Christine Margaret Keeler (22 February 1942 – 4 December 2017) was an English model and topless showgirl. Her meeting at a dance-club with society osteopath Stephen Ward drew her into fashionable circles. At the height of the Cold War, she became sexually involved with a married government minister, John Profumo, as well as with a Soviet diplomat. A shooting incident between two of her other lovers caused the press to investigate her, revealing that her affairs could be threatening national security. In the House of Commons, Profumo denied any improper conduct but later admitted that he had lied. This incident discredited the Conservative government of Harold Macmillan in 1963 in what became known as the Profumo affair. Keeler was alleged to have been a prostitute and although this was not a criminal offence in itself, Ward was found guilty at trial of being her pimp – a trial only instigated after the embarrassment caused to the government.
Keeler in 1963
Christine Margaret Keeler
22 February 1942
Uxbridge, Middlesex, England
|Died||4 December 2017 (aged 75)|
Locksbottom, Greater London, England
|Other names||Christine Sloane|
|Known for||Profumo affair|
Keeler was born in Uxbridge, Middlesex. Her father, Colin Keeler (later known as Colin King), abandoned the family during World War II. She was brought up by her mother, Julie Ellen Payne, and stepfather, Edward Huish, in a house made from two converted railway carriages in the Berkshire village of Wraysbury. She was sexually abused as a teenager both by her mother's lover and his friends, for whom she babysat. In 1951 she was sent to a holiday home in Littlehampton because the school health inspector said that she was suffering from malnutrition. At the age of 15, she found work as a model at a dress shop in London's Soho. At age 17, she gave birth to a son after an affair with an African-American United States Air Force sergeant. The child was born prematurely on 17 April 1959, and survived just six days.
That summer, Keeler left Wraysbury, staying briefly in Slough with a friend before heading for London. She initially worked as a waitress at a restaurant in Baker Street, where she met Maureen O'Connor, who worked at Murray's Cabaret Club in Soho. She introduced Keeler to the owner, Percy Murray, who hired her almost immediately as a topless showgirl.
At Murray's she met Stephen Ward, an English osteopath and artist. His practice and his art brought considerable social success, and he made many important friends. Soon the two were living together with the outward appearance of being a couple, but according to her, it was a platonic, non-sexual relationship.
In July 1961, Ward introduced Keeler to John Profumo, 5th Baron Profumo, the Secretary of State for War, at a pool party at Cliveden, the Buckinghamshire mansion owned by Lord Astor. Profumo began a brief affair with Keeler, which ended after he was warned by the security services of the possible dangers of mixing with the Ward circle. Among Ward's other friends, whom Profumo briefly met, was the Russian naval attaché and GRU officer, Yevgeny Ivanov. According to Keeler, she and Ivanov enjoyed a short sexual relationship.
After her relationship with Profumo ended, Keeler was sexually involved with several partners, including jazz singer Aloysius "Lucky" Gordon and jazz promoter Johnny Edgecombe. There was considerable jealousy between the two men; in one quarrel, Edgecombe slashed Gordon's face with a knife. When Keeler ended the relationship with Edgecombe, in December 1962, he turned up at Ward's house in Wimpole Mews, where she was temporarily seeking refuge, and fired five shots at the building. His arrest and subsequent trial brought Keeler to public attention and provided the impetus from which the scandal known as the "Profumo affair" developed. After initially denying any impropriety with Keeler, Profumo eventually confessed and resigned from the government and parliament, causing great embarrassment to his government colleagues who had previously supported him. These events, in the summer of 1963, brought Keeler notoriety; The Economist gave the headline "The Prime Minister's Crisis" alongside a picture of Keeler, with no further explanation.
At the height of the Profumo affair in 1963, Keeler sat for a photographic portrait taken by Lewis Morley. The photo shoot, at a studio on the first floor of Peter Cook's Establishment Club, with Morley was to promote a proposed film, The Keeler Affair, that was never released in the United Kingdom. Keeler was reluctant to pose in the nude, but the film producers insisted. Morley persuaded Keeler to sit astride a plywood chair, so that whilst technically she would be nude, the back of the chair would obscure most of her body. Keeler told cartoon historian Tim Benson in 2007 that she was not nude and was, in fact, wearing "knickers" during the entire photoshoot.
The photo propelled Arne Jacobsen's Model 3107 chair to prominence, even though the chair used was an imitation of the Model 3107, with a hand-hold aperture crudely cut out of the back to avoid copyright infringement. The chair used is now in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The differences in the designs of the chairs are readily apparent in a side-by-side photograph.
On 18 April 1963, Keeler was attacked at the home of a friend. She accused Gordon, who was arrested and charged. At his trial, which began on 5 June, he maintained that his innocence would be established by two witnesses who, the police told the court, could not be found. On 7 June, principally on the evidence of Keeler, Gordon was found guilty and sentenced to three years' imprisonment. By this time, Ward was facing trial on vice charges, and again Keeler was a main prosecution witness.
