Comparison of analog and digital recording
Sound can be recorded and stored and played using either digital or analog techniques. Both techniques introduce errors and distortions in the sound, and these methods can be systematically compared. Musicians and listeners have argued over the superiority of digital versus analog sound recordings. Arguments for analog systems include the absence of fundamental error mechanisms which are present in digital audio systems, including aliasing and quantization noise. Advocates of digital point to the high levels of performance possible with digital audio, including excellent linearity in the audible band and low levels of noise and distortion.:7
Two prominent differences in performance between the two methods are the bandwidth and the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). The bandwidth of the digital system is determined, according to the Nyquist frequency, by the sample rate used. The bandwidth of an analog system is dependent on the physical capabilities of the analog circuits. The S/N of a digital system may be limited by the bit depth of the digitization process, but the electronic implementation of conversion circuits introduces additional noise. In an analog system, other natural analog noise sources exist, such as flicker noise and imperfections in the recording medium. Other performance differences are specific to the systems under comparison, such as the ability for more transparent filtering algorithms in digital systems and the harmonic saturation and speed variations of analog systems.
The dynamic range of an audio system is a measure of the difference between the smallest and largest amplitude values that can be represented in a medium. Digital and analog differ in both the methods of transfer and storage, as well as the behavior exhibited by the systems due to these methods.
The dynamic range of digital audio systems can exceed that of analog audio systems. Consumer analog cassette tapes have a dynamic range of 60 to 70 dB. Analog FM broadcasts rarely have a dynamic range exceeding 50 dB. The dynamic range of a direct-cut vinyl record may surpass 70 dB. Analog studio master tapes can have a dynamic range of up to 77 dB. A theoretical LP made out of perfect diamond has an atomic feature size of about 0.5 nanometer, which, with a groove size of 8 micron, yields a dynamic range of 110 dB, while a theoretical vinyl LP is expected to have a dynamic range of 70 dB, with measurements indicating performance in the 60 to 70 dB range. Typically, a 16 bit analog-to-digital converter may have a dynamic range of between 90 and 95 dB,:132 whereas the signal-to-noise ratio (roughly the equivalent of dynamic range, noting the absence of quantization noise but presence of tape hiss) of a professional reel-to-reel 1/4 inch tape recorder would be between 60 and 70 dB at the recorder's rated output.:111
The benefits of using digital recorders with greater than 16 bit accuracy can be applied to the 16 bits of audio CD. Stuart stresses that with the correct dither, the resolution of a digital system is theoretically infinite, and that it is possible, for example, to resolve sounds at -110 dB (below digital full-scale) in a well-designed 16 bit channel.:3
There are some differences in the behaviour of analog and digital systems when high level signals are present, where there is the possibility that such signals could push the system into overload. With high level signals, analog magnetic tape approaches saturation, and high frequency response drops in proportion to low frequency response. While undesirable, the audible effect of this can be reasonably unobjectionable. In contrast, digital PCM recorders show non-benign behaviour in overload;:65 samples that exceed the peak quantization level are simply truncated, clipping the waveform squarely, which introduces distortion in the form of large quantities of higher-frequency harmonics. In principle, PCM digital systems have the lowest level of nonlinear distortion at full signal amplitude. The opposite is usually true of analog systems, where distortion tends to increase at high signal levels. A study by Manson (1980) considered the requirements of a digital audio system for high quality broadcasting. It concluded that a 16 bit system would be sufficient, but noted the small reserve the system provided in ordinary operating conditions. For this reason, it was suggested that a fast-acting signal limiter or 'soft clipper' be used to prevent the system from becoming overloaded.
With many recordings, high level distortions at signal peaks may be audibly masked by the original signal, thus large amounts of distortion may be acceptable at peak signal levels. The difference between analog and digital systems is the form of high-level signal error. Some early analog-to-digital converters displayed non-benign behaviour when in overload, where the overloading signals were 'wrapped' from positive to negative full-scale. Modern converter designs based on sigma-delta modulation may become unstable in overload conditions. It is usually a design goal of digital systems to limit high-level signals to prevent overload.:65 To prevent overload, a modern digital system may compress input signals so that digital full-scale cannot be reached:4
Unlike analog duplication, digital copies are exact replicas that can be duplicated indefinitely and without generation loss, in principle. Error correction allows digital formats to tolerate significant media deterioration though digital media is not immune to data loss. Consumer CD-R compact discs have a limited and variable lifespan due to both inherent and manufacturing quality issues.
