Charles Eamer Kempe (29 June 1837 – 29 April 1907) was a British Victorian era designer and manufacturer of stained glass. His studios produced over 4,000 windows and also designs for altars and altar frontals, furniture and furnishings, lichgates and memorials that helped to define a later nineteenth-century Anglican style. The list of English cathedrals containing examples of his work includes: Chester, Gloucester, Hereford, Lichfield, Wells, Winchester and York. Kempe's networks of patrons and influence stretched from the Royal Family and the Church of England hierarchy to the literary and artistic beau monde.
Charles Eamer Kempe
|Born||29 June 1837|
Ovingdean Hall, East Sussex, England
|Died||29 April 1907 (aged 69)|
|Alma mater||Pembroke College, Oxford|
|Known for||Designer and manufacturer of stained glass|
Charles Kempe was born at Ovingdean Hall, near Brighton, East Sussex in 1837. He was the youngest son of Nathaniel Kemp (1759–1843), a cousin of Thomas Read Kemp, a politician and property developer responsible for the Kemptown area of Brighton[note 1] and the maternal grandson of Sir John Eamer, who served as Lord Mayor of London in 1801. The fact that Kempe's father was almost eighty when he was born coloured his life and attitudes.[full citation needed]
Studying with William MorrisEdit
After attending Twyford School and Rugby, he attended Pembroke College, Oxford where he was influenced by the Anglo-Catholic Tractarian revival and considered a vocation to the priesthood. It was at Oxford that Kempe was inspired by seeing William Morris design the Debating Chamber at the Oxford Union. When he realised he was unable to manage his stammer, Kempe decided that "if I was not permitted to minister in the Sanctuary I would use my talents to adorn it", and subsequently went to study architecture with the firm of a leading ecclesiastical architect George Frederick Bodley. His first task, on leaving Oxford, was to gain some work experience. With the help of his well-connected father, Kempe was able to persuade Bodley to take him on as an assistant, and thus he found himself in Cambridge just at the time when Bodley was beginning the building and decoration of All Saints Church, Cambridge. Here he was able to learn from both Bodley and Morris and to develop his sense of how to colour a church. With Morris and Bodley, Kempe learned the aesthetic principles of medieval church art, particularly stained glass. During the 1860s Kempe collaborated with Bodley on the internal painting of two churches, All Saints, Jesus Lane in Cambridge and St John’s, Tuebrook in Liverpool. Later, in 1892, Bodley and Kempe would work together once more on All Saints at Danehill, East Sussex.
In 1866 he opened a studio of his own in London, supplying and creating stained glass and furnishings and vestments. The firm prospered and by 1899 he had over fifty employees. As a trademark, the firm used a golden 'garb' or heraldic wheatsheaf, taken from Kempe's own coat of arms. The mid-Victorian period were important years in the history of the design of English churches and Kempe’s influence is found in numerous examples, many in his home county of Sussex which has 116 examples of his work. The works at St Mark’s, Staplefield near Horsham, West Sussex dating from 1869 are regarded as especially important, representing the earliest of three known examples of Kempe’s wall painting. They contain key elements of Kempe’s figurative work. The angels holding the scroll are magnificently apparelled and the borders of their cloaks are embellished with pearls, each individually highlighted although they do not contain a design of peacock feathers, a well used embellishment in later works. Rosalie Glynn Grylls, Lady Mander, whose home Wightwick Manor, near Wolverhampton, contains many pieces of Kempe's stained glass, wrote in 1973: "Kempe's work has a unique charm; its colours shine out from jewels that cluster on the mitres or the crowns his figures wear and from their peacocks' feathers, while angels playing their instruments are drawn with tender delicacy and scattered above the main windows informally but making a pattern of precision. Above all, the prevailing yellow wash is literally translucent, for it lets through the rays of the full or the setting sun..." Kempe's memorial windows at St Martin's Church, Newton Park (1879), near Leeds, are fine examples of his work and his stained glass remained much in demand in England well into the 20th century. One of Kempe's last pieces of work can be seen in the Chapel at the Duke of York's Royal Military School, Dover, Kent.
