Cividale del Friuli
Cividale del Friuli (Friulian: Cividât (locally Zividât); German: Östrich; Slovene: Čedad) is a town and comune in the Province of Udine, part of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of northern Italy. The town 135 metres (443 ft) above sea-level in the foothills of the eastern Alps, 15 kilometres (9 mi) by rail from the city of Udine and close to the Slovenian border. It is situated on the river Natisone, which forms a picturesque ravine here. Formerly an important regional power, it is today a quiet, small town that attracts tourists thanks to its medieval center.
|Città di Cividale del Friuli|
|Frazioni||Rualis, Grupignano, Rubignacco, Gagliano, Purgessimo, Sanguarzo, Spessa, Carraria, Fornalis, San Giorgio|
|• Mayor||Stefano Balloch (UDC, Lega Nord, PDL)|
|• Total||50 km2 (20 sq mi)|
|Elevation||135 m (443 ft)|
|• Density||230/km2 (600/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|Patron saint||San Donato|
|Saint day||August 21|
Archaeological findings reveal that the area was first settled by Veneti and Celts. However, in 50 BC, Cividale was founded as a Roman municipium by Julius Caesar with the name ofForum Iulii ("Julius' Forum"; Fréjus had the same Roman name). Not long afterward, its citizens were inscribed in the Roman tribe Scaptia. The municipium was strategically located to defend Roman Italy's northeastern frontier.
In 568 the city was the first major centre occupied by Alboin's Lombard invasion of Italy, then part of the Byzantine Empire. The city was chosen as first capital of the newly formed Lombard Kingdom, then granted by Alboin to his nephew Gisulf as the capital of a Lombard Duchy of Friuli. After the Lombards were defeated by the Franks, (774), following the last Lombard resistance under Hrodgaud of Friuli (776) Forum Julii changed its name to Civitas Austriae, Charlemagne's Italian "City of the East".
Under the Carolingian settlement with the Papacy, the patriarchs of Aquileia resided here from 773 to 1031, when they returned to Aquileia, and finally in 1238 removed to Udine. This last change of residence was the origin of the antagonism between Cividale and Udine, which was only terminated by their surrender to Venice in 1419 and 1420 respectively. When the Patriarchal State of Friuli was founded in 1077, Cividale was chosen as the capital.
Between July and September 1409, a church council was held at Cividale by Pope Gregory XII (Roman Obedience). It was poorly attended and achieved nothing.
In 1420 Cividale was annexed to the Republic of Venice.
The historical center of the town is dominated by Piazza del Duomo, which is where the National Archaeological Museum of Cividale del Friuli is located. Close by is the Palazzo dei Provveditori Veneti, constructed in 1565 and designed by Andrea Palladio. The town is split in two by the Natisone River, which is spanned by the Devil's Bridge (15th century, rebuilt in 1918). The Celtic Hypogeum is a subterranean series of halls carved in the rock in ancient times, whose destination remains unclear: uses as either Celtic funerary monument or a Roman (Lombard) jail has been proposed.
The Cathedral (Duomo) was built in the 15th century over a pre-existing construction built in the 8th century. It is a Venetian Gothic building, finished in the 16th century by architect Pietro Lombardo, featuring interventions from the 18th century also. The interior houses an altar dedicated to the Madonna, in the right aisle, and the altarpiece of patriarch Pellegrino II (1195−1204), a silver retable which had been inscribed in Latin by the means of individual letter punches, 250 years before the invention of modern movable type printing by Johannes Gutenberg.
The Christian Museum annexed to the Duomo houses outstanding examples of Lombard sculpture. It contains some interesting relics of the art of the 8th century. The cathedral contains an octagonal marble canopy with sculptures in relief, with a font below it belonging to the 8th century, but altered later. The high altar has a fine silver altar front of 1185. The museum contains various Roman and Lombard antiquities, and works of art in gold, silver and ivory formerly belonging to the cathedral chapter. The fine 15th-century Ponte del Diavolo leads to the church of S. Martino, which contains an altar of the 8th century with reliefs executed by order of the Lombard king Ratchis.
The small church of Oratorio di Santa Maria in Valle (also known as Lombard Temple), next to the Natisone river, is a notable example of High Middle Ages art sometimes attributed to the 8th century, but probably later. Included in the old Lombard quarter, it was probably used as Palatine Chapel by the Lombard dukes and king's functionaries. The fine decorations, statues and stuccoes (11th or 12th century) housed in the interior, show a strong Byzantine influence.
In the collegiata, the altarpiece of Pellegrinus II (1195−1204) is a silver retable which had been inscribed in Latin by the means of individual letter punches, 250 years before the invention of modern movable type printing by Johannes Gutenberg.
The town has a number of small osterias which serve distinctive local wines. Of particular note are Tocai friulano, Verduzzo and Refosco dal peduncolo rosso.
At Cividale were born
- Paulus Diaconus, the historian of the Lombards in the time of Charlemagne, (about 722–799)
- Berengar I, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor
- Antonio Dugoni, (1827–1874) Italian painter
- Adelaide Ristori (1822–1906), actress.
- Antonio da Cividale, composer o (fl. 1392–1421).
- Fiore dei Liberi, (ca. 1350s – 1420s) a medieval master of arms
- Roberto Chiacig, professional basketball player
- Vittorio Podrecca
- Eugenio Cefis, former chairman of ENI (petrolchemical) and Montedison (chemical)
- Lorenzo Crisetig, football player
- "Cividale del Friuli". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). 1911. p. 402.
- Joseph Bingham, Origines Ecclesiasticæ vol. 1 (H.G. Bohn, 1845 ) p422.
- Antoine Godeau, Algemeine Kirchengeschichte (Rieger, 1771 ) p 45.
- Robert Knaplock, The Works, Volume 1 (Robert Knaplock, 1726) p387.
- Burke, James (2007). Connections (1st Simon & Schuster paperback ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks. p. 70. ISBN 0-7432-9955-8.
- Carl Joseph Hefele (1916). Histoire des Conciles (ed. H. Leclercq). Tome VII, première partie. Paris: Letouzey 1916, pp. 61-64. (in French)
- Brekle, Herbert E.: Die typographische Herstellungstechnik der Inschriften auf dem silbernen Altaraufsatz im Dom von Cividale, Regensburg 2011
- Lipinsky 1986, pp. 78–80; Koch 1994, p. 213
- Lipinsky 1986, pp. 78–80; Koch 1994, p. 213
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Cividale del Friuli". Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 402.
- Koch, Walter (1994), Literaturbericht zur mittelalterlichen und neuzeitlichen Epigraphik (1985−1991), Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Hilfsmittel, 14, München, p. 213, ISBN 978-3-88612-114-4
- Lipinsky, Angelo (1986), "La pala argentea del Patriarca Pellegrino nella Collegiata di Cividale e le sue iscrizioni con caratteri mobili", Ateneo Veneto, 24: 75–80