Coral snakes are a large group of elapid snakes that can be subdivided into two distinct groups, Old World coral snakes and New World coral snakes. There are 16 species of Old World coral snake in three genera (Calliophis, Hemibungarus, and Sinomicrurus), and over 65 recognized species of New World coral snakes in three genera (Leptomicrurus, Micruroides, and Micrurus). Genetic studies have found that the most basal lineages are Asian, indicating that the group originated in the Old World.
|Coral snake (Micrurus sp.)|
North American coloration patternsEdit
Coral snakes in North America are most notable for their red, yellow/white, and black colored banding (however, several nonvenomous species have similar coloration, including the scarlet snake, genus Cemophora; some of the kingsnakes and milk snakes, genus Lampropeltis; and the shovelnose snakes, genus Chionactis). In some regions, the order of the bands distinguishes between the non-venomous mimics and the venomous coral snakes, giving rise to quite a few mnemonics along the lines of "Red and black, friend of Jack. Red and yellow, kills a fellow." Another helpful mnemonic, is "Yellow, Red, Stop!" referencing the order of traffic lights. In any case, remembering that yellow touches both other colors can indicate a cause for caution. However, this reliably applies only to coral snakes native to North America: Micrurus fulvius (eastern or common coral snake), Micrurus tener (Texas coral snake), and Micruroides euryxanthus (Arizona coral snake), found in the southern and western United States. Coral snakes found in other parts of the world can have distinctly different patterns, have red bands touching black bands, have only pink and blue banding, or have no banding at all.
Most species of coral snake are small in size. North American species average around 3 feet (91 cm) in length, but specimens of up to 5 feet (150 cm) or slightly larger have been reported. Aquatic species have flattened tails acting as a fin, aiding in swimming.
Coral snakes vary widely in their behavior, but most are very elusive, fossorial snakes which spend the vast majority of their time buried beneath the ground or in the leaf litter of a rainforest floor, coming to the surface only when it rains or during breeding season. Some species, like Micrurus surinamensis, are almost entirely aquatic and spend most of their lives in slow-moving bodies of water that have dense vegetation.
Like all elapid snakes, coral snakes possess a pair of small hollow fangs to deliver their venom. The fangs are positioned at the front of the mouth. The fangs are fixed in position rather than retractable, and rather than being directly connected to the venom duct, they have a small groove through which the venom enters the base of the fangs. Because the fangs are relatively small and inefficient for venom delivery, rather than biting quickly and letting go (like vipers), coral snakes tend to hold onto their prey and make chewing motions when biting. The venom takes time to take full effect.
Coral snakes are not aggressive or prone to biting and account for less than one percent of the number of snake bites each year in the United States. The life span of coral snakes in captivity is about 7 years.
New World coral snakes exist in the southern range of many temperate U.S. states. Coral snakes are found in scattered localities in the southern coastal plain from North Carolina to Louisiana, including all of Florida. They can be found in pine and scrub oak sandhill habitats in parts of this range but sometimes inhabit hardwood areas and pine flatwoods that undergo seasonal flooding.
There is controversy about the classification of the very similar Texas coral snake as a separate species. Its habitat, in Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas, and sometimes in Oklahoma due to floods in the Red River, is separated from the eastern coral snake's habitat by the Mississippi River. The coral snake population is most dense in the southeast United States, but coral snakes have been spotted as far north as Kentucky.
The Arizona coral snake, clearly a separate species and genus, is found in central and southern Arizona, extreme southwestern New Mexico and southward to Sinaloa in western Mexico. It occupies arid and semiarid regions in many different habitat types including thornscrub, desert-scrub, woodland, grassland and farmland. It is found in the plains and lower mountain slopes from sea level to 5800 feet (1768 m); often found in rocky areas.
Danger to humansEdit
New World coral snakes possess one of the most potent venoms of any North American snake. However, relatively few bites are recorded due to their reclusive nature and the fact they generally inhabit sparsely populated areas. According to the American National Institutes of Health, there are an average of 15–25 coral snake bites in the United States each year. When confronted by humans, coral snakes will almost always attempt to flee, and bite only as a last resort. In addition, coral snakes have short fangs (proteroglyph dentition) that cannot penetrate thick leather clothing. Any skin penetration, however, is a medical emergency that requires immediate attention. Coral snakes have a powerful neurotoxin that paralyzes the breathing muscles; mechanical or artificial respiration, along with large doses of antivenom, are often required to save a victim's life. There is usually only mild pain associated with a bite, but respiratory failure can occur within hours.
As of 2012[update], the relative rarity of coral snake bites combined with the high costs of producing and maintaining an antivenom supply mean that antivenom (also called "antivenin") production in the United States has ceased. According to Pfizer, the owner of the company that used to make the antivenom Coralmyn, it would take between $5–$10 million for researching a new synthetic antivenom.[clarification needed] The cost was too large for the small number of cases presented each year. The existing American coral snake antivenom stock technically expired in 2008, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has extended the expiration date every year through at least April 30, 2017. Foreign pharmaceutical manufacturers have produced other coral snake antivenoms, but the costs of licensing them in the United States have stalled availability (see above). Instituto Bioclon is developing a coral snake antivenom. In 2013, Pfizer was reportedly working on a new batch of antivenom but had not announced when it would become available. As of 2016[update], the Venom Immunochemistry, Pharmacology and Emergency Response (VIPER) institute of the University of Arizona College of Medicine was enrolling participants in a clinical trial of INA2013, a "novel antivenom," according to the Florida Poison Information Center.
|Wikispecies has information related to Calliophis|
Species in this genus are:
- Calliophis beddomei M.A. Smith, 1943 – Beddome's coral snake (India)
- Calliophis bibroni (Jan, 1858) – Bibron's coral snake (India)
- Calliophis bivirgatus (F. Boie, 1827) – blue Malaysian coral snake (Indonesia, Cambodia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand)
- Calliophis castoe E.N. Smith, Ogale, Deepak & Giri, 2012 – Castoe’s coral snake (India)
- Calliophis gracilis Gray, 1835 – spotted coral snake (Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore)
- Calliophis haematoetron E.N. Smith, Manamendra-Arachchi & Somweera, 2008 – blood-bellied coral snake (Sri Lanka)
- Calliophis intestinalis (Laurenti, 1768) – banded Malaysian coral snake (Indonesia, Malaysia)
- Calliophis maculiceps (Günther, 1858) – speckled coral snake (Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos)
- Calliophis melanurus (Shaw, 1802) – Indian coral snake (India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka)
- Calliophis nigrescens (Günther, 1862) – black coral snake (India)
|Wikispecies has information related to Hemibungarus|
Species in this genus are:
Species in this genus are:
- Sinomicrurus hatori (Takahashi, 1930) (Taiwan)
- Sinomicrurus japonicus (Günther, 1868) – Japanese coral snake (Ryukyu Islands)
- Sinomicrurus kelloggi (Pope, 1928) – Kellogg's coral snake (Vietnam, Laos, China)
- Sinomicrurus macclellandi (J.T. Reinhardt, 1844) – Macclelland's coral snake (India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, China, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan)
- Sinomicrurus sauteri (Steindachner, 1913) (Taiwan)
- Leptomicrurus collaris (Schlegel, 1837) – Guyana blackback coral snake (northern South America)
- Leptomicrurus narduccii (Jan, 1863) – Andean blackback coral snake
|Wikispecies has information related to Micruroides|
- Micruroides euryxanthus (Kennicott, 1860) – Arizona coral snake (lowland regions from Arizona to Sinaloa, Mexico)
|Wikispecies has information related to Micrurus|
- Micrurus alleni K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Allen's coral snake (eastern Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama)
- Micrurus altirostris (Cope, 1860) (Brazil, Uruguay, and northeastern Argentina)
- Micrurus ancoralis (Jan, 1872) – regal coral snake (southeastern Panama, western Colombia, and western Ecuador)
- Micrurus annellatus (W. Peters, 1871) – annellated coral snake (southeastern Ecuador, eastern Peru, Bolivia, and western Brazil)
- Micrurus averyi K.P. Schmidt, 1939 – black-headed coral snake
- Micrurus bernadi (Cope, 1887) (Mexico)
- Micrurus bocourti (Jan, 1872) – Ecuadorian coral snake (western Ecuador to northern Colombia)
- Micrurus bogerti Roze, 1967 – Bogert's coral snake (Oaxaca)
- Micrurus browni K.P. Schmidt & H.M. Smith, 1943 – Brown's coral snake (Quintana Roo to Honduras)
- Micrurus camilae Renjifo & Lundberg, 2003 (Colombia)
- Micrurus catamayensis Roze, 1989 – Catamayo coral snake (Catamayo Valley of Ecuador)
- Micrurus clarki K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Clark's coral snake (southeastern Costa Rica to western Colombia)
- Micrurus corallinus (Merrem, 1820) – painted coral snake
- Micrurus decoratus (Jan, 1858) – Brazilian coral snake
- Micrurus diana Roze, 1983
- Micrurus diastema (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – variable coral snake
- Micrurus diastema aglaeope (Cope, 1859)
- Micrurus diastema alienus (F. Werner, 1903)
- Micrurus diastema affinis (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus diastema apiatus (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus diastema diastema (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854)
- Micrurus diastema macdougalli Roze, 1967
- Micrurus diastema sapperi (F. Werner, 1903)
- Micrurus dissoleucus (Cope, 1860) – pygmy coral snake
- Micrurus distans (Kennicott, 1860) – West Mexican coral snake
- Micrurus dumerilii (Jan, 1858)
- Micrurus elegans (Jan, 1858) – elegant coral snake
- Micrurus ephippifer (Cope, 1886) – Oaxacan coral snake
- Micrurus filiformis (Günther, 1859) – slender coral snake
- Micrurus frontalis (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – southern coral snake (Brazil to northeastern Argentina)
- Micrurus frontifasciatus (F. Werner, 1927) – Bolivian coral snake
- Micrurus fulvius (Linnaeus, 1766) – eastern coral snake (U.S. coastal plains of North Carolina to Louisiana)
- Micrurus hemprichii (Jan, 1858) – Hemprich's coral snake
- Micrurus hippocrepis (W. Peters, 1862) – Mayan coral snake
- Micrurus ibiboboca (Merrem, 1820) – Caatinga coral snake
- Micrurus isozonus (Cope, 1860) – Venezuela coral snake
- Micrurus langsdorffi (Wagler, 1824) – Langsdorff's coral snake
- Micrurus laticollaris (W. Peters, 1870) – Balsan coral snake
- Micrurus latifasciatus K.P. Schmidt, 1933 – broad-ringed coral snake
- Micrurus lemniscatus (Linnaeus, 1758) – South American coral snake (most of low-lying areas of South America)
- Micrurus limbatus Fraser, 1964 – Tuxtlan coral snake
- Micrurus margaritiferus Roze, 1967 – speckled coral snake
- Micrurus medemi Roze, 1967
- Micrurus mertensi K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Merten's coral snake
- Micrurus mipartitus (A.M.C. Duméril, Bibron & A.H.A. Duméril, 1854) – redtail coral snake
- Micrurus multifasciatus (Jan, 1858) – many-banded coral snake
- Micrurus multiscutatus Rendahl & Vestergren, 1940 – Cauca coral snake
- Micrurus nebularis Roze, 1989 – cloud forest coral snake
- Micrurus nigrocinctus (Girard, 1854) – Central American coral snake (Yucatan and Chiapas to Colombia as well as western Caribbean islands)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus babaspul Roze, 1967
- Micrurus nigrocinctus coibensis K.P. Schmidt, 1936
- Micrurus nigrocinctus divaricatus (Hallowell, 1855)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus mosquitensis K.P. Schmidt, 1933
- Micrurus nigrocinctus nigrocinctus (Girard, 1854)
- Micrurus nigrocinctus ovandoensis K.P. Schmidt & H.M. Smith, 1943
- Micrurus nigrocinctus wagneri Mertens, 1941
- Micrurus nigrocinctus yatesi Dunn, 1942
- Micrurus nigrocinctus zunilensis K.P. Schmidt, 1932
- Micrurus pacaraimae Morato de Carvalho, 2002
- Micrurus pachecogili Campbell, 2000
- Micrurus paraensis da Cunha & Nascimento, 1973
- Micrurus peruvianus K.P. Schmidt, 1936 – Peruvian coral snake
- Micrurus petersi Roze, 1967 – Peters' coral snake
- Micrurus proximans H.M. Smith & Chrapliwy, 1958 – Nayarit coral snake
- Micrurus psyches (Daudin, 1803) – Carib coral snake
- Micrurus putumayensis Lancini, 1962 – Putumayo coral snake
- Micrurus pyrrhocryptus (Cope, 1862)
- Micrurus remotus Roze, 1987
- Micrurus renjifoi Lamar, 2003
- Micrurus ruatanus (Günther, 1895) – Roatán coral snake
- Micrurus sangilensis Nicéforo-María, 1942 – Santander coral snake
- Micrurus scutiventris (Cope, 1869)
- Micrurus silviae Di-Bernardo et al., 2007
- Micrurus spixii (Wagler, 1824) – Amazon coral snake
- Micrurus spurelli (Boulenger, 1914)
- Micrurus steindachneri (F. Werner, 1901) – Steindachner's coral snake
- Micrurus stewarti Barbour & Amaral, 1928 - Panamanian coral snake
- Micrurus stuarti Roze, 1967 – Stuart's coral snake
- Micrurus surinamensis (Cuvier, 1817) - aquatic coral snake
- Micrurus tener (Baird & Girard, 1853) – Texas coral snake (Texas and Louisiana south to Morelos and Guanajuato)
- Micrurus tricolor Hoge, 1956
- Micrurus tschudii (Jan, 1858) – desert coral snake
New World coral snakes serve as models for their Batesian mimics, false coral snakes, snake species whose venom is less toxic, as well as for many nonvenomous snake species that bear superficial resemblances to them. The role of coral snakes as models for Batesian mimics is supported by research showing that coral snake color patterns deter predators from attacking snake-shaped prey, and that in the absence of coral snakes, species hypothesized to mimic them are indeed attacked more frequently. Species that appear similar to coral snakes include:
- Cemophora coccinea
- Chionactis palarostris
- Erythrolamprus aesculapii
- Erythrolamprus bizona
- Erythrolamprus ocellatus, Tobago false coral snake
- Lampropeltis elapsoides, scarlet kingsnake
- Lampropeltis pyromelana
- Lampropeltis triangulum, milk snake, including the following subspecies and others:
- Lampropeltis zonata
- Lystrophis pulcher, tri-color hognose snake
- Oxyrhopus petola
- Oxyrhopus rhombifer, false coral snake
- Pliocercus elapoides, variegated false coral snake
- Rhinobothryum bovallii, coral mimic snake, false tree coral
- Rhinocheilus lecontei tessellatus
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