Central Kalapuya language

Central Kalapuyan was a Kalapuyan language indigenous to the central and southern Willamette Valley in Oregon in the United States. It was spoken by various bands of the Kalapuya peoples who inhabited the valley up through the middle of the 19th century. The language is closely related to Northern Kalapuya, spoken in the Tualatin and Yamhill valleys. Dialects of Central Kalapuya that have been identified include:

  • Ahantchuyuk dialect, spoken in the northeastern Willamette Valley along the Pudding and Molalla rivers
  • Santiam dialect, spoken in the central Willamette Valley along the lower Santiam River
  • Luckiamute dialect, spoken in the central Willamette Valley along the Luckiamute River
  • Chepenafa dialect, spoken in the central Willamette Valley along Marys River
  • Chemapho dialect, spoken in the central Willamette Valley along Muddy Creek
  • Chelamela dialect, spoken in the southwestern Willamette Valley along the Long Tom River
  • Tsankupi dialect, spoken in the southeastern Willamette Valley along the Calapooia River
  • Winefelly-Mohawk dialects, spoken in the southeastern Willamette Valley along the McKenzie, Mohawk, and Coast Fork Willamette rivers
Central Kalapuya
Native toUnited States
RegionNorthwest Oregon
Extinctc. 1954[1]
with the death of John B. Hudson[2]
Kalapuyan
  • Central Kalapuya
Language codes
ISO 639-3kyl
Glottologkala1400

PhonologyEdit

The phonology of the Santiam dialect, as described by Jacobs (1945) and analyzed by Banks (2007), is listed below.[3][4] Banks notes that Jacobs' analysis does not rigorously account for allophonic variation, and that, according to Jacobs, there may have been some interchangeability between the velar and uvular series.[4]

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
plain sibilant lateral plain lab. plain lab. plain lab.
Plosive/
Affricate
plain p t ts k q ʔ
aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ kʷʰ qʷʰ
ejective tsʼ tʃʼ kʷʼ qʷʼ
Nasal m n ŋ
Fricative ɸ s ɬ ʃ x χ h
Approximant l j w

The nasals [m] and [n] likely had syllabic forms: [m̩] and [n̩]. Jacobs possibly notes that the plosives also have voiced allophones, as [b], [d], [ɡ], [ɡʷ], [ɢ], and [ɢʷ]. Banks also notes that /h/, /hʷ/, /dz/, /dʒ/, and /ɸʷ/ may have been allophones.[4]

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
Close i u
Open-mid æ ~ ɛ ɔ
Open a

Santiam Kalapuya had three diphthongs: [ai], [au], and [ui]. Vowel length may have been phonemic, /ɔ/ may have been an allophone of /u/.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Central Kalapuya at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015) (subscription required)
  2. ^ Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäusler, Peter; Tryon, Darrell T. (1996). Atlas of Languages of Intercultural Communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas. ISBN 9783110134179.
  3. ^ Jacobs, Melville (1945). Kalapuya Texts. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
  4. ^ a b c d Banks, Jonathan (2007). "The Verbal Morphology of Santiam Kalapuya". Northwest Journal of Linguistics. 1 (2): 1–98. Retrieved 1 January 2016.

External linksEdit