List of unclassified languages of South America

  (Redirected from Chitarero language)

The following purported languages of South America are listed as unclassified in Campbell (2012), Loukotka (1968), Ethnologue, and Glottolog. Nearly all are extinct. It is likely that many of them were not actually distinct languages, only an ethnic or regional name.

Campbell (2012)Edit

Campbell (2012:116-130) lists the following 395 languages of South America as unclassified. Most are extinct.[1] Many were drawn from Loukotka (1968)[2] and Adelaar & Muysken (2004).[3] The majority are not listed in Ethnologue. The list is arranged in alphabetical order.

  • Aarufi – Colombia
  • Aburuñe – Bolivia
  • Acarapi – Brazil
  • Aconipa (Tabancal, Tabancara) – Ecuador; only 5 words known
  • Aguano (Awano, Ahuano, Uguano, Aguanu, Santa Crucino) – Peru
  • Alarua – Brazil
  • Alon – Peru
  • Amasifuin – Peru
  • Amikoana (Amikuân) – Brazil
  • Amoeca – Brazil
  • Amuimo – Brazil
  • Anetine – Bolivia
  • Angara – Peru
  • Anicun – Brazil
  • Anserma (including Caramanta, Cartama) – Colombia
  • Aparea – Argentina
  • Apitupá – Brazil
  • Apiyipán – Bolivia
  • Aracadaini – Brazil
  • Arae – Brazil
  • Aramayu – Brazil
  • Aramurú – Brazil
  • Arapoá – Brazil
  • Arara do Beiradão (Arara do Rio Branco, Arara do Aripuanã) – Brazil
  • Ararau – Brazil
  • Arda – Peru, Colombia [a purported language isolate called "Arda" has no relation, but was a misidentified vocabulary of the West African language Popo (Gen)]
  • Arma-Pozo – Colombia (cf. Arma)
  • Aroásene – Brazil
  • Artane – Bolivia
  • Atavila – Peru
  • Aticum (Araticum) – Brazil
  • Atunceta – Colombia
  • Aueiko – Brazil
  • Avis – Brazil
  • Axata Darpa – Paraguay
  • Ayacore – Peru
  • Bagua – Peru; only 3 words known
  • Baixóta – Brazil
  • Bakurönchichi – Brazil
  • Bauá – Brazil
  • Bikutiakap – Brazil
  • Bixarenren – Brazil
  • Boimé (Poyme) – Brazil
  • Bolona – Ecuador
  • Bracamoro (Papamuru) – Peru
  • Buritiguara – Brazil
  • Caapina – Brazil
  • Cachipuna – Peru
  • Cafuana – Brazil
  • Cagua – Colombia
  • Caguan (Kaguan) – Argentina
  • Cahan – Brazil
  • Cajamarca – Peru
  • Cajatambo – Peru
  • Camana (Maje) – Peru
  • Camaraxo – Brazil
  • Camaré – Brazil
  • Campaces – Ecuador; possibly Barbacoan, with Tsafiki, but unconfirmed
  • Canelo – Ecuador
  • Cañacure – Bolivia
  • Capueni – Brazil
  • Capua – Brazil
  • Cara (Scyri, Caranqui, Otavalo) – Ecuador; possibly Barbacoan
  • Carabayo (Yuri, "Amazonas Macusa")
  • Caraguata – Brazil
  • Carapacho – Peru
  • Carára – Brazil
  • Carari – Brazil, Amazonas. A short word-list.
  • Cararú (Cajurú) – Brazil
  • Caripó (Curupeche) – Brazil
  • Cascoasoa – Peru
  • Casigara – Brazil
  • Casota – Argentina
