Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Castellans of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth were the lowest rank of territorial official who could sit in the Senate of Poland. Their numbers varied over time and with the shifting borders of the Commonwealth.

In the Kingdom of Poland and later in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Castellans (Polish: Kasztelan) usually deferred to the higher ranking Voivodes (Polish: Wojewoda), excepting three Distinguished Castellans of the cities of Troki, Vilnius, and of Kraków - who ranked higher than the Voivodes.

CompetencesEdit

With the exception of the Castellan of Kraków, whose seat was representative of the Commonwealth's capital until 1596, Castellans were usually considered subordinate to Voivodes. Two castellans in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania - those of Wilno (Vilnius) and Troki (Trakai) - were also considered privileged, and had a status equal to a voivode. Castellans were in charge of a subdivision of a Voivodship called a Castellany (Polish: Kasztelania) until the late 15th century when domains were administratively divided into provinces in the case of larger castellanies and powiats for smaller castellanies.

From 1565, the principle of "incompatibilitas" - "incompatibility" - precluded Voivodes and Castellans from holding a second ministerial role, except for the post of Hetman.

ListEdit

The list below is based on data from 1569. The number of castellans changed in later centuries.

  • Distinguished Castellans Kasztelanowie Wyróżnieni — of Kraków, Vilnius and Trakai were seated alongside the Voivodes:
  1. Castellan of Kraków (kasztelan krakowski). Seat: Kraków. Seated in the Senate, above the Voivode of Kraków.
  2. Castellan of Wilno (kasztelan wileński). Seat: Wilno (Vilnius). Seated 6th in the Senate after the Voivode of Sandomierz and before the Voivode of Kalisz.
  3. Castellan of Troki (kasztelan trocki). Seat: Troki (Trakai). Seated 10th in the Senate after the Voivode of Sieradz and before the Voivode of Łęczyca
  • Kasztelanowie Więksi (Krzesłowi) — 31 Major Castellans:
  1. Greater Castellan of Poznań, Seat: Poznań
  2. Greater Castellan of Sandomierz, Seat: Sandomierz
  3. Greater Castellan of Kalisz, Seat: Kalisz
  4. Greater Castellan of Wojnicz, Seat: Wojnicz
  5. Greater Castellan of Gniezno, Seat: Gniezno
  6. Greater Castellan of Sieradz, Seat: Sieradz
  7. Greater Castellan of Łęczyca, Seat: Łęczyca
  8. Greater Castellan of Źmudź, Seat: Żmudź (Samogitia)
  9. Greater Castellan of Brześć Kujawski, Seat: Brześć Kujawski
  10. Greater Castellan of Kijów, Seat: Kijów (Kyiv, also Kiev)
  11. Greater Castellan of Inowrocław, Seat: Inowrocław
  12. Greater Castellan of Lwów, Seat: Lwów (Lviv)
  13. Greater Castellan of Wołyń, Seat: Wołyń (Volhynia)
  14. Greater Castellan of Kamieniec, Seat: Kamieniec Podolski (Kamianets-Podilskyi)
  15. Greater Castellan of Smoleńsk, Seat: Smoleńsk (Smolensk)
  16. Greater Castellan of Lublin, Seat: Lublin
  17. Greater Castellan of Połock, Seat: Połock (Polotsk)
  18. Greater Castellan of Bełsk, Seat: Bełsk (Belz)
  19. Greater Castellan of Nowogródek, Seat: Nowogródek (Novogrudok)
  20. Greater Castellan of Płock, Seat: Płock
  21. Greater Castellan of Witebsk, Seat: Witebsk (Vitebsk)
  22. Greater Castellan of Czersk, Seat: Czersk
  23. Greater Castellan of Podlasie, Seat: Podlasie
  24. Greater Castellan of Rawa, Seat: Rawa Mazowiecka
  25. Greater Castellan of Brześć Litewski, Seat: Brześć Litewski (Brest)
  26. Greater Castellan of Chełmno, Seat: Chełmno
  27. Greater Castellan of Mścisław, Seat: Mścisław (Mstsislaw)
  28. Greater Castellan of Elbląg, Seat: Elbląg
  29. Greater Castellan of Bracław, Seat: Bracław (Bratslav)
  30. Greater Castellan of Gdańsk, Seat: Gdańsk (Danzig)
  31. Greater Castellan of Mińsk, Seat: Mińsk
  32. Greater Castellan of Wenden, Seat: Wenden (Cēsis, added after 1569)
  33. Greater Castellan of Dorpat, Seat: Dorpat (Tartu, added after 1569)
  34. Greater Castellan of Parnawa, Seat: Parnawa (Pärnu, added after 1569)
  35. Greater Castellan of Inflanty, Seat: Inflanty (Livonia) (replaced those of Wenden, Dorpat and Parnawa in 1677)
  36. Greater Castellan of Czernihów, Seat: Czernihów
  • Kasztelanowie Mniejsi (Drążkowi) — 49 Minor Castellans:
  1. Minor Castellan of Nowy Sącz, Seat: Nowy Sącz
  2. Minor Castellan of Międzyrzecze, Seat: Miedzyrzecze, Silesian Voivodeship
  3. Minor Castellan of Wiślica, Seat: Wiślica
  4. Minor Castellan of Biecz, Seat: Biecz
  5. Minor Castellan of Rogoźno, Seat: Rogoźno
  6. Minor Castellan of Radom, Seat: Radom
  7. Minor Castellan of Zawichost, Seat: Zawichost
  8. Minor Castellan of Ląd, Seat: Ląd
  9. Minor Castellan of Śrem, Seat: Śrem
  10. Minor Castellan of Żary, Seat: Żary
  11. Minor Castellan of Małogoszcz, Seat: Małogoszcz
  12. Minor Castellan of Wieluń, Seat: Wieluń
  13. Minor Castellan of Przemyśl, Seat: Przemyśl
  14. Minor Castellan of Halicz, Seat: Halicz (Halych)
  15. Minor Castellan of Sanok, Seat: Sanok
  16. Minor Castellan of Chełm, Seat: Chełm
  17. Minor Castellan of Dobrzyń, Seat: Dobrzyń
  18. Minor Castellan of Połaniec, Seat: Połaniec
  19. Minor Castellan of Przemęt, Seat: Przemęt
  20. Minor Castellan of Krzywina, Seat: Krzywina
  21. Minor Castellan of Czchów, Seat: Czchów
  22. Minor Castellan of Nakło, Seat: Nakło
  23. Minor Castellan of Rozprza, Seat: Rozprza
  24. Minor Castellan of Biechów, Seat: Biechów
  25. Minor Castellan of Bydgoszcz, