The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art (Cooper Union) is a private college at Cooper Square in New York City. Peter Cooper founded the institution in 1859 after learning about the government-supported École Polytechnique in France. The school was built on a radical new model of American higher education based on Cooper's belief that an education "equal to the best technology schools established" should be accessible to those who qualify, independent of their race, religion, sex, wealth or social status, and should be "open and free to all".
|Endowment||$920 million (2021)|
|57 (full time) (2017/2018)|
|Colors||Maroon and Gold|
The Cooper Union
Manhattan, New York City
|NRHP reference No.||66000540|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHL||July 4, 1961|
|Designated NYSRHP||June 23, 1980|
|Designated NYCL||March 15, 1966|
The college is divided into three schools: the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture, the School of Art, and the Albert Nerken School of Engineering. It offers undergraduate and master's degree programs exclusively in the fields of architecture, fine arts (undergraduate only), and engineering.
Cooper Union was one of very few American institutions of higher learning to offer a full-tuition scholarship to every admitted student, a practice it discontinued in 2014, now offering a half-tuition scholarship to each admitted student. Admission to Cooper Union is highly competitive, with an overall acceptance rate of 14% across the three schools.
Founding and early history Edit
The Cooper Union was founded in 1859 by American industrialist Peter Cooper, one of the richest businessmen in the United States. Cooper was a workingman's son who had less than a year of formal schooling. Cooper designed and built America's first steam railroad engine and made a fortune with a glue factory and iron foundry. He was a principal investor and first president of the New York, Newfoundland and London Telegraph Company, which laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable, and once ran for President under the Greenback Party, becoming the oldest person ever nominated for the office.
Cooper's dream was to give talented young people the one privilege he lacked: a good education from an institution which was "open and free to all". To achieve these goals, Cooper designated the bulk of his wealth to The Cooper Union. According to The New York Times in 1863, "It was rare that those of limited means, however eager they might be to acquire a knowledge of some of the higher branches of education, could obtain tuition in studies not named in the regular course taught in our public schools." Discrimination based on ethnicity, religion, or sex was expressly prohibited.
Development after founding Edit
Originally intended to be named simply "the Union", the Cooper Union began with adult education in night classes on the subjects of applied sciences and architectural drawing, as well as day classes primarily intended for women on the subjects of photography, telegraphy, typewriting and shorthand in what was called the college's Female School of Design. The early institution also had a free reading room open day and night, the first in New York City (predating the New York Public Library system), and a new four-year nighttime engineering college for men and a few women. In 1883, a five-year curriculum in chemistry was added as an alternative to the applied science (engineering) program. A daytime engineering college was added in 1902, thanks to funds contributed by Andrew Carnegie. Initial board members included Daniel F. Tiemann, John E. Parsons, Horace Greeley and William Cullen Bryant, and those who availed themselves of the institute's courses in its early days included Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Thomas Alva Edison and William Francis Deegan.
The Cooper Union's free classes have evolved into three schools: the School of Art, the Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture, and the Albert Nerken School of Engineering. Since 1859, the Cooper Union has educated thousands of artists, architects, and engineers, many of them leaders in their fields.
The Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum, was founded in 1897 as part of Cooper Union by Sarah, Eleanor, and Amy Hewitt, granddaughters of Peter Cooper.
Structure-building era Edit
The Foundation Building Edit
Cooper Union's Foundation Building is an Italianate brownstone building designed by architect Fred A. Petersen, one of the founders of the American Institute of Architects. It was the first structure in New York City to feature rolled-iron I-beams for structural support; Peter Cooper himself invented and produced these beams. Petersen patented a fire-resistant hollow brick tile he used in the building's construction. The building was the first in the world to be built with an elevator shaft, because Cooper, in 1853, was confident an elevator would soon be invented. However, he expected them to be cylindrical, so he designed the shaft in the shape of a circle. The building was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961, and a New York City Landmark in 1965, and added to the Historic American Engineering Record in 1971.
The Foundation Building's Great Hall Edit
On February 27, 1860, the school's Great Hall, located in the basement level of the Foundation Building, became the site of a historic address by Abraham Lincoln. "Lincoln made his address on a snowy night before about 1,500 persons."
Widely reported in the press and reprinted throughout the North in pamphlet form, the speech galvanized support for Lincoln and contributed to his gaining the Party's nomination for the presidency. It is now referred to as the Cooper Union Address.
Since then, the Great Hall has served as a platform for historic addresses by American Presidents Grant, Cleveland, Taft, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Bill Clinton. Clinton spoke on May 12, 1993, about reducing the federal deficit and again on May 23, 2006, as the Keynote Speaker at The Cooper Union's 147th Commencement, along with Anna Deavere Smith. He appeared a third time on April 23, 2007, along with Senator Edward Kennedy, Henry Kissinger, Norman Mailer, and others, at the memorial service for historian Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr. Most recently, Barack Obama delivered an economic policy speech at Cooper Union's Great Hall on April 22, 2010. On September 22, 2014, President of the Palestinian National Authority Mahmoud Abbas delivered his first formal speech in English.
The Great Hall continues to serve as an important metropolitan art space and has hosted lectures and performances by such key figures as Joseph Campbell, Steve Reich, Salman Rushdie, Ralph Nader, Hamza Yusuf, Richard Stallman, Rudolph Giuliani, Pema Chodron, Michael Bloomberg, Evo Morales, and Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez. When not occupied by external or hosted events, the Great Hall is made accessible to students and faculty for large lectures and recreational activities, including the school's annual Culture Show. In 1994, the Cooper Union Forum of Public Programs was honored with a Village Award from the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation.
In late 2008, the Great Hall was closed to students and outside events for the first major renovation of the hall since 1978.
Modern changes Edit
The Cooper Union has schools in architecture, fine art, and engineering. At present, these three fields represent Cooper Union's degree programs. The Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies provides classes and faculty to all three programs.
In 2002, the school decided to generate revenue by razing its engineering building and having it replaced with a commercial building, and replacing its Hewitt Building with a new building called 41 Cooper Square.
41 Cooper Square Edit
A new classroom, laboratory, and studio facility designed by Thom Mayne replaced the aging Hewitt Academic Building at 41 Cooper Square. In contrast to the Foundation Building, 41 Cooper Square is of modern, environmentally "green" design, housing nine above-ground floors and two basements. The structure features unconventional architectural features, including a full-height Grand Atrium, prevalent interior windows, a four-story linear central staircase, and upper-level skyways, which reflect the design intention of inspiring, socially interactive space for students and faculty. In addition, the building's design allows for up to 75% natural lighting, further reducing energy costs. In 2010, 41 Cooper Square became the first academic and laboratory structure in New York City to meet Platinum-level LEED standards for energy efficiency. The building was funded in part by alumni donations, materialized in nameplates and other textual recognition throughout the building.
Primarily designed to house the Cooper Union's School of Engineering and School of Art, the new building's first eight above-ground floors are populated by classrooms, small engineering laboratories, study lounges, art studio space, and faculty offices. The ninth, top floor is dedicated completely to School of Art studio and classroom space in addition to the art studio spaces located throughout the building. The lowest basement level consists almost completely of the school's large machine shops and design laboratories, as well as much of the HVAC and supply infrastructure. The building's first basement level houses primarily the Frederick P. Rose Auditorium, a 198-capacity lecture hall and event space designed as a smaller, more modern alternative to the Great Hall.
Financial support Edit
A substantial portion of the annual budget, which supports the full-tuition scholarships in addition to the school's costs, is generated through revenues from real estate. Its endowment is over $600 million. The land under the Chrysler Building is owned by the endowment, and as of 2009, Cooper Union received $7 million per year from this parcel. Further, under a very unusual arrangement, New York City real-estate taxes assessed against the Chrysler lease, held by Aby Rosen, are paid to Cooper Union, not the city. This arrangement would be voided if Cooper Union sold the real estate. In 2006, Tishman Speyer signed a deal with the school to pay rent that has escalated to $32.5 million in 2018.
Financial crisis and tuition controversy Edit
Around October 29, 2011, rumors circulated the school was in serious financial trouble. On October 31, a series of open forums were held with students, faculty, and alumni to address the crisis.
Current and past students voiced opposition charging tuition. The then-president of the school, Jamshed Bharucha, indicated depletion of the school's endowment required additional sources of funding. In 2012, the college announced approval from its board of trustees to attempt to establish a new tuition-based cross-disciplinary graduate program, expand its fee-based continuing education programs, and impose tuition on some students in its existing graduate programs.
In December 2012, as a protest against the possibility of undergraduate tuition being charged, 11 students occupied a suite in the Foundation Building for a week. Charging high tuition was complicated by the school's lack of customary amenities offered by other high-tuition schools.
The college ended its free tuition policy for undergraduates in 2014, but offers need-based tuition remission to incoming undergraduates on a sliding scale. On May 8, 2013, a group of students occupied President Bharucha's office in protest over news reports about ending free tuition. The administration, board of trustees, and those members of the Cooper Union community who had been occupying the Office of the President since early May reached an agreement that ended the occupation on July 12.
Throughout 2013, 2014, and 2015, the Committee to Save Cooper Union (CSCU) — a coalition of former and current students, alumni and faculty — campaigned to reverse this decision, urging the president and the board of trustees to return Cooper Union to "its tuition-free and merit-based mission, ensure the school’s fiscal recovery, and establish better governance structures."
On September 1, 2015, the school and the CSCU announced the CSCU's lawsuit against the school's administration was resolved in the form of a consent decree signed by Cooper Union, then-New York State's Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, and the CSCU. The decree includes provisions for returning to a sustainable, tuition-free policy, increased board transparency, additional student, faculty and alumni trustees, an independent financial monitor appointed by the Attorney General, and a search committee to identify the next full-term president.
On January 15, 2018, the Free Education Committee (FEC) of the school's Board of Trustees released their recommended plan to return to full-tuition scholarships for undergraduates only by the academic year starting in the fall of 2028. In March 2018, the board released its approved, updated version with the same milestone.
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|U.S. News & World Report||2|
The Albert Nerken School of Engineering Edit
The Cooper Union's School of Engineering is named in honor of Albert Nerken, a chemical engineering alumnus of the school. Its enrollment includes about 550 students, and is the largest of the three schools by a significant margin. The school offers ABET-accredited Bachelor of Engineering (BE) degree programs in core engineering fields and an interdisciplinary Bachelor of Science in Engineering (BSE) degree. Opportunities are also available for engineering students to pursue minors in bioengineering, chemistry, computer science, humanities and social sciences, and mathematics.
Specialized facilities for teaching and research include the Maurice Kanbar Center for Biomedical Engineering established in 2002 and the interdisciplinary Maker Space Lab, established in 2020 for the use of engineering, art, and architecture students.
Master's in Engineering Edit
The School of Engineering offers master's degrees in chemical, civil, electrical, or mechanical engineering. Cooper Union undergraduate engineering students may earn a bachelor's degree and a master's degree in as little as five years.
The School of Art Edit
Consisting of roughly 200 students and 70 faculty members, the Cooper Union School of Art offers a Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) degree and a Certificate of Fine Arts. As a member school of AICAD, School of Art students may participate in exchange programs with the other colleges in the association, including California Institute of the Arts and Otis College of Art and Design.
The Cooper Union Art program is often referred to as "generalist" or "versatile" when compared to other Fine Arts colleges; incoming students do not choose an academic major within the Fine Arts field, but instead are permitted and encouraged to select courses from any of the School of Art's departments. The curriculum place heavy emphasis on each student's creative and imaginative abilities, rather than technical precision in a specific medium.
Located in both public spaces and specialized rooms, Cooper Union's galleries provide space for installations and showcases by students, faculty, and guest artists. Popular gallery locations include the Great Hall lobby in the Foundation Building and newly opened 41 Cooper Gallery in 41 Cooper Square, which provides a two-story high space for large, three-dimensional exhibitions and works visible from both the building lobby and 7th street through large plate-glass windows.
In addition, numerous smaller exhibition spaces exist throughout both buildings on campus. Larger spaces on the upper floors of the Foundation Building are used primarily for interdisciplinary exhibitions with the School of Architecture. For presentations of video and digital media, the Great Hall and 41 Cooper Square's Rose Auditorium are used.
Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture Edit
The Irwin S. Chanin School of Architecture at the Cooper Union offers a five-year NAAB accredited program established by John Hejduk. The philosophical foundation of the school was directly committed to the "Social Contract" and dedicated to education as "one of the last places that protects freedom, and teaching as a sociopolitical act, among other things." among those other things were principles of free debate and theoretical discourse which drew source from deep wellsprings of lost histories such as the Bauhaus school of Architecture founded by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.
The faculty includes architects, design and construction managers such as Peter Eisenman, Samuel Anderson, Nader Tehrani, and Diana Agrest. Former faculty members include the architects Michael Webb, Peter Eisenman, Raimund Abraham, Lebbeus Woods, Diane Lewis and John Hejduk.
Master of Architecture II Edit
The post-professional degree program in architecture was launched in 2009. Concentrations in one or a combination of three areas are offered: theory, history and criticism of architecture, urban studies and technologies.
Notable alumni Edit
Awards received by Cooper Union alumni include one Nobel Prize in Physics, a Pritzker Prize, fifteen Rome Prizes, 26 Guggenheim Fellowships, three MacArthur Fellowships, nine Chrysler Design Awards, three Emmy Awards, one Tony, one Grammy, one Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering, and three Thomas Jefferson Awards for Public Architecture, which is sponsored by the American Institute of Architects. The school also boasts 39 Fulbright Scholars since 2001, and thirteen National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowships since 2004.
Notable faculty Edit
Notable faculty of the Cooper Union include:
- Raimund Abraham, architect
- Diana Agrest, architect
- William Arnold Anthony, physicist
- George Herman Babcock, inventor
- Eleanor K. Baum, electrical engineer
- Mary Blade, mechanical engineer
- John Christopher Draper, chemist and surgeon
- Thomas Eakins, painter
- Peter Eisenman, architect
- William Germano, editor
- Charles Gwathmey, architect
- Hans Haacke, artist
- Basil King, painter and writer
- Jonas Mekas, filmmaker
- Margaret Morton, photographer and artist
- Aldo Rossi, architect
- Ricardo Scofidio, architect
- Ysrael Seinuk, structural engineer
- David Shapiro, poet
- Nina Tandon, biomedical engineer
- William Wiswesser, chemist; inventor of Wiswesser line notation
- Lebbeus Woods, architect
- John Celivergos Zachos, physician, inventor and literary scholar
In popular culture Edit
- In Susan Skoog's coming-of-age independent film Whatever (1998), precocious suburban teen Anna Stockard (Liza Weil) harbors dreams of moving to the city to study art at the Cooper Union in the early 80s.
- The Disappearance of Eleanor Rigby features the New Academic Building.
- Winter's Tale (2014) was filmed at Cooper's foundation building to fit the novel's early 1900 setting.
- The Cooper Union acts as a symbol of Progressivism in the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel His Family (1917) by Ernest Poole, as well as in the novel From Immigrant to Inventor (1924) by Michael Pupin.
- Cooper Union is the meeting place of two main characters in The Gilded Hour (2015), a historical novel by Sara Donati. The characters meet at Abraham Lincoln's 1860 speech at Cooper Union.
See also Edit
- "Consolidated Financial Statements and Report of Independent Financial Consultants, p. 28 (As of June 30, 2021) Cooper Union website
- "Office of the President" Cooper Union website
- "School of Art People" Cooper Union website
- "School of Engineering People" Cooper Union website
- "School of Architecture People" Cooper Union website
- "School of Humanities & Social Sciences People" Cooper Union website
- "Facts About Cooper Union" Cooper Union website
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
- "Cooper Union". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. September 11, 2007.
- Reynolds, Francis J., ed. (1921). Collier's New Encyclopedia. New York: P. F. Collier & Son Company. .
- Peter Cooper. Columbia University Libraries. 1891. Retrieved December 11, 2012.
- Henry Whitney Bellows Lecture (PDF). Robert Q. Topper. 1999. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
- Original Cooper Union charter, trust deed, and by-laws. Cooper Union. 1859. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
- Mead, Edwin Doak, ed. (1903). The Old South Leaflets. Boston: Old South Meeting House. p. 465.
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- "Facts About Cooper Union". The Cooper Union. Retrieved July 5, 2023.
- Charter, Trust Deed, and By-laws of the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. Wm. C. Bryant & Company. 1859. p. 61. Founding enabled by a NY State Act of February 17, 1857. The land is conveyed for one dollar.
- Speech to the First Graduating Class. 1864.
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"PRAISED BY THE GERMANS; MR. CLEVELAND GREETED WITH WILD APPLAUSE. HIS FRIENDS FROM "FATHERLAND" THRONG COOPER UNION. A GREAT OUTPOURING OF GERMAN-AMERICANS TO SEE AND HEAR THE DEMOCRATIC CANDIDATE –- THE EX-PRESIDENT'S HAPPY SPEECH ADDS TO HIS POPULARITY – CARL SCHURZ POINTS OUT THE DANGERS WHICH WOULD FOLLOW REPUBLICAN SUCCESS – AN APPEAL TO WHICH ALL GERMAN CITIZENS WILL RESPOND – OVERFLOW MEETINGS FOR THOUSANDS WHO COULD NOT GET INTO THE HALL" (PDF). The New York Times. October 28, 1892. p. 1. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
It might be claiming too much to say that the Democratic Party as such gives a sufficient guarantee for the improvement of political methods or avoidance of these wrongdoings.
- "TAFT DEFENDS BOTH CAPITAL AND LABOR; Tells Cooper Union Audience He's for Union Shops and Mutual Conciliation. NOT HAILED AS PRESIDENT Cordial Greeting at First Grows Warmer After He Answers Volley of Questions" (PDF). The New York Times. January 11, 1908. p. 1. Retrieved June 24, 2010.
Give the Government the ownership of mines and railroads and like enterprises, and I tremble to think of the danger to the Republic.
- "ROOSEVELT BITTERLY ATTACKS WILSON; Tells Cooper Union Audience the President Cares Nothing for the Nation's Soul" (PDF). The New York Times. November 4, 1916. p. 4. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
I have not said one thing of him which I did not deem it necessary to say because of the vital interests of this Republic.
- Roosevelt, Theodore (1917). Americanism and preparedness: Speeches of Theodore Roosevelt, July to November, 1916. New York: The Mail and express job print. pp. 134–145. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
There can be no greater misfortune for a free nation than to find itself under incapable leadership when confronted by a great crisis.
- Wilson, Woodrow (1913). The New Freedom: A call for the emancipation of the generous energies of a people. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company. pp. 98–99. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
One of the valuable lessons of my life was due to the fact that at a comparatively early age in my experience as a public speaker I had the privilege of speaking in Cooper Union in New York.
- "WILSON SAYS ELASTICITY SAVES THE CONSTITUTION; Made to Help, Not to Hinder, Asserts Princeton's President" (PDF). The New York Times. November 20, 1904. p. 5. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
The Constitution was not made to fit us like a straitjacket.
- "THREE BIG MEETINGS HERE; President Says Some in Campaign Have Tried to Discredit Government. EFFORT TO DIVIDE CLASSES Tells 15,000 in Madison Square Garden the Country Stands at a Serious Turning Point. PREDICTS HIS RE-ELECTION. President and Mrs. Wilson Scale Fire Escape to Get Into Garden" (PDF). The New York Times. November 3, 1916. p. 1. Retrieved June 21, 2010.
COOPER UNION PACKED; Enthusiastic Throng Cheers the President for Five Minutes
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- Official website
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- New York Architecture Images – the Cooper Union Foundation Building
- Original 1861 Harper's Weekly Story on the Cooper Union
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. NY-20, "Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art"