  • Cauacaua (Kawakawa) – Brazil
  • Cauauri – Brazil
  • Caucahue – southern Chile
  • Cauni – Brazil
  • Caupuna – Brazil
  • Cavana (Maje) – Peru
  • Caxago – Brazil
  • Cayú – Brazil
  • Ceococe – Brazil
  • Chachapoya (Chacha) – Peru
  • Chancay – Brazil
  • Chechehet ("Pampa") – Argentina; Loukotka (1968) gives the words chivil 'two', chu 'earth', and hati great.
  • Chedua – Peru
  • Chicha – Bolivia
  • Chincha – Peru
  • Chinchipe – Peru
  • Chipiajes – Colombia
  • Chitarero – Colombia
  • Cholto – Peru
  • Chongo – Peru
  • Chono – Chile
  • Chumbivilca – Peru; possibly a variety of Puquina; might be Aymaran
  • Chunanawa – Peru
  • Churima – Bolivia
  • Chusco – Peru
  • Ciaman – Colombia
  • Cognomona – Peru
  • Colima[4] – Ecuador; possibly Cariban
  • Comanahua – Peru
  • Comaní – Brazil
  • Comechingón – near Córdoba, Argentina; possibly Huarpean
  • Copallén (Copallín) – Peru; only 4 words known
  • Coritananhó – Brazil
  • Coxima (Koxima) – Colombia
  • Culaycha – Argentina
  • Cumayari – Brazil
  • Cumbazá (Belsano) – Peru
  • Curanave – Brazil
  • Curi – Brazil
  • Curiane – northeastern South America; precise location unknown
  • Curierano – Brazil
  • Curizeta – Peru
  • Curubianan – Brazil
  • Curumiá – Brazil
  • Curumro (Kurumro) – Paraguay
  • Curuzirari – Brazil
  • Cutaguá – Brazil
  • Cutría – Brazil
  • Cuximiraíba – Brazil
  • Cuxiuára – Brazil
  • Damanivá – Brazil
  • Dawainomol – Paraguay
  • Demacuri – Brazil
  • Diaguita (Cacan, Kakán) – northwest Argentina; subdivisions are Calchaquí, Capayán, Catamarcano, Hualfín, Paccioca [Pazioca], Pular, Quilme, Yacampis
  • Divihet – Argentina
  • Dokoro – Brazil
  • Duri – Brazil
  • Egualo – Argentina
  • Eimi – Peru
  • Emischata – Argentina
  • Envuelo – Colombia
  • Erema – Brazil
  • Ewarhuyana – Brazil; possibly 12 speakers in Pará State
  • Foklása – Brazil
  • Gadio – Brazil
  • Galache – Brazil
  • Gambéla – Brazil
  • Gorgotoqui – Bolivia
  • Goyana – Brazil
  • Guaca (and Nori) – Colombia
  • Guacará – Argentina
  • Guadaxo – Brazil
  • Guaimute – Brazil
  • Guajarapo (Guasaroca) – Bolivia
  • Guanaca – Colombia; possibly a relative of Guambiano (Barbacoan)
  • Guane – Colombia; possibly Chibchan
  • Guanarú – Brazil
  • Guanavena – Brazil
  • Guarino – Brazil
  • Guenta – Colombia
  • Guyarabe – Brazil
  • Hacaritama – Colombia
  • Harritiahan – Brazil
  • Hiauahim (Javaim) – Brazil
  • Himarimã – Brazil; uncontacted group
  • Huacavilca – Ecuador; extinct
  • Huambuco – Peru; might be a misspelling of Huánuco
  • Huayana – Peru
  • Huayla – Peru
  • Humahuaca (Omaguaca) – Argentina; apparent subdivisions are Fiscara, Jujuy, Ocloya, Osa, Purmamarca, Tiliar; Mason (1950:302) proposed an "Ataguitan" grouping that includes Humahuaca, Diaguita, and Atacameño
  • Iapama – Brazil
  • Ibabi Aniji – Peru
  • Idabaez[5] – Colombia; only 1 word and a chief's name are known; Pacific coast, Bahía Solano to Cape Marzo in Colombia (Loukotka 1968)
  • Imaré – Brazil
  • Ina – Brazil
  • Iñajurupé – Brazil
  • Irra – Colombia
  • Iruri – Brazil
  • Isolados do Massaco (?) – Brazil
  • Isolados do Tanarú (?) – Brazil
  • Itipuna – Brazil
  • Itucá (Cuacá) – Brazil
  • Jacariá – Brazil
  • Jaguanai – Brazil
  • Jaguanan – Brazil
  • Jamundi – Colombia; may be Yurimangui, but no data
  • Jeticó (Jiripancó) – Brazil
  • Jitirijiti – Colombia; may be Chocó, but no data
  • Jurema – Brazil
  • Juruena – Brazil
  • Jururu – Brazil
  • Kaimbé (Caimbé, Caimbe) – Brazil; extinct
  • Kamba (Camba) – Brazil; possibly Tupian, extinct
  • Kambiwá (Cambiuá, Cambioá) – Brazil; extinct
  • Kantaruré[6] – Brazil
  • Kapinawá – Brazil; extinct
  • Karahawyana – Brazil; possibly Cariban
  • Katembri (Kariri de Mirandela) – Brazil
  • Kiapüre (Quiapyre) – Brazil
  • Kohoroxitari – possibly Tocanoan; may be the same as Baniwa
  • Kokakôre – Brazil
  • Komokare – Brazil
  • Korubo (Caceteiros) – Brazil; possibly Panoan; may be the same as Marúbo, or related to Yanomámi [Yanomaman]
  • Koshurái – Brazil
  • Kururu – Brazil
  • Lache – Colombia; may be Chibchan, but no data
  • Lambi – Brazil
  • Lili – Colombia; may be Yurimangui, but no data
  • Llamish – Peru
  • Macamasu – Brazil
  • Macarú – Brazil
  • Macuani – Brazil
  • Macuaré – Brazil
  • Macuja – Brazil
  • Macuruné – Brazil
  • Mairajiqui – Brazil
  • Malaba – Ecuador; may be Barbacoa (Chibchan), but no data
  • Malibú – Colombia; possibly Chibchan
  • Malquesi – Paraguay
  • Manesono (Mopeseano) – Bolivia
  • Manta – Ecuador; possibly Chimú, but only a few patronyms are known
  • Maracano – Brazil
  • Marapaña – Brazil
  • Maricoxi – Brazil
  • Maricupi – Brazil
  • Maripá – Brazil
  • Maruquevene – Brazil
  • Masa – Argentina
  • Masarari – Brazil
  • Masaya – Colombia
  • Mashco – Peru; uncontacted, possibly related to Piro (Arawakan), or "Preandine" (Arawakan)
  • Matará – Argentina
  • Maynas (Mayna, Maina, Rimachu) – Peru; past attempts to link it to Jivaroan, Cahuapanan, Zaparoan, and Candoshi
  • Maxiena (Ticomeri) – Bolivia
  • Mayu – Brazil; possibly the same as Mayo (Panoan) or Morike (Arawakan); mayu is the Quechuan word for 'river, water'
  • Menejou – Brazil
  • Minhahá – Brazil
  • Miarrã – Brazil
  • Mocana – Brazil; may be related to Malibú, but only 2 words known
  • Moheyana – Brazil
  • Morcote – Colombia; may be Chibchan, but no data
  • Moriquito – Brazil
  • Morua – Brazil
  • Moyobamba (Moyo-Pampa) – Peru
  • Muriva – Brazil
  • Muzapa – Peru
  • Muzo[7] – Colombia; may be Pijao (Cariban), but only 3 words known
  • Natagaimas – Colombia; extinct
  • Nacai – Brazil
  • Nambu – Bolivia
  • Nauna – Brazil
  • Nindaso – Peru
  • Nocadeth – Brazil
  • Nomona – Peru
  • Ñumasiara – Brazil
  • Ocra – Peru
  • Ocren – Brazil
  • Ohoma – Argentina; may be the same as Hohoma or Mahoma
  • Oivaneca – Brazil
  • Olmos – Peru; possibly connected with Sechura
  • Onicoré – Brazil
  • Onoyóro – Brazil
  • Orí – Brazil
  • Ortue – Bolivia
  • Otecua – Peru
  • Otegua – Colombia
  • Otí (Eochavante, Chavante) – Brazil; Greenberg classifies it as Macro-Gé, though this is unlikely according to Ribeiro (2006:422)
  • Pacabuey – Colombia; may be Malibú (Chibchan), but no data
  • Pacarará (Pakarara) – Brazil
  • Pacimonari – Venezuela
  • Paguara – Brazil
  • Panatagua (Pantahua) – Peru; extinct, possibly Arawakan
  • Panche[8] – Colombia; possibly Cariban
  • Pankararé (Pankaré) – Bahía, Brazil; extinct
  • Pantágora (Palenque) – Colombia
  • Pao – Venezuela
  • Papamiän – Brazil
  • Papana – Brazil
  • Papavô – Brazil; uncontacted, may be Arawakan or Panoan (?)
  • Paragoaru – Brazil?
  • Paraparixana – Brazil
  • Parapicó – Brazil
  • Patagón – Peru; possibly Cariban
  • Patiti – Brazil
  • Payacú – Brazil
  • Payanso – Peru
  • Pehuenche (Peguenche) – Argentina
  • Peria (Poria) – Brazil
  • Perovosan – Bolivia
  • Piapia – Brazil
  • Pijao (Piajao, Pixao, Pinao) – Colombia
  • Pipipan – Brazil
  • Pocoana – Brazil
  • Porcá – Brazil
  • Porú (Procáze) – Brazil
  • Pubenza [Popayan] – Colombia
  • Puná (Puná Island) – Ecuador
  • Puquina – Peru, Bolivia, Chile
  • Quelosi – Argentina
  • Querandí (Carendie)[9] – Argentina, near Buenos Aires; may be related to Gününa Küne. Loukotka (1968) gives the words zobá 'moon' and afia 'bow'
  • Quiquidcana (Quidquidcana, Kikidkana) – Peru
  • Quijo (Kijo) – Ecuador; may be Barbácoa (Chibchan), but only 3 words are known
  • Quillacinga (Quillasinga)[10] – Ecuador; may be Sebondoy (Chibchan); Fabre (1998:676) reports that the Kamsa (speakers of a language isolate) are descended, at least in part, from the Quillasinga
  • Quimbaya – Colombia; may be Chocó, but only 1 word is known
  • Quimbioá – Brazil
  • Quindío (Quindio) – Colombia
  • Quingnam – Peru; extinct, possibly the same as Lengua (Yunga) Pescadora of colonial sources; according to Quilter et al. (2010), a list of numbers was recently found
  • Qurigmã – Brazil
  • Rabona – Ecuador; possibly Candoshi (Murato), but there are similarities with Aguaruna (Jivaroan)
  • Roramí (Oramí) – Brazil
  • Sácata (Sacata, Zácata, Chillao) – Peru; extinct; may be Candoshi or Arawakan, but only 3 words known
  • Sacosi – Bolivia
  • Sacracrinha (Sequaquirihen) – Brazil
  • Sanavirón – Argentina, near Córdova. Loukotka classified it as an isolate, but there is insufficient data to justify this.
  • Sapeiné – Peru
  • Seden – Brazil
  • Siberi – Bolivia
  • Sintó (Assek, Upsuksinta) – Paraguay
  • Sinú (Zenú) – Colombia; may be Chocó, but no data
  • Sipisipi – Peru
  • Socorino – Bolivia
  • Stanatevogyet – Paraguay
  • Supuselo – Argentina
  • Surucosi – Bolivia
  • Suruim – Brazil
  • Tacunbiacu – Bolivia
  • Taguaylen – Argentina
  • Tacarúba (Tacarua) – Brazil
  • Taluhet – Argentina
  • Tamacosi – Bolivia
  • Tamaní – Colombia
  • Tamaquéu – Brazil
  • Tamararé – Brazil
  • Tambaruré – Brazil
  • Taminani – Brazil
  • Tanquihua – Peru
  • Tapacurá – Brazil
  • Tapeba – Brazil
  • Tapuisú – Brazil
  • Tarairiú (Tarairiu, Ochucuyana) – Brazil
  • Tarimoxi – Brazil
  • Taripio – Brazil, Suriname
  • Tavúri – Brazil
  • Tchagoyána – Brazil
  • Tchicoyna – Brazil
  • Tegua – Colombia
  • Tepqui – Peru
  • Tevircacap – Brazil
  • Tiboi – Bolivia
  • Timaná – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan)
  • Tingán – Peru
  • Tingui-Boto – Brazil; extinct; also known as Tingui, Tingui-Botó, Carapató, Karapató
  • Tobachana – Brazil
  • Tohazana – Venezuela
  • Tomata – Bolivia
  • Tomina – Bolivia
  • Tonocoté – Argentina, Chaco region
  • Tororí – Brazil
  • Truká – Brazil
  • Tremembé (Teremembé, Taramembé) – Brazil
  • Tubichaminí
  • Tucumanduba – Brazil
  • Tulumayo – Peru
  • Tupijó – Brazil
  • Tupiokón – Brazil
  • Tutura – Bolivia
  • Uairua – Brazil
  • Uauarate – Brazil
  • Uranaju – Brazil
  • Urucuai – Brazil
  • Uruma – Brazil
  • Uru-Pa-In – Brazil
  • Urupuca – Brazil
  • Ururi – Brazil, Mato Grosso
  • Vanherei – Brazil
  • Vouve – Brazil
  • Waitaká (Guaitacá, Goyatacá, Goytacaz) – Brazil; subdivisions: Mopi, Yacorito, Wasu, Miri
  • Wakoná (Wacona, Acona) – Brazil
  • Walêcoxô – Brazil
  • Wasu (Waçu, Wassu) – Brazil
  • Wau – Peru
  • Xaquese – Bolivia
  • Xaray – Bolivia
  • Xibata – Brazil
  • Xipará – Brazil
  • Xiroa – Ecuador; mentioned in early sources, and may be a variant spelling of Jívaro
  • Xokó – Brazil; only 4 words are known; also known as Chocó, Shoco, Shokó, Chocaz
  • Yalcón – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan), but no data
  • Yamesí – Colombia; may be Andaquí (Chibchan), but no data
  • Yampará – Bolivia
  • Yaperú (Naperú, Apirú) – Paraguay
  • Yarí – Colombia; may be a Carijona (Cariban dialect), West Tucanoan, or Huitoto[an]
  • Yariguí (Yarigüí) – Colombia; may be Opone (Karaib), but no data (Yarigui people)
  • Yauei – Brazil
  • Yenmu – Colombia
  • Yoemanai – Brazil
  • Yufiua – Brazil
  • Yumbo – Ecuador; may be Barbácoa (Chibchan), but no data
  • Zapazo – Peru
  • Zuana – Brazil
  • Yurimagua (Zurimagua, Jurimagua) – Peru
  • Zurina – Brazil

Loukotka (1968)Edit

Loukotka (1968) lists the following languages of South America as unclassified. They are extinct unless otherwise noted.

Southern South America and Chacos RegionEdit

Divisions A (South) and B (Chaco) (Loukotka 1968: 63):

  • Aperea – unknown language of the old mission of Santiago Sánchez in the province of Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Axata Darpa – unknown language of an unknown tribe of the Gran Chaco of Paraguay.
  • Casota – unknown language of the old mission of Santa Lucía, Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Culaycha – unknown language of the old mission of Santa Lucía, Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Dawainomol – unknown language from the Gran Chaco of Paraguay.
  • Divihet – Colorado River and Sauce Chico River, province of La Pampa, Argentina.
  • Egualo – unknown language of the old mission of Santiago Sánchez, province of Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Emischata – unknown language of the old mission of Santa Lucía, Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Jaguanan – Iguape, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
  • Kaguan – mission of Santiago Sánchez, Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Kurumro – language of an unknown tribe of the Paraguayan Gran Chaco.
  • Malquesi – western shore of Laguna Porongos, province of Córdoba, Argentina.
  • Masa – unknown language of the old mission of Santiago Sánchez.
  • Ohoma – extinct and unknown language near the old mission of Homa or Ohoma, province of Corrientes, Argentina.
  • Peguenche non-araucano – a lost language of the Neuquén province, Argentina.
  • Quelosi – unknown language east of the Mar Chiquita, province of Córdoba, Argentina.
  • Sintó or Assek or Upsuksinta – language of an unknown tribe in the interior of the Gran Chaco of Paraguay, north of the Choroti tribe.
  • Stanatevogyet – unknown language of the Paraguayan Gran Chaco.
  • Supeselb – lost language of the old mission of Santa Lucía, Corrientes province.
  • Taguaylen – lost language of the old mission of Santa Lucía, Corrientes province.

Central BrazilEdit

Division C (Central Brazil) (Loukotka 1968: 86-87):

  • Arae – unknown language left bank of the Araguaia River south of Bananal Island.
  • Buritiguara – unknown language state of Mato Grosso near the confluence of the Araguaia River and Manso River.
  • Cahan – Iguatimí River (Iguatemi River) and Espocil River, state of Mato Grosso.
  • Curumiá – sources of the Brilhante River, Mato Grosso.
  • Cutaguá – state of Mato Grosso on the Dourados River.
  • Gaelio – state of Espirito Santo, exact locality unknown.
  • Guadaxo – upper course of the Anhandui River, Mato Grosso.
  • Guaimute – near the falls of Salto Grande, Espirito Santo.
  • Guariteré – Mato Grosso, exact locality unknown.
  • Imaré – Taquari River, state of Mato Grosso.
  • Ina – unknown language, Paranaíba River, Mato Grosso.
  • Iñajurupé – lost language of the old mission of Gracioso, Goiás state.
  • Jurema – unknown language of Piauí state, exact locality unknown.
  • Kokakôre – Mato Grosso state along the Tocantins River.
  • Komokare – unknown language of Goiás state, exact locality unknown.
  • Koróge – Pogúbe River (Poguba River), Mato Grosso.
  • Kururu – state of Mato Grosso on the Carinhanha River.
  • Macuruné – Mucunis River (Mucuri River ?), state of Minas Gerais.
  • Papana – between the Doce River and Jequitinhonha River, Minas Gerais.
  • Urupuca – Urupuca River (Urupaça River), Minas Gerais.
  • Ururi – state of Mato Grosso, exact location unknown.
  • Vanherei – sources of the Piquiri River, state of Mato Grosso.
  • Yaperú or Naperú or Apirú – Paraguay near Asunción.

Northeast BrazilEdit

Division D (Northeast Brazil) (Loukotka 1968: 92-95):

North Central South AmericaEdit

Tropical North Central South America (Loukotka 1968: 165-168):

South Central South AmericaEdit

Tropical South Central South America (Loukotka 1968: 178-179):

  • Alon – Huambo River, department of San Martín, Peru.
  • Amasifuin – right bank of the Huallaga River, Peru.
  • Ayacore – Curaray River, Loreto, Peru.
  • Becaba – department of Loreto near San Miguel, on the Putumayo River.
  • Bracamoro or Papamuru – near the city of Jaén, department of Cajamarca, Peru.
  • Chedua – department of San Martín on the Huambo River.
  • Chinchipe – department of Cajamarca on the Chinchipe River.
  • Chupacho – Monzón River and Chinchao River, department of Huánuco.
  • Cognomona – Cognomona region on the upper course of the Huallaga River.
  • Comanahua – department of Huánuco by the neighbors of the Tepqui tribe.
  • Cumbazá or Belsano – between Santa Catalina and Yanayacu, department of San Martín.
  • Curizeta – Cosanga River, Loreto, Peru.
  • Eimi – language of an unknown tribe that lived on the Napo River, department of Loreto.
  • Ibabi Aniji – language of an unknown tribe of Peru. (Alvarez 1938)
  • Muzapa – by the neighbors of the Cognomona tribe in the department of San Martín.
  • Otecua – spoken on the Sucumbío River, Loreto.
  • Payanso – Chipurana River, Loreto.
  • Quidquidcana – department of Huánuco in the Magdalena Valley.
  • Sapeiné – language of an unknown tribe of the Napo River, Loreto.
  • Tepqui – Santa María River, Huánuco, Peru.
  • Tingán – spoken at the mouth of the Monzón River, Huánuco.
  • Tulumayo – Muna River, Azul River, and Aguaytia River, Huánuco.
  • Wau – language of an unknown tribe on the Coca River, Loreto.

Central South AmericaEdit

Tropical Central South America (Loukotka 1968: 196-198):

Northeast South AmericaEdit

Tropical Northeast South America (Loukotka 1968: 228-230):

Northern AndesEdit

Northern Andean region (Loukotka 1968: 259):

  • Chirú – southwest of the Coiba tribe, Panama.
  • Escoria – around the city of Santiago, Panama.
  • Guenta – department of Huila, Colombia.
  • Masaya – sources of the Caguán River, north of the Guaque tribe.
  • Natá – on Parita Bay, Panama.
  • Otegua – department of Huila, Colombia.
  • Urraca or Esquegua – north of the modern city of Cañazas, Panama.
  • Yeral – unknown language of Colombia, exact location unknown.

Former Inca Empire regionEdit

South Central Andean region (Loukotka 1968: 272-273):

  • Angara – ancient Inca province of Angara, department of Ayacucho, Peru.
  • Arequipa – department of Arequipa.
  • Atavila – ancient province of Canta, department of Lima.
  • Cachipuna – Puna de Quillpaco, department of Lima.
  • Cajamarca – around the city of Cajamarca.
  • Cajatambo – around the city of Cajatambo, department of Lima.
  • Camana or Maje – Majes River, Arequipa department.
  • Cavana – middle course of the Majes River, department of Arequipa.
  • Chachapoya – around the city of Chachapoya, Amazonas department, Peru. (Bandelier 1940, only a few toponyms.)
  • Chancay – Chancay River, department of Lima.
  • Chicha – Cordillera de Chorolque, Potosí province, Bolivia.
  • Chincha – Chincha River in the department of Ica.
  • Chongo – near the city of Jauja, Junín department.
  • Chucurpu or Chocorvo – spoken in the Conquest days at the sources of the Churchinga River, Huancavelica department.
  • Conchuco – around the city of Pomabamba, department of Ancash.
  • Cutervo or Huambo – sources of the Chancay River, department of Junín.
  • Huacho – around the city of Huacho, Lima department.
  • Huamachi – on Chongos Alto, department of Junín.
  • Huamachuco – Condebamba River, department of Libertad.
  • Huamalí – Panao River, Huánuco department.
  • Huamanga – Peru.
  • Huambuco – Chinchipe River, Amazonas department.
  • Huanca or Wanka – Mantaro River, Junín department, now Quechuanized.
  • Huayla – middle course of the Santa River, Ancash department, now Quechuanized.
  • Hunacabamba – Chamaya River, Piura department.
  • Ica – Ica River, Ica department.
  • Lampa – Pativilca River, Ancash department.
  • Llamish – department of Lima in the Cordillera de Huantán.
  • Mizque – Mizque River, Cochabamba province, Bolivia; now Quechuanized.
  • Moquegua – department of Moquegua, Peru; possibly a dialect of Aymara.
  • Moyobamba – around the city of Moyobamba, San Martín department; now Quechuanized.
  • Nazca – mouth of the Grande River, Ica department.
  • Ocro – sources of the Santa River, Ancash department.
  • Pocra – Peru.
  • Rimac – spoken in the Conquest days around the capital of Peru, Lima.
  • Rucana – near Andamarca, Ayacucho department.
  • Sipisipi – Peru.
  • Sora – Pampas River, Apurimac department.
  • Supe – Huaura River, department of Lima.
  • Tanquihua – around the city of Ayacucho, department of Ayacucho.
  • Tarapaca – province of Tarapacá, Chile.
  • Tomata – near the city of Tupiza, Potosí province, Bolivia.
  • Tomina – between the Mizque River and Pilcomayo River, Chuquisaca province, Bolivia; now Quechuanized.
  • Tutura – around the city of Totora, Cochabamba province, Bolivia; now Quechuanized.
  • Yampará – middle course of the Pilcomayo River, Chuquisaca province, Bolivia.
  • Yauyo – department of Lima, Peru, on the Mala River and Huaco River.

EthnologueEdit

Ethnologue 17 lists the following languages of South America as unclassified:

Additional languages at GlottologEdit

In addition to many of the languages above, Glottolog lists,

  • Apoto[11] - lower Amazon, unattested
  • Cálenche (Cálen) = Fayjatases[12] - Chile, 10 words
  • Envuelto[13] - Colombia, 9 words
  • Guachipa(s)[14] - Guachipas, Argentina, 3 words, Viegas Barros (2009)
  • Guaicaro (Guaïcaro) - Chile, possibly Alacalufan
  • Hoxa[15] - Colombia
  • Pacahuaras-Castillo[16] - Pacaguara, collected by Castillo
  • Payaya - Texas
  • Pitaguary[17] - Ceará, Brazil
  • Quepo(s)[18] - Quepos, Costa Rica, 1 word, Lehmann (1920:238)
  • Tapajó - 3 words
  • Tembey[19] - upper Paraná, 2 words, Ambrosetti (1896:332)
  • Unainuman[20] - Içá River basin, short word list, Adelaar & Brijnen 2014
  • Urucucú(s)[21] - Tapajós River, unattested (see under Tapajó language)
  • Yanacona[22] - name is the Quechua word for 'serf'; perhaps early Colombian Quechua

OtherEdit

Some additional languages have not made in into the lists above.[23]

  • Boreal Pehuelche - Argentina, 1 word (apparently not the same as Puelche)
  • Cabixi (Cabixi-Natterer) - Mato Grosso, Brazil, a short word-list.[24] The name 'Kabixí' is a generic name for any hostile group, and has been used for a number of unattested languages. An ISO code for it has been retired.
  • Enoo - Chile, a few words (a neighbor of the Alacalufe)
  • Gamela of Viana - Maranhão, Brazil, 19 words (Nimendajú 1937:64) - presumably the same as Gamela

See alsoEdit

Brazil

Further readingEdit

  • Durbin, M.; Seijas, H. (1973). A Note on Panche, Pijao, Pantagora (Palenque), Colima and Muzo. International Journal of American Linguistics, 39:47-51.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Campbell, Lyle, and Verónica Grondona (eds). 2012. The indigenous languages of South America: a comprehensive guide. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.
  2. ^ Loukotka, Čestmír. 1968. Classification of South American Indian Languages Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, UCLA.
  3. ^ Adelaar, Willem F.H., and Pieter C. Muysken. 2004. The Languages of the Andes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Colima". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Idabaez". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kantarure". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  7. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Muzo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  8. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Panche". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  9. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Querandi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  10. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Quillacinga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  11. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Apoto". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  12. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Fayjatases". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  13. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Envuelto". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  14. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Guachipas". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  15. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hoxa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  16. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pacahuaras-Castillo". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  17. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Pitaguary". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  18. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Quepos". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  19. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tembey". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  20. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Unainuman". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  21. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Urucucús". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  22. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Yanacona". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "List of unclassified languages of South America". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.