Ward's trial, which ran from 22–31 July 1963, has been characterised as "an act of political revenge" for the embarrassment caused to the government. He was accused of living off immoral earnings (avails of prostitution in US law) earned through Keeler and Mandy Rice-Davies, on the basis of the small contributions to household expenses or loan repayments the two had made to Ward while living with him. Ward's professional earnings as an osteopath were a substantial £5,500 a year (£115,300 in 2018) at the time these small payments were made. After a hostile summing-up from the trial judge, Ward was convicted, but before the jury returned their verdict, he took an overdose of barbiturates and died before sentence could be passed. In the closing days of Ward's trial, Gordon's assault conviction was overturned by the Court of Appeal when his missing witnesses were found and testified that the evidence given by Keeler was substantially false. Keeler later pleaded guilty to charges of perjury before Sir Anthony Hawke, the Recorder of London, and in December 1963 was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment.
After her release from serving four and a half months in prison in 1964, and two brief marriages that produced two children, Keeler largely lived alone. Most of the considerable amount she made from newspaper stories was dissipated by lawyers; during the 1970s, she said, "I was not living, I was surviving". She published several accounts of her life, in one of which she claimed that she became pregnant as a result of her relationship with Profumo and subsequently had an abortion. Her portrait, by Ward, was acquired by the National Portrait Gallery in 1984.
In 1988, Keeler was featured in Bryan Ferry's promotional video for the single "Kiss and Tell" (originally released on Ferry's seventh solo album, Bête Noire, in 1987) with Mandy Rice-Davies; this was meant to draw more attention to the song's theme.
In the 1989 film about the Profumo affair, Scandal, actress Joanne Whalley portrayed Keeler. In Andrew Lloyd Webber's stage musical Stephen Ward, which opened at the Aldwych Theatre in 2013, Keeler was portrayed by Charlotte Spencer.
On 5 December 2017, Keeler's son Seymour Platt announced that his mother "passed away last night at about 11.30 pm" at the Princess Royal University Hospital in Locksbottom, Greater London. She had been ill for some months, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and was aged 75. Her funeral took place on 16 December.
- and Robert Meadley (1985). Sex Scandals. Xanadu. ISBN 0-947761-03-9.
- (1989). Scandal!. London: Xanadu. ISBN 0-947761-75-6. (Basis for film of the same name.)
- and Richard Basini (1989). The Businessperson's Guide to Intelligent Social Drinking. Congdon & Weed. ISBN 0-312-92070-9.
- and Yevgeny Ivanov and Gennady Sokolov (1992). The Naked Spy. Blake. ISBN 1-85782-092-4.
- and Douglas Thompson (2001). The Truth at Last: My Story. London: Sidgwick & Jackson. ISBN 0-283-07291-1.
- and Thompson (2012). Secrets and Lies. London: John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84358-755-2. (Updated version of 2001 book.)
- "Obituary: Christine Keeler". BBC News. 5 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
- Kynaston 2009, p. 28.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 53–54.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 55–57.
- Irving et al. 1963, pp. 49–53.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 66–70, 86–87.
- Davenport-Hines 2013, pp. 252–53, 258.
- Irving et al. 1963, p. 75.
- Young 1963, pp. 9–11.
- Young 1963, pp. 18, 24–25.
- Young 1963, p. 36.
- "Christine Keeler Photograph: A Modern Icon". vam.ac.uk. 15 June 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- "The Keeler Affair (1963)". bbfc.co.uk. Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
- Irving et al. 1963, p. 148.
- Irving et al. 1963, pp. 193–94.
- Robertson 2013, pp. 80–81.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, pp. 243–47.
- Robertson 2013, pp. 92–95, 101.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, p. 252.
- Knightley & Kennedy 1987, p. 256.
- Profumo, p. 204.[incomplete short citation]
- Keeler & Thompson 2012, pp. 123, 134.
- Summers & Dorril 1989, p. 311.
- "Kiss And Tell". SongFacts. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- "Open to Exposure". After Dark. Series 2. 4 June 1988. Channel 4.
- "Casting Announced for World Premiere of Andrew Lloyd Webber's Stephen Ward". Playbill. 6 September 2013. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 2 February 2014.
- Davies, Caroline (5 December 2017). "Christine Keeler, former model at heart of Profumo affair, dies at 75". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- Mount, Harry (16 December 2017). "Freed from her demons, Sixties icon Christine Keeler is laid to rest". The Telegraph. Retrieved 11 July 2019.
- Davenport-Hines, Richard (2013). An English Affair: Sex, Class and Power in the Age of Profumo. London: William Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-743585-2.
- Irving, Clive; Hall, Ron; Wallington, Jeremy (1963). Scandal '63. London: Heinemann.[ISBN missing]
- Keeler, Christine; Thompson, Douglas (2012). Secrets and Lies. London: John Blake. ISBN 978-1-84358-755-2.
- Knightley, Phillip; Kennedy, Caroline (1987). An Affair of State: The Profumo Case and the Framing of Stephen Ward. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02347-0.
- Kynaston, David (2009). Family Britain 1951–57. London: Bloomsbury. ISBN 9780747583851.
- Robertson, Geoffrey (2013). Stephen Ward Was Innocent OK: The Case for Overturning his Conviction. London: Biteback. ISBN 978-1-84954-690-4.
- Summers, Anthony; Dorril, Stephen (1989). Honeytrap. London: Coronet Books. ISBN 0-340-42973-9.
- Young, Wayland (1963). The Profumo Affair: Aspects of Conservatism. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books.[ISBN missing]