to 24.5%.[9]

The 1946 Electoral Redistribution, which took effect with the 1946 election, resulted in very significant boundary changes. In 1945, the country quota had been abolished and as a result, mostly rural electorates like Waimarino had to increase significantly in area to compensate for this. Waimarino grew slightly to the south, significantly to the east, and very significantly to the north, and somewhat to the north-west. For the first time, Taupo was fully located within the electorate.[10]

In the 1952 Electoral Redistribution, Waimarino was abolished and the area divided between Rotorua, Waitomo, Patea, and Rangitikei. This took effect with the 1954 election.[11]

Through the 1962 Electoral Redistribution, Waimarino was re-established mostly from areas that previously belonged to Patea and Waitomo, but also small areas that had belonged to Stratford and Egmont. This took effect with the 1963 election. It had again a coastal boundary with the South Taranaki Bight. The western boundary stopped just short of Patea. At the eastern end, Bulls came for the first time into the electorate. In the north, the electorate extended as far as Lake Taupo. Taumaranui was also again included within the electorate.[12]

The 1967 Electoral Redistribution, which took effect with the 1969 election, saw the electorate lose some area to Egmont, but gain some area from Waitomo (including Ohura) and Taupo.[13]

In the 1972 Electoral Redistribution, Waimarino was abolished and the area divided mostly between Rangitikei and King Country.[14]

HistoryEdit

The electorate of Waimarino was first created during the 1911 Electoral Redistribution. The South Island lost one electorate to the North Island in the redistribution, resulting in 42 and 34 European electorates, respectively. Significant population movements within the North Island resulted in significant adjustments, with only four electorates remaining unchanged.[3] The Waimarino electorate initially covered areas that were previously covered by Taumarunui, Hawke's Bay, and Rangitikei.[15]

Arthur Remington of the Liberal Party had held the Rangitikei electorate, but he died on 17 August 1909.[16] The resulting 1909 by-election was contested by five candidates, with Frank Hockly as one of the opposition candidates leading Robert William Smith for the government by 1548 votes to 1055.[17][18] At the time, the Second Ballot Act 1908 applied and since Hockly had not achieved an absolute majority, a second ballot between the two leading contenders was required.[19] In the second contest, Smith had a majority of 400 votes over Hockly and was thus declared elected.[20]

In the 1911 election, three candidates contested the new Waimarino electorate: Smith for the Liberal government, Hockly as the opposition candidate, and Joseph Ivess as an Independent Liberal.[21] Smith and Hockly progressed to the second ballot,[22] which was won by Smith with a 480 votes majority.[23][24] In the 1922 election, Smith was defeated by Labour's Frank Langstone. In the 1925 election, Smith won it back, but was defeated again by Langstone in the 1928 election.[25]

William Henry Wackrow, who had been nominated in 1922 for the Liberal Party in the Rotorua electorate[26] but who withdrew shortly before the election[27] unsuccessfully challenged Langstone in the 1931 election for the United Party.[28]

Langstone transferred to the Auckland electorate of Roskill in the 1946 election,[29] and Paddy Kearins became the new Labour representative.[30] In 1953 Kearins crossed the floor of parliament and voted with the government to support the Licensing Amendment Bill (No. 2). This Bill proposed that the licensing of the King Country, part of Kearins' electorate, be subject to a referendum.[31][32] Following the 1952 Electoral Redistribution, Kearins' electorate of Waimarino was abolished, which took effect for the 1954 election. The northern part of the electorate went to Rotorua, which included the towns of Taupo (which was previously located in Waimarino), Rotorua, and Tokoroa.[33] However, at the candidate selection for Rotorua, Ray Boord won the nomination over Kearins and was subsequently elected,[34] and "Labour lost its only farming voice... sacrificed by the party machine".[35][36][37][38][39] The central and southern parts of the Waimarino electorate were split between Waitomo, Patea, and Rangitikei.[40]

The 1962 Electoral Redistribution saw the re-establishment of the Waimarino electorate, which took effect with the 1963 election. National's Roy Jack, who had previously represented Patea, was the representative.[41] Following the 1967 Electoral Redistribution, Waimarino was abolished, which took effect for the 1969 election.[42]

Members of ParliamentEdit

The electorate was represented by four Members of Parliament.[43]

Key

 Liberal    Labour    National  

Election Winner
1911 election Robert William Smith
1914 election
1919 election
1922 election Frank Langstone
1925 election Robert William Smith (2nd period)
1928 election Frank Langstone (2nd period)
1931 election
1935 election
1938 election
1943 election
1946 election Paddy Kearins
1949 election
1951 election
(Electorate abolished 1954–1963, see Rotorua,
Waitomo, Patea, and Rangitikei)
1963 election Roy Jack
1966 election
1969 election
(Electorate abolished 1972, see Rangitikei and King Country)

Election resultsEdit

1969 electionEdit

1969 general election: Waimarino[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Roy Jack 7,939 50.73 +0.54
Labour Shaun Alex Cameron 5,726 36.59 +5.89
Social Credit Graham Ross Dempsey 1,724 11.01
Country Party Clifford Stanley Emeny 258 1.64
Majority 2,213 14.14 -5.34
Turnout 15,647 87.60 -1.96
Registered electors 17,860

1966 electionEdit

1966 general election: Waimarino[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Roy Jack 6,416 50.19 +0.87
Labour Shaun Alex Cameron 3,925 30.70
Social Credit L V Luford 2,442 19.10
Majority 2,491 19.48 +6.29
Turnout 12,783 85.64 -3.58
Registered electors 14,925

1963 electionEdit

1963 general election: Waimarino[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
National Roy Jack 6,673 49.32
Labour Olive Smuts-Kennedy 4,888 36.12
Social Credit Terence Gregory Mullins 1,721 12.72
Liberal John Duggan 247 1.82
Majority 1,785 13.19
Turnout 13,529 89.22
Registered electors 15,162

1951 electionEdit

1951 general election: Waimarino[44]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Paddy Kearins 7,456 50.23 -0.47
National Arthur MacPherson 7,389 49.77 +0.47
Majority 67 0.45 -0.95
Turnout 14,845 86.88 -5.16
Registered electors 17,086

1949 electionEdit

1949 general election: Waimarino[45]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Paddy Kearins 7,319 50.70 -1.96
National Arthur MacPherson 7,117 49.30
Majority 202 1.40 -3.90
Turnout 14,436 92.04 -0.93
Registered electors 15,683

1946 electionEdit

1946 general election: Waimarino[46]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Paddy Kearins 6,755 52.66
National Norman Robert Hill 6,074 47.34
Majority 681 5.30
Turnout 12,829 92.97 -0.34
Registered electors 13,798

1943 electionEdit

1943 general election: Waimarino[47]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 5,352 54.70 -9.18
National Roger Oswald Montgomerie 3,948 40.35
People's Movement Digby Perrett 381 3.89
Informal votes 102 1.04 +0.42
Majority 1,404 14.35 -14.05
Turnout 9,783 93.31 -0.33
Registered electors 10,484

1938 electionEdit

1938 general election: Waimarino[48]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 6,613 63.88 +3.82
National Cecil Boles 3,673 35.48 -1.95
Informal votes 65 0.62 -0.02
Majority 2,940 28.40 -5.77
Turnout 10,351 93.64 +0.23
Registered electors 11,053

1935 electionEdit

1935 general election: Waimarino[49]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 4,945 60.06 +6.25
Reform Cecil Boles 3,082 37.43
United Henry William Bucknall Littlewood 206 2.50
Informal votes 53 0.64 +0.06
Majority 1,863 22.63 +15.01
Turnout 8,286 93.41 +9.85
Registered electors 8,870

1931 electionEdit

1931 general election: Waimarino[28]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 4,174 53.81 +7.42
United William Henry Wackrow 3,583 46.19
Informal votes 45 0.58 -0.02
Majority 591 7.62 -5.00
Turnout 7,802 83.56 -1.30
Registered electors 9,337

1928 electionEdit

1928 general election: Waimarino[50]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 3,620 46.39 -2.43
United Robert William Smith 2,635 33.77 -16.93
Independent James Georgetti 1,500 19.22
Informal votes 47 0.60 +0.12
Majority 985 12.62
Turnout 7,802 84.86 -5.04
Registered electors 9,193

1925 electionEdit

1925 general election: Waimarino[51]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert William Smith 3,751 50.70 +22.59
Labour Frank Langstone 3,611 48.82 +8.32
Informal votes 36 0.48 -0.45
Majority 140 1.89
Turnout 7,398 89.90 +2.84
Registered electors 8,229

1922 electionEdit

1922 general election: Waimarino[52]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Labour Frank Langstone 2,900 40.50 -3.75
Liberal Robert William Smith 2,013 28.11 -27.64
Reform David Donald McLean 1,662 23.21
Liberal–Labour George James Goldfinch 507 7.08
Independent Liberal Henry William Bucknall Littlewood 10 0.13
Informal votes 67 0.93 -0.46
Majority 887 12.38
Turnout 7,159 87.06 +11.55
Registered electors 8,223

1919 electionEdit

1919 general election: Waimarino[53][54]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert William Smith 3,116 55.75 -10.36
Labour Frank Langstone 2,473 44.25
Informal votes 79 1.39 +0.49
Majority 643 11.50 -20.72
Turnout 5,668 75.51 +7.49
Registered electors 7,506

1914 electionEdit

1914 general election: Waimarino[4]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert William Smith 4,093 66.11 +16.85
Reform Hugh Montgomerie Speed 2,098 33.89
Informal votes 56 0.90 -0.13
Majority 1,995 32.22 +25.81
Turnout 6,247 68.02 -2.97
Registered electors 9,184

1911 electionEdit

1911 general election: Waimarino, first ballot[55]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert William Smith 2,805 49.26
Reform Frank Hockly 2,440 42.85
Independent Liberal Joseph Ivess 449 7.89
Informal votes 59 1.03
Majority 365 6.41
Turnout 5,753 70.99
Registered electors 8,104
1911 general election: Waimarino, second ballot[23]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Liberal Robert William Smith 3,071 54.24
Reform Frank Hockly 2,591 45.76
Informal votes 21 0.37
Majority 480 8.48
Turnout 5,683 70.13
Registered electors 8,104

NotesEdit

  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 71–76.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 75, 79.
  3. ^ a b McRobie 1989, p. 75.
  4. ^ a b "The General Election, 1914". National Library. 1915. p. 13. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  5. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 74.
  6. ^ McRobie 1989, p. 78.
  7. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 82f.
  8. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 86f.
  9. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 90f.
  10. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 94f.
  11. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 98f.
  12. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 102, 106–107.
  13. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 110f.
  14. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 114f.
  15. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 70, 74.
  16. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 229.
  17. ^ "Final Returns". Taranaki Herald. LV (14012). 17 September 1909. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  18. ^ "The Rangitikei Seat". Otago Daily Times (14624). 9 September 1909. p. 7. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  19. ^ Foster 1966.
  20. ^ "Rangitikei Seat". The Evening Post. LXXVIII (74). 24 September 1909. p. 3. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  21. ^ "Political Notes". Manawatu Standard. XLI (9632). 5 October 1911. p. 5. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  22. ^ "Wellington Province". Poverty Bay Herald. XXXVIII (12632). 8 December 1911. p. 5. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  23. ^ a b "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. p. 3. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
  24. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 235.
  25. ^ Wilson 1985, pp. 211, 235.
  26. ^ "The General Election". Auckland Star. LIII (53). 4 March 1922. p. 6. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  27. ^ "The Election Campaign". The Press. LVIII (17607). 9 November 1922. p. 14. Retrieved 17 December 2014.
  28. ^ a b The General Election, 1931. Government Printer. 1932. p. 5. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  29. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 211.
  30. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 209.
  31. ^ NZPD Vol. 301, pp. 2364–67
  32. ^ Cottrell 1974, pp. 24, 30.
  33. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 94, 98–99.
  34. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 184.
  35. ^ Freer 2004, pp. 33, 58.
  36. ^ Taylor 1970, p. 222.
  37. ^ Logan 2008, p. 282.
  38. ^ The Evening Post. 29 July 1954. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  39. ^ The Evening Post. 2 October 1954. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  40. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 94, 98.
  41. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 207.
  42. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 106, 110–111.
  43. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 273.
  44. ^ a b c d Norton 1988, p. 369.
  45. ^ "The General Election, 1949". National Library. 1950. pp. 1–5, 8. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
  46. ^ "The General Election, 1946". National Library. 1947. pp. 1–11, 14. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  47. ^ "The General Election, 1943". National Library. 1944. p. 11. Retrieved 28 March 2014.
  48. ^ "The General Election, 1938". National Library. 1939. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 8 February 2012.
  49. ^ The General Election, 1935. Government Printer. 1936. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
  50. ^ The General Election, 1928. Government Printer. 1929. p. 3. Retrieved 19 November 2014.
  51. ^ The General Election, 1925. Government Printer. 1926. p. 2. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  52. ^ The General Election, 1922. Government Printer. 1923. p. 2. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  53. ^ The New Zealand Official Year-Book. Government Printer. 1920. Retrieved 2 August 2013.
  54. ^ "The Polling". Otago Daily Times (17811). 18 December 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
  55. ^ "The General Election, 1911". National Library. 1912. pp. 3, 7. Retrieved 1 August 2013.

ReferencesEdit

  • Cottrell, S. P. (1974). Parliament and Conscience: 1950–1972 (MA). Christchurch: University of Canterbury.
  • Foster, Bernard John (22 April 2009) [1966]. McLintock, A. H. (ed.). Second Ballot System (1908–13). Wellington: An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  • Freer, Warren (2004). A Lifetime in Politics: the Memoirs of Warren Freer. Wellington: Victoria University Press.
  • Logan, Mary (2008). Nordy, Arnold Nordmeyer: A Political Biography. Wellington: Steele Roberts.
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Taylor, B. S. (1974). The Expulsion of John A. Lee and its Effects on the Development of the NZ Labour Party (MA). Christchurch: University of Canterbury.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.
  • Norton, Clifford (1988). New Zealand Parliamentary Election Results 1946–1987: Occasional Publications No 1, Department of Political Science. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. ISBN 0-475-11200-8.