Kempe's students include Charles Edward Tute (1858 – 4 November 1927), who was born in Ripon. Many of his windows, signed "CET", show influence of the master. In 1906 he migrated to Australia, where he was also known for his bookplates. He died in Brisbane.
On Kempe’s death in 1907 in accordance with his will the firm was reformed as C. E. Kempe & Co. Ltd and Kempe's distant cousin, Walter Ernest Tower (1873–1955), was appointed chairman. The company thenceforth used a black tower above the golden garb as its mark. A lack of orders caused by the Great Depression ended the firm in 1934.
Kempe was a rather shy person, who never married. He continued to live in Sussex most of his life and in 1875 he bought and renovated an Elizabethan house at Lindfield, near Haywards Heath in West Sussex. Kempe would entertain his clients and professional colleagues from his home enjoying the role of a country squire.
Kempe died suddenly on 28 April 1907 aged 69, at 28 Nottingham Place, London, refusing to get medical help after catching a cold that led to congestion of the lung. He is buried in the churchyard at St Wulfran's Church, Ovingdean. Most of Kempe's records were disposed of after the firm shut in 1934.
Books on KempeEdit
Charles Eamer Kempe remains a widely studied designer and artist. Author Adrian Barlow produced two books in 2018 and 2019 which discuss Kempe's life and the artists that surrounded him: Kempe: The Life, Art and Legacy of Charles Eamer Kempe published by The Lutterworth Press in August 2018 and Espying Heaven: The Stained Glass of Charles Eamer Kempe and his Artists in January 2019.
Locations of Kempe's stained-glass windowsEdit
- The Grundy Library, Abingdon School, Abingdon-on-Thames
- St Mary the Virgin, Aldermaston, Berkshire
- All Saint, Alrewas, Staffordshire
- St Peter, Ardingly, West Sussex
- St Mary's Chapel, Arley Hall, Cheshire
- All Saints, Ascot Heath, Berkshire
- St Oswald, Ashbourne, Derbyshire
- St Andrew, Ashburton, Devon
- All Saints, Ashcott, Somerset
- St John, Ashley Green, Buckinghamshire
- St John the Baptist, Atherton, Greater Manchester
- St Michael, Aynho, Northamptonshire
- All Saints, Babworth, Nottinghamshire
- All Saints, Bakewell, Derbyshire
- St Mary the Virgin, Baldock, Hertfordshire
- St Michael, Barton, Cumbria
- St Michael and All Angels, Beckwithshaw, North Yorkshire
- St Mary, Belford, Northumberland
- St Peter, Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire
- St Mary the Virgin, Bessingham, Norfolk
- St Andrew, Biggleswade, Bedfordshire
- St Peter, Binton, Warwickshire
- St Michael, Blackford, Somerset
- St Mary, Bloxham, Oxfordshire (south chancel window): 480
- St Peter and St Paul, Bolton-by-Bowland, Lancashire
- Emmanuel Episcopal Church, Boston, Massachusetts
- St Ninian's Chapel, Braemar, Aberdeenshire
- St Catherine's School, Bramley, Surrey
- St Peter, Bredhurst, Kent
- St Augustine, Brighton, East Sussex
- St Michael, Brighton, East Sussex
- St Nicholas, Brighton, East Sussex
- St Peter, Brighton, East Sussex
- Bristol Cathedral
- All Saints, Broseley, Shropshire
- St Mary, Broughton, Oxfordshire: 492
- St Peter, Broughton, Staffordshire
- St Mary, Buckland St Mary, Somerset
- St John the Baptist, Burford, Oxfordshire: 508
- Holy Trinity, Burrington, Somerset
- St John the Baptist, Buxton, Derbyshire
- Church of the Resurrection and All Saints, Caldy, Wirral
- All Saints, Cambridge
- St Giles, Cambridge; examples of both C. E. Kempe (golden garb) and C. E. Kempe and Co (golden garb with black tower)