With vinyl records, there will be some loss in fidelity on each playing of the disc. This is due to the wear of the stylus in contact with the record surface. Magnetic tapes, both analog and digital, wear from friction between the tape and the heads, guides, and other parts of the tape transport as the tape slides over them. The brown residue deposited on swabs during cleaning of a tape machine's tape path is actually particles of magnetic coating shed from tapes. Sticky-shed syndrome is a prevalent problem with older tapes. Tapes can also suffer creasing, stretching, and frilling of the edges of the plastic tape base, particularly from low-quality or out-of-alignment tape decks.
When a CD is played, there is no physical contact involved as the data is read optically using a laser beam. Therefore, no such media deterioration takes place, and the CD will, with proper care, sound exactly the same every time it is played (discounting aging of the player and CD itself); however, this is a benefit of the optical system, not of digital recording, and the Laserdisc format enjoys the same non-contact benefit with analog optical signals. CDs suffer from disc rot and slowly degrade with time, even if they are stored properly and not played. A special recordable compact disc called M-DISC is said to last 1000 years.
For electronic audio signals, sources of noise include mechanical, electrical and thermal noise in the recording and playback cycle. The amount of noise that a piece of audio equipment adds to the original signal can be quantified. Mathematically, this can be expressed by means of the signal to noise ratio (SNR or S/N). Sometimes the maximum possible dynamic range of the system is quoted instead.
With digital systems, the quality of reproduction depends on the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion steps, and does not depend on the quality of the recording medium, provided it is adequate to retain the digital values without error. Digital mediums capable of bit-perfect storage and retrieval have been commonplace for some time, since they were generally developed for software storage which has no tolerance for error.
The process of analog-to-digital conversion will, according to theory, always introduce quantization distortion. This distortion can be rendered as uncorrelated quantization noise through the use of dither. The magnitude of this noise or distortion is determined by the number of quantization levels. In binary systems this is determined by and typically stated in terms of the number of bits. Each additional bit adds approximately 6 dB in possible SNR, e.g. 24 x 6 = 144 dB for 24 bit quantization, 126 dB for 21-bit, and 120 dB for 20-bit. The 16-bit digital system of Red Book audio CD has 216= 65,536 possible signal amplitudes, theoretically allowing for an SNR of 98 dB.:49
Rumble is a form of noise characteristic caused by imperfections in the bearings of turntables, the platter tends to have a slight amount of motion besides the desired rotation—the turntable surface also moves up-and-down and side-to-side slightly. This additional motion is added to the desired signal as noise, usually of very low frequencies, creating a rumbling sound during quiet passages. Very inexpensive turntables sometimes used ball bearings which are very likely to generate audible amounts of rumble. More expensive turntables tend to use massive sleeve bearings which are much less likely to generate offensive amounts of rumble. Increased turntable mass also tends to lead to reduced rumble. A good turntable should have rumble at least 60 dB below the specified output level from the pick-up.:79–82 Because they have no moving parts in the signal path, digital systems are not subject to rumble.
Wow and flutterEdit
Wow and flutter are a change in frequency of an analog device and are the result of mechanical imperfections, with wow being a slower rate form of flutter. Wow and flutter are most noticeable on signals which contain pure tones. For LP records, the quality of the turntable will have a large effect on the level of wow and flutter. A good turntable will have wow and flutter values of less than 0.05%, which is the speed variation from the mean value. Wow and flutter can also be present in the recording, as a result of the imperfect operation of the recorder. Owing to their use of precision crystal oscillators for their timebase, digital systems are not subject to wow and flutter.
For digital systems, the upper limit of the frequency response is determined by the sampling frequency. The choice of sample sampling frequency in a digital system is based on the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem. This states that a sampled signal can be reproduced exactly as long as it is sampled at a frequency greater than twice the bandwidth of the signal, the Nyquist frequency. Therefore, a sampling frequency of 40 kHz would be theoretically sufficient to capture all the information contained in a signal having frequency components up to 20 kHz. The sampling theorem also requires that frequency content above the Nyquist frequency be removed from the signal to be sampled. This is accomplished using anti-aliasing filters which require a transition band to sufficiently reduce aliasing. The bandwidth provided by the 44,100 Hz sampling frequency used by the standard for audio CDs is sufficiently wide to cover the entire human hearing range, which roughly extends from 20 Hz to 20 kHz.:108 Professional digital recorders may record higher frequencies, while some consumer and telecommunications systems record a more restricted frequency range.
High quality reel-to-reel machines can extend from 10 Hz to above 20 kHz. Some analog tape manufacturers specify frequency responses up to 20 kHz, but these measurements may have been made at lower signal levels. Compact Cassettes may have a response extending up to 15 kHz at full (0 dB) recording level. At lower levels (-10 dB), cassettes are typically limited to 20 kHz due to self-erasure of the tape media.
The frequency response for a conventional LP player might be 20 Hz - 20 kHz +/- 3 dB. Unlike the audio CD, vinyl records and cassettes do not require anti-aliasing filters. The low frequency response of vinyl records is restricted by rumble noise (described above), as well as the physical and electrical characteristics of the entire pickup arm and transducer assembly. The high frequency response of vinyl depends on the cartridge. CD4 records contained frequencies up to 50 kHz. Frequencies of up to 122 kHz have been experimentally cut on LP records.
Digital systems require that all high frequency signal content above the Nyquist frequency must be removed prior to sampling, which, if not done, will result in these ultrasonic frequencies "folding over" into frequencies which are in the audible range, producing a kind of distortion called aliasing. Aliasing is prevented in digital systems by an anti-aliasing filter. However, designing a filter which precisely removes all frequency content exactly above or below a certain cutoff frequency, is impractical. Instead, a sample rate is usually chosen which is above the Nyquist requirement. This solution is called oversampling, and allows a less aggressive and lower-cost anti-aliasing filter to be used.
Early digital systems may have suffered from a number of signal degradations related to the use of analog anti-aliasing filters, e.g., time dispersion, nonlinear distortion, ripple, temperature dependence of filters etc.:8 Using an oversampling design and delta-sigma modulation, analog anti-aliasing filters can effectively be replaced by a digital filter. This approach has several advantages. The digital filter can be made to have a near-ideal transfer function, with low in-band ripple, and no aging or thermal drift.:18
Analog systems are not subject to a Nyquist limit or aliasing and thus do not require anti-aliasing filters or any of the design considerations associated with them.
CD quality audio is sampled at 44,100 Hz (Nyquist frequency = 22.05 kHz) and at 16 bits. Sampling the waveform at higher frequencies and allowing for a greater number of bits per sample allows noise and distortion to be reduced further. DAT can sample audio at up to 48 kHz, while DVD-Audio can be 96 or 192 kHz and up to 24 bits resolution. With any of these sampling rates, signal information is captured above what is generally considered to be the human hearing range.
Work done in 1981 by Muraoka et al. showed that music signals with frequency components above 20 kHz were only distinguished from those without by a few of the 176 test subjects. A perceptual study by Nishiguchi et al. (2004) concluded that "no significant difference was found between sounds with and without very high frequency components among the sound stimuli and the subjects... however, [Nishiguchi et al] can still neither confirm nor deny the possibility that some subjects could discriminate between musical sounds with and without very high frequency components."
In blind listening tests conducted by Bob Katz in 1996, recounted in his book Mastering Audio: The Art and the Science, subjects using the same high-sample-rate reproduction equipment could not discern any audible difference between program material identically filtered to remove frequencies above 20 kHz versus 40 kHz. This demonstrates that presence or absence of ultrasonic content does not explain aural variation between sample rates. He posits that variation is due largely to performance of the band-limiting filters in converters. These results suggest that the main benefit to using higher sample rates is that it pushes consequential phase distortion from the band-limiting filters out of the audible range and that, under ideal conditions, higher sample rates may not be necessary. Dunn (1998) examined the performance of digital converters to see if these differences in performance could be explained by the band-limiting filters used in converters and looking for the artifacts they introduce.
A signal is recorded digitally by an analog-to-digital converter, which measures the amplitude of an analog signal at regular intervals specified by the sampling rate, and then stores these sampled numbers in computer hardware. The fundamental problem with numbers on computers is that the range of values that can be represented is finite, which means that during sampling, the amplitude of the audio signal must be rounded to the nearest representation. This process is called quantization, and these small errors in the measurements are manifested aurally as low level noise or distortion. This form of distortion, sometimes called granular or quantization distortion, has been pointed to as a fault of some digital systems and recordings particularly some early digital recordings, where the digital release was said to be inferior to the analog version.:6
The range of possible values that can be represented numerically by a sample is determined by the number of binary digits used. This is called the resolution, and is usually referred to as the bit depth in the context of PCM audio. The quantization noise level is directly determined by this number, decreasing exponentially (linearly in dB units) as the resolution increases. With an adequate bit depth, random noise from other sources will dominate and completely mask the quantization noise. The Redbook CD standard uses 16 bits, which keep the quantization noise 96 dB below maximum amplitude, far below a discernible level with almost any source material. DVD-Audio and most modern professional recording equipment allows for samples of 24 bits.
Analog systems do not necessarily have discrete digital levels in which the signal is encoded. Consequently, the original signal can be preserved to an accuracy limited only by the intrinsic noise-floor and maximum signal level of the media and the playback equipment, i.e., the dynamic range of the system.
Quantization in analog mediaEdit
Since analog media is composed of molecules, the smallest microscopic structure represents the smallest quantization unit of the recorded signal. Natural dithering processes, like random thermal movements of molecules, the nonzero size of the reading instrument, and other averaging effects, make the practical limit larger than that of the smallest molecular structural feature. A theoretical LP composed of perfect diamond, with a groove size of 8 micron and feature size of 0.5 nanometer, has a quantization that is similar to a 16-bit digital sample.
Dither as a solutionEdit
It is possible to make quantization noise audibly benign by applying dither. To do this, noise is added to the original signal before quantization. Optimal use of dither has the effect of making quantization error independent of the signal,:143 and allows signal information to be retained below the least significant bit of the digital system.:3
Dither algorithms also commonly have an option to employ some kind of noise shaping, which pushes the frequency of much of the dither noise to areas that are less audible to human ears, lowering the level of the noise floor apparent to the listener.
One aspect that may degrade the performance of a digital system is jitter. This is the phenomenon of variations in time from what should be the correct spacing of discrete samples according to the sample rate. This can be due to timing inaccuracies of the digital clock. Ideally, a digital clock should produce a timing pulse at exactly regular intervals. Other sources of jitter within digital electronic circuits are data-induced jitter, where one part of the digital stream affects a subsequent part as it flows through the system, and power supply induced jitter, where noise from the power supply causes irregularities in the timing of signals in the circuits it powers.
The accuracy of a digital system is dependent on the sampled amplitude values, but it is also dependent on the temporal regularity of these values. This temporal dependence is inherent to digital recording and playback and has no analog equivalent, though analog systems have their own temporal distortion effects (pitch error and wow-and-flutter).
Periodic jitter produces modulation noise and can be thought of as being the equivalent of analog flutter. Random jitter alters the noise floor of the digital system. The sensitivity of the converter to jitter depends on the design of the converter. It has been shown that a random jitter of 5 ns may be significant for 16 bit digital systems.
In 1998, Benjamin and Gannon researched the audibility of jitter using listening tests.:34 They found that the lowest level of jitter to be audible was around 10 ns (rms). This was on a 17 kHz sine wave test signal. With music, no listeners found jitter audible at levels lower than 20 ns. A paper by Ashihara et al. (2005) attempted to determine the detection thresholds for random jitter in music signals. Their method involved ABX listening tests. When discussing their results, the authors commented that:
So far, actual jitter in consumer products seems to be too small to be detected at least for reproduction of music signals. It is not clear, however, if detection thresholds obtained in the present study would really represent the limit of auditory resolution or it would be limited by resolution of equipment. Distortions due to very small jitter may be smaller than distortions due to non-linear characteristics of loudspeakers. Ashihara and Kiryu  evaluated linearity of loudspeaker and headphones. According to their observation, headphones seem to be more preferable to produce sufficient sound pressure at the ear drums with smaller distortions than loudspeakers.
After initial recording, it is common for the audio signal to be altered in some way, such as with the use of compression, equalization, delays and reverb. With analog, this comes in the form of outboard hardware components, and with digital, the same is typically accomplished with plug-ins in a digital audio workstation (DAW).
A comparison of analog and digital filtering shows technical advantages to both methods. Digital filters are more precise and flexible. Analog filters are simpler, can be more efficient and do not introduce latency.
When altering a signal with a filter, the outputted signal may differ in time from the signal at the input, which is measured as its phase response. Many equalizers exhibit this behavior, with the amount of phase shift differing in some pattern, and centered around the band that is being adjusted. Although this effect alters the signal in a way other than a strict change in frequency response, this coloration can sometimes have a positive effect on the perception of the sound of the audio signal.
Because the variables involved can be precisely specified in the calculations, digital filters can be made to objectively perform better than analog components. Other processing such as delay and mixing can be done exactly.
Digital filters are also more flexible. For example the linear phase equalizer does not introduce frequency-dependent phase shift. This filter may be implemented digitally using a finite impulse response filter but has no practical implementation using analog components.
A practical advantage of digital processing is the more convenient recall of settings. Plug-in parameters can be stored on the computer, whereas parameter details on an analog unit must be written down or otherwise recorded if the unit needs to be reused. This can be cumbersome when entire mixes must be recalled manually using an analog console and outboard gear. When working digitally, all parameters can simply be stored in a DAW project file and recalled instantly. Most modern professional DAWs also process plug-ins in real time, which means that processing can be largely non-destructive until final mix-down.
Many plug-ins exist now that incorporate analog modeling. There are audio engineers that endorse them and feel that they compare equally in sound to the analog processes that they imitate. Analog modeling carries some benefits over their analog counterparts, such as the ability to remove noise from the algorithms and modifications to make the parameters more flexible. On the other hand, other engineers also feel that the modeling is still inferior to the genuine outboard components and still prefer to mix "outside the box".
Subjective evaluation attempts to measure how well an audio component performs according to the human ear. The most common form of subjective test is a listening test, where the audio component is simply used in the context for which it was designed. This test is popular with hi-fi reviewers, where the component is used for a length of time by the reviewer who then will describe the performance in subjective terms. Common descriptions include whether the component has a bright or dull sound, or how well the component manages to present a spatial image.
Another type of subjective test is done under more controlled conditions and attempts to remove possible bias from listening tests. These sorts of tests are done with the component hidden from the listener, and are called blind tests. To prevent possible bias from the person running the test, the blind test may be done so that this person is also unaware of the component under test. This type of test is called a double-blind test. This sort of test is often used to evaluate the performance of lossy audio compression.
Critics of double-blind tests see them as not allowing the listener to feel fully relaxed when evaluating the system component, and can therefore not judge differences between different components as well as in sighted (non-blind) tests. Those who employ the double-blind testing method may try to reduce listener stress by allowing a certain amount of time for listener training.
Early digital recordingsEdit
Early digital audio machines had disappointing results, with digital converters introducing errors that the ear could detect. Record companies released their first LPs based on digital audio masters in the late 1970s. CDs became available in the early 1980s. At this time analog sound reproduction was a mature technology.
There was a mixed critical response to early digital recordings released on CD. Compared to vinyl record, it was noticed that CD was far more revealing of the acoustics and ambient background noise of the recording environment. For this reason, recording techniques developed for analog disc, e.g., microphone placement, needed to be adapted to suit the new digital format.
Some analog recordings were remastered for digital formats. Analog recordings made in natural concert hall acoustics tended to benefit from remastering. The remastering process was occasionally criticised for being poorly handled. When the original analog recording was fairly bright, remastering sometimes resulted in an unnatural treble emphasis.
Super Audio CD and DVD-AudioEdit
The Super Audio CD (SACD) format was created by Sony and Philips, who were also the developers of the earlier standard audio CD format. SACD uses Direct Stream Digital (DSD), which works quite differently from the PCM format discussed in this article. Instead of using a greater number of bits and attempting to record a signal's precise amplitude for every sample cycle, a DSD recorder uses a technique called sigma-delta modulation. Using this technique, the audio data is stored as a sequence of fixed amplitude (i.e. 1- bit) values at a sample rate of 2.884 MHz, which is 64 times the 44.1 kHz sample rate used by CD. At any point in time, the amplitude of the original analog signal is represented by the relative preponderance of 1's over 0's in the data stream. This digital data stream can therefore be converted to analog by the simple expedient of passing it through a relatively benign analog low-pass filter. The competing DVD-Audio format uses standard, linear PCM at variable sampling rates and bit depths, which at the very least match and usually greatly surpass those of a standard CD Audio (16 bits, 44.1 kHz).
In the popular Hi-Fi press, it had been suggested that linear PCM "creates [a] stress reaction in people", and that DSD "is the only digital recording system that does not [...] have these effects". This claim appears to originate from a 1980 article by Dr John Diamond entitled Human Stress Provoked by Digitalized Recordings. The core of the claim that PCM (the only digital recording technique available at the time) recordings created a stress reaction rested on "tests" carried out using the pseudoscientific technique of applied kinesiology, for example by Dr Diamond at an AES 66th Convention (1980) presentation with the same title. Diamond had previously used a similar technique to demonstrate that rock music (as opposed to classical) was bad for your health due to the presence of the "stopped anapestic beat". Dr Diamond's claims regarding digital audio were taken up by Mark Levinson, who asserted that while PCM recordings resulted in a stress reaction, DSD recordings did not. A double-blind subjective test between high resolution linear PCM (DVD-Audio) and DSD did not reveal a statistically significant difference. Listeners involved in this test noted their great difficulty in hearing any difference between the two formats.
The vinyl revival is in part because of analog audio's imperfection, which adds warmth. Some listeners prefer such audio over that of a CD. Founder and editor Harry Pearson of The Absolute Sound journal says that "LPs are decisively more musical. CDs drain the soul from music. The emotional involvement disappears". Dub producer Adrian Sherwood has similar feelings about the analog cassette tape, which he prefers because of its warm sound.
Those who favour the digital format point to the results of blind tests, which demonstrate the high performance possible with digital recorders. The assertion is that the 'analog sound' is more a product of analog format inaccuracies than anything else. One of the first and largest supporters of digital audio was the classical conductor Herbert von Karajan, who said that digital recording was "definitely superior to any other form of recording we know". He also pioneered the unsuccessful Digital Compact Cassette and conducted the first recording ever to be commercially released on CD: Richard Strauss's Eine Alpensinfonie.
While the words analog audio usually imply that the sound is described using a continuous time/continuous amplitudes approach in both the media and the reproduction/recording systems, and the words digital audio imply a discrete time/discrete amplitudes approach, there are methods of encoding audio that fall somewhere between the two, e.g. continuous time/discrete levels and discrete time/continuous levels.
While not as common as "pure analog" or "pure digital" methods, these situations do occur in practice. Indeed, all analog systems show discrete (quantized) behaviour at the microscopic scale, and asynchronously operated class-D amplifiers even consciously incorporate continuous time, discrete amplitude designs. Continuous amplitude, discrete time systems have also been used in many early analog-to-digital converters, in the form of sample-and-hold circuits. The boundary is further blurred by digital systems which statistically aim at analog-like behavior, most often by utilizing stochastic dithering and noise shaping techniques. While vinyl records and common compact cassettes are analog media and use quasi-linear physical encoding methods (e.g. spiral groove depth, tape magnetic field strength) without noticeable quantization or aliasing, there are analog non-linear systems that exhibit effects similar to those encountered on digital ones, such as aliasing and "hard" dynamic floors (e.g. frequency modulated hi-fi audio on videotapes, PWM encoded signals).
Although those "hybrid" techniques are usually more common in telecommunications systems than in consumer audio, their existence alone blurs the distinctive line between certain digital and analog systems, at least for what regards some of their alleged advantages or disadvantages.
There are many benefits to using digital recording over analog recording because “numbers are more easily manipulated than are grooves on a record or magnetized particles on a tape”. Because numerical coding represents the sound waves perfectly, the sound can be played back without background noise.
- Liversidge, Anthony (February 1995). "Analog versus digital: has vinyl been wrongly dethroned by the music industry?". Omni. Vol. 17 no. 5.
- Maes, Jan; Vercammen, Marc, eds. (2001). Digital Audio Technology: A guide to CD, MiniDisc, SACD, DVD(A), MP3 and DAT (4 ed.). Focal Press. ISBN 0240516540.
A 16-bit system, therefore, gives a theoretical signal-to-noise ratio of 98 dB...
- "Chapter 21: Filter Comparison". dspguide.com. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- Mark Garrison (23 September 2011). "Encyclopedia of Home Recording: Dynamic Range".
- "State-of-the-Art Audio Transfer". The Audio Archive. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
Signal-to-Noise NAB (1/4-inch two-track 2.0 mm track, RMS, A-weighted) 30 ips - 75 dB
- Jim Lesurf (18 May 2000). "The 'digital' defects of the long-playing record". University of St. Andrews. Retrieved 22 September 2017.
- Michael Fremer (6 January 1999). "Pass Aleph Ono phono preamplifier". Retrieved 14 May 2018. Cite magazine requires
- Metzler, Bob (2005). The Audio Measurement Handbook (2 ed.). Audio Precision, USA. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- Stuart, J. "Coding High Quality Digital Audio" (PDF). Meridian Audio Ltd. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008This article is substantially the same as Stuart's 2004 JAES article "Coding for High-Resolution Audio Systems", Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, Volume 52 Issue 3 pp. 117–144; March 2004.
- Elsea, Peter (1996). "Analog Recording of Sound". Electronic Music Studios at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- Dunn, Julian (2003). "Measurement Techniques for Digital Audio: Audio Precision Application Note #5". Audio Precision, Inc. Archived from the original on 20 March 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- Manson, W. (1980). "Digital Sound: studio signal coding resolution for broadcasting" (PDF). BBC Research Department, Engineering Division. p. 8.
- Jones, Wayne; Wolfe, Michael; Tanner, Theodore C. Jr.; Dinu, Daniel (March 2003). Testing Challenges in Personal Computer Audio Devices. 114th AES Convention. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- "CD-R Unreadable in Less Than Two Years". myce.com. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
- Byers, Fred R (October 2003). "Care and Handling of CDs and DVDs" (PDF). Council on Library and Information Resources. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Driscoll, R. (1980). Practical Hi-Fi Sound, 'Analogue and digital', pages 61–64; 'The pick-up, arm and turntable', pages 79–82. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-34627-7.
- Stark, C. (1989). "High-fidelity concepts and systems". Macropaedia article 'Sound'. 27 (15 ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 625.
- "mastering". Positive-feedback.com. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Thompson, Dan. Understanding Audio. Berklee Press, 2005, ch. 14.
- Hawksford, Malcolm (September 1991). Introduction to Digital Audio Images of Audio, (PDF). Proceedings of the 10th International AES Conference. London. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
- Muraoka, Teruo; Iwahara, Makoto; Yamada, Yasuhiro (1981). "Examination of Audio-Bandwidth Requirements for Optimum Sound Signal Transmission". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. 29 (1/2): 2–9.
- Kaoru, A.; Shogo, K (2001). Detection threshold for tones above 22 kHz. 110th AEC Convention. Audio Engineering SocietyPaper 5401
- Nishiguchi, Toshiyuki; Iwaki, Masakazu; Ando, Akio (2004). Perceptual Discrimination between Musical Sounds with and without Very High Frequency Components. NHK Laboratories Note No. 486 (Report). NHK. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Katz, Bob (2015). Mastering Audio: The Art and the Science (3rd ed.). Focal Press. p. 316-318. ISBN 978-0240818962.