- St Mary the Less, Cambridge
- St Edmund, Castleton, Derbyshire
- St Anne, Catterick, North Yorkshire
- St Andrew, Chale, Isle of Wight
- All Saints, Chebsey, Staffordshire
- St John the Evangelist, Cheetham Hill, Greater Manchester
- St Michael, Chenies, Buckinghamshire
- Chester Cathedral, Cheshire
- St Thomas of Canterbury, Chester, Cheshire
- St Mary and St Cuthbert, Chester-le-Street, Durham
- All Saints, Childwall, Liverpool
- St Editha, Church Eaton, Staffordshire
- St John the Baptist, Clayton, West Sussex
- St Mary the Virgin, Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire
- St Mark, Cold Ash, Berkshire
- St James the Great, Colwall, Herefordshire
- St Mary, Compton Pauncefoot, Somerset
- St Peter, Cowfold, West Sussex
- St Mary, Crowell, Oxfordshire (east and west windows): 561
- St Oswald, Crowle, North Lincolnshire
- Holy Trinity, Cuckfield; besides several windows, the painting on the ceiling and the pulpit are also his work.
- All Saints, Cuddesdon, Oxfordshire (pulpit and several windows): 563
- St James the Great, Dauntsey, Wiltshire
- SS Peter and Paul, Deddington, Oxfordshire (east window): 570
- St Werburgh, Derby
- St Leonard, Dinnington, South Yorkshire
- St Alkmund's Church, Duffield, Derbyshire
- St Peter, Ealing, London
- St Mary, East Leake, Nottinghamshire
- St George, Edgbaston, Birmingham
- St Mary the Virgin, Edlesborough, Buckinghamshire
- Holy Trinity, Eltham, London
- St Mary and St Eanswythe, Folkestone, Kent
- St John the Divine, Frankby, Wirral
- St John the Baptist, Frome, Somerset
- St Mark's Cathedral, George, South Africa
- All Saints, Gilmorton, Leicestershire
- Gloucester Cathedral, Gloucester, Gloucestershire (designed, workshop Clayton & Bell 1865)
- St Mary the Virgin, Godmanchester, Cambridgeshire; contains four examples of C. E. Kempe (golden garb) and two of C. E. Kempe and Co (golden garb with black tower)
- St Peter, Great Limber, Lincolnshire
- St John the Evangelist, Groombridge, Kent
- St Mary, Hampden Park, Eastbourne, East Sussex
- All Saints, Harewood, West Yorkshire
- SS Peter and Paul, Harlington, London
- St Michael and All Angels, Hathersage, Derbyshire
- St Lawrence, Hatfield, South Yorkshire
- St Benedict's Chapel, Holy Cross Convent, Haywards Heath (now 'Chapel Heights apartments')
- St Peter, Henfield, West Sussex
- All Saints, Hertford, Hertfordshire; east window
- St Leonard, Heston, London
- St James, High Melton, South Yorkshire
- All Saints, Highbrook, West Sussex
- Christ Church, Higher Bebington, Wirral
- St Alban, Holborn, London
- St John the Baptist, Holland Road, London W14
- St Mary, Hopesay, Shropshire
- St John the Baptist, Horsington, Somerset
- St Giles, Horsted Keynes, West Sussex
- St Philip, Hove, East Sussex
- St Michael and All Angels, Howe Bridge, Greater Manchester
- St Mary Magdalene, Hucknall, Nottinghamshire
- St Mary, Hugh Town, Isles of Scilly
- St Katherine, Ickleford, Hertfordshire
- Holy Trinity, Ilfracombe, Devon (window in North aisle)
- St James the Great, Ince, Cheshire
- St John the Evangelist, Izmir, Turkey
- St John the Divine, Kennington, London
- St Michael and All Angels, Kerry, Powys
- St John the Baptist, Kirdford, West Sussex
- All Souls, Blackman Lane, Leeds, West Yorkshire
- St Mark's Church, Leicester
- St Mary the Virgin, Leigh, Greater Manchester
- All Saints, Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire
- Lichfield Cathedral
- Christ Church, Lichfield, Staffordshire
- St Mary Magdalene, Lillington, Warwickshire
- St James, Lissett, East Yorkshire
- St Peter & St Paul, Little Gaddesden, Hertfordshire
- St Martin, Little Ness, Shropshire
- Liverpool Cathedral
- St John the Baptist, Liverpool
- St Cadoc, Llangattock Vibon Avel, Monmouthshire
- St Teilo, Llantilio Crossenny, Monmouthshire
- St Michael and All Angels, Llanvihangel-Ystern-Llewern, Monmouthshire
- St Michael and All Angels, Lyndhurst, Hampshire
- St Cuthbert, Lytham, Lancashire
- St Oswald, Malpas, Cheshire
- John Rylands Library, Manchester, Greater Manchester
- Church of the Incarnation, Manhattan, New York City
- St Mark, Mansfield, Nottinghamshire
- St Mary, Market Drayton, Shropshire
- St Luke, Matfield, Kent
- St Peter, Melverley, Shropshire
- St John the Baptist, Midsomer Norton, Somerset
- St Paul, East Thorpe, Mirfield, West Yorkshire
- St John, Moffat, Dumfries and Galloway
- St Mary, Monmouth
- St Mary, Mucklestone, Staffordshire
- St George, Nailsworth, Gloucestershire
- St Mary, Nantwich, Cheshire: 495
- St Mary and St Helen, Neston, Cheshire: 502
- St James, Newbottle, Northamptonshire
- Christ Church, New Haven, Connecticut
- St James the Less, New Mills, Derbyshire
- Christ Church Cathedral, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia
- St Matthew, Newcastle upon Tyne, Tyne and Wear
- St Paul, Newport, Isle of Wight
- St John the Evangelist, North Holmwood, Surrey
- St Laurence, Norwell, Nottinghamshire
- High Pavement Chapel, Nottingham
- St Mary, Nottingham
- St John the Baptist, Old Colwyn, Conwy, Wales
- St Barnabas Church, Omaha, Nebraska, USA (golden garb with black tower)
- Christ Church, Ottershaw, Surrey
- St Wulfran, Ovingdean, Brighton
- Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford (retable in Latin Chapel): 119
- Chapel of St Edward's School, Oxford: 332
- Chapel of Jesus College, Oxford: 143
- Chapel of St John's College, Oxford (east window): 197
- St John the Evangelist, Oxford: 341
- St Mary the Virgin, Oxford (west window of nave): 286
- St Paul's Church, Oxford (now Freud café): 195 
- Chapel of Pembroke College, Oxford (interior remodelling): 183
- St Philip and St James' Church, Oxford: 298
- St Thomas the Martyr, Oxford: 299
- St Saviour, Oxton, Wirral
- St Michael and All Angels, Partridge Green, West Sussex
- St Luke, Pendleton, Greater Manchester
- St Mark, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- St. Timothy's Episcopal Church, Roxborough, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
- St Gabriel, Warwick Square, Pimlico, London
- St Peter, Pitton, Wiltshire
- St Giles, Pontefract, West Yorkshire
- St Mary, Prestbury, Gloucestershire
- St Luke, Queen's Park, Brighton, East Sussex
- St Mark, Reading, Berkshire
- St Saviour, Retford, Nottinghamshire
- St Mary the Virgin, Riverhead, Kent
- Chapel of St Bartholomew's Hospital, Rochester, Kent
- St Mary, Rolleston on Dove, Staffordshire
- Anglican Cathedral of St John the Baptist, St John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
- St Thomas of Canterbury and English Martyrs, St Leonards-on-Sea, East Sussex
- All Saints, Saxby All Saints, Lincolnshire
- All Saints, Scholar Green, Cheshire
- St John the Baptist, Sedlescombe, East Sussex
- St Mary Riverhead, Sevenoaks, West Kent
- St Peter and St Paul, Shelford, Nottinghamshire
- St Peter, Shirwell, Devon
- St Mary, Shrewsbury, Shropshire
- St Alphege Church, Solihull (west window and south aisle windows)
- St James Church, Southbroom, Devizes, Wiltshire
- St Michael and All Angels, Southwick, West Sussex
- Holy Trinity, Stapleton, Bristol
- St Mary and St Lawrence, Stratford Tony, Wiltshire
- St Alban, Tattenhall, Cheshire
- St Eustachius, Tavistock, Devon
- St Alban, Teddington, London
- All Saints, Thorpe Acre, Leicestershire
- St Bartholomew, Tong, Shropshire
- St Mary Magdalene, Tortington, West Sussex
- St Agnes and St Pancras, Toxteth Park, Liverpool
- St Nicholas, Tresco, Isles of Scilly
- St Leonard, Turners Hill, West Sussex
- St Michael and All Angels, Waddesdon, Buckinghamshire
- Wakefield Cathedral, West Yorkshire
- St Bartholomew, Wednesbury, West Midlands
- Holy Trinity, Wentworth, South Yorkshire
- St John the Evangelist, Weston, Cheshire
- St Margaret, West Hoathly, West Sussex
- St Andrew's Church, West Kirby, Wirral
- St Bridget's Church, West Kirby, Wirral
- St Mary, Wheaton Aston, Staffordshire
- St Mary the Virgin, Whitelackington, Somerset
- St Philip and St James, Whitton, London
- Wightwick Manor, Wolverhampton, West Midlands
- St John, Wildsworth, Lincolnshire (demolished)
- Christ Church, Willaston, Cheshire
- Winchester Cathedral, Hampshire
- All Saints, Wittering, Cambridgeshire
- St Mary, Woburn, Bedfordshire
- St Swithun, Woodborough, Nottinghamshire
- St Sabinus, Woolacombe, Devon
- St Peter, Woolton, Liverpool
- St Andrew, Worthing, West Sussex
- All Saints' Church, Wraxall
- St Anne's Church, Wrenthorpe, West Yorkshire (east windows)
- St Giles, Wrexham
- All Saints' Church, Pavement, York, North Yorkshire
- Holy Trinity Church, Micklegate, York
- St Sampson's Social Centre, York, North Yorkshire
- Barlow, Adrian (June 2010). "Kempe in Sussex". South Down Living.
- Barlow, A. (30 August 2018). Kempe: The Life, Art and Legacy of Charles Eamer Kempe. Lutterworth Press. ISBN 9780718894634.
...his (Kempe's) networks of patrons and influence, which stretched from the Royal Family and the Church of England hierarchy to the literary and artistic beau monde.
- Books by Barlow.
- "The Kempe Trust". Retrieved 6 March 2019.
Dean Bradley (1821–1903) was an interesting character. Like Kempe, he had been educated at Rugby, and had returned to teach there while Kempe was a pupil...
- "Kempe windows – Queens' College, Cambridge". Queens' College, Cambridge. 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
Instead, inspired by seeing William Morris working alongside Dante Gabriel Rossetti and Edward Burne-Jones on the designs for the Debating Chamber of the Oxford Union, Kempe decided that he would make ecclesiastical decoration his career....... was beginning the building and decoration of All Saints, Jesus Lane. Here he was able to learn from both Bodley and William Morris and to develop his sense of how to colour a church. He was never formally apprenticed to Bodley, and by 1864...His first task, on leaving Oxford, was to gain some work experience: with the help no doubt of his father (a friendly word with the family’s physician) he was able to persuade Bodley to take him on as an assistant, and thus he found himself in Cambridge just at the time when Bodley was beginning the building and decoration of All Saints, Jesus Lane. Here he was able to learn from both Bodley and William Morris and to develop his sense of how to colour a church
- Betham, Rev. William (1 January 1801). The baronetage of England, or, The history of the English baronets, and such baronets of Scotland, as are of English families. Ipswich, Burrell and Bransby. p. 471 – via Internet Archive.
- Collins, Philip N.H., ed. (2000). The Corpus of Kempe Stained Glass. The Kempe Trust.
- "Information on Kempe wall paintings at St Mark's, Staplefield". South Downs Living. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
- "Owlpen Manor". Archived from the original on 22 March 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2007. Information on Wightwick Manor
- Historic England. "St Martin's Church, St Martin's View, Potternewton (1256154)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 6 March 2019. "STAINED GLASS: windows include a war memorial by Kempe firm in North aisle, South aisle Lady Chapel window in memory of Mary Cadman, died 20 March 1894. The unfinished West end had a small wooden bellcote when the church was consecrated..."
- Spark, W. (1892). Musical Reminiscences: Past and Present. Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Company. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
St. Martin's Church, Potternewton. There is no pleasanter spot within the same distance from busy Leeds than that part of Potternewton whereon stands the beautiful Church dedicated to St. Martin. Newton Park, the district in which it is situated...
- "Exhibition of Art". The Kangaroo Island Courier. Vol. IV, no. 214. South Australia. 2 December 1911. p. 7. Retrieved 25 April 2019 – via National Library of Australia.
- Baker, Lesley Anne (2004). "The Development of Decorative Arts in Australia: Morris & Co. and Imported Taste (1862–1939)" (PDF) (PhD thesis). Australian National University. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
- Dale, Antony (1989). Brighton Churches. London: Routledge. p. 207. ISBN 0-415-00863-8.
- Saunders, M. (July 2008). "Appreciating Victorian and Arts and Crafts Stained Glass: A Battle Half Won". Ecclesiology Today. 40: 88.
- Sherwood, Jennifer; Pevsner, Nikolaus (1974). The Buildings of England: Oxfordshire. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin. ISBN 0-14-071045-0.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus (2002). Yorkshire, the North Riding. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-300-09665-8.
- Parish Church of Holy Trinity Cuckfield (PDF). 2005. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- "The East Window". All Saints' Church Hertford. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
- "Kempe Windows". St Mary Magdalene Church, Hucknall. 24 March 2015. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
- Hartwell, Clare; Hyde, Matthew; Hubbard, Edward; Pevsner, Nikolaus (2011) . The Buildings of England: Cheshire. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300170436.
- Tyack, Geoffrey (1998). Oxford: An Architectural Guide. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 201–202. ISBN 0-19-817423-3.
- "Photo Gallery – Stained glass windows by Kempe".
- Historic England. "Church of St Alban, Tattenhall (Grade II*) (1230254)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 22 March 2019.
- Jeffery, Robert (2007). Discovering Tong: its history, myths and curiosities. Tong, Shifnal, Shropshire: Robert Jeffery. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-9555089-0-5.
- "Faith Trail" (PDF). Treasures Revealed. Retrieved 3 June 2012.[permanent dead link]
- Kempe added the 'e' to his name in adult life
- 'Kempe' by Adrian Barlow, published by The Lutterworth Press
- 'Espying Heaven' by Adrian Barlow, published by The Lutterworth Press
- The Kempe Society
- Monmouth Group of Parishes: Charles Eamer Kempe
- The Parish Church of St Mary Magdalene: Charles Eamer Kempe – Stained Glass Windows
- Victorian Wolverhampton: A Town Through Its Buildings – Architects and Craftsmen of Wolverhampton's Buildings