- Dunn, Julian (1998). "Anti-alias and anti-image filtering: The benefits of 96kHz sampling rate formats for those who cannot hear above 20kHz" (PDF). Nanophon Limited. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Knee, Anthony B.; Hawksford, Malcolm J. (February 1995). Evaluation of Digital Systems and Digital Recording Using Real Time Audio Data. 98th AES Convention. p. 3.
- Hass, Jeffrey (2013). "Chapter 5: Principles of Digital Audio". Center for Electronic and Computer Music. Indiana University.
- Rumsey, F.; Watkinson, J (1995). "Sections 2.5 and 6". The Digital Interface Handbook (2 ed.). Focal Press. pp. 37, 154–160.
- Ashihara, Kaoru; Kiryu, Shogo; Koizumi, Nobuo; Nishimura, Akira; Ohga, Juro; Sawaguchi, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Shokichiro (2005). "Detection threshold for distortions due to jitter on digital audio". Acoustical Science and Technology. 26 (1): 50–54. doi:10.1250/ast.26.50. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- John Eargle, Chris Foreman. Audio Engineering for Sound Reinforcement, The Advantages of Digital Transmission and Signal Processing. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- "Secrets Of The Mix Engineers: Chris Lord-Alge". May 2007. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- Toole, Floyd (1994). "Section 11.7: Experimental Procedure". In Borwick, John (ed.). The Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook (2 ed.). Focal Press. pp. 481–488. ISBN 0-240-51371-1.
- Watkinson, J. (1994). "Section 1.2: What is digital audio? What can we hear?". An Introduction to Digital Audio. Focal Press. pp. 3, 26. ISBN 0-240-51378-9.
- Greenfield, E.; et al. (1986). March, Ivan (ed.). The Penguin Guide to Compact Discs, Cassettes and LPs. Penguin Books, England.
- Greenfield, E.; et al. (1990). "Preface". In March, Ivan (ed.). The Penguin Guide to Compact Discs. Penguin Books, England. pp. viii–ix. ISBN 0-14-046887-0.
- Hawksford, M. (2001). SDM versus LPCM: The Debate Continues (PDF). 110th AES Convention. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2006paper 5397
- "Digital stress". The Diamond Center. 2003 . Archived from the original on 12 August 2004. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- Diamond, John; Lagadec, Roger (December 1985). "More on -Human Stress Provoked by Digitalized Recordings- and Reply". Journal of the Audio Engineering Society. AES. 33 (12): 968. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Fuller, John Grant (1981). Are the Kids All Right?: The Rock Generation and Its Hidden Death Wish. pp. 130–135. ISBN 0812909704.
- Levinson, Mark. "Re-vitalizing Audio Industry:Music and Health" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 March 2014.
- Levinson, Mark. "Mark Levinson: CD vs. SACD and LP". Redrosemusic.com. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Phillips, Wes (5 July 2005). "Mark Levinson & the Bobcat". Stereophilia. Stereophile.com. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
- Blech, Dominik; Yang, Min-Chi (8–11 May 2004). DVD-Audio versus SACD: Perceptual Discrimination of Digital Audio Coding Formats (PDF). AES Convention:116. Berlin: Audio Engineering Society. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
- Deffes, Olivia (30 January 2020). "Repeat performance: Music lovers warming up to vinyl -- again". The Advocate. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
- James Paul (26 September 2003). "Last night a mix tape saved my life | Music | The Guardian". London: Arts.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "ABX Testing article". Boston Audio Society. 23 February 1984. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Lesurf, Jim. "Analog or Digital?". The Scots Guide to Electronics. St-andrews.ac.uk. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- Rudolph, Thomas E.; Leonard, Vincent A. (2001). Recording in the Digital World. Berklee Press Publications. p. 3. ISBN 0634013246.
- Libbey, Ted (February 1995). "Digital versus analog: digital music on CD reigns as the industry standard". Omni. Vol. 17 no. 5.
- Pohlmann, K. (2005). Principles of Digital Audio 5th edn, McGraw-Hill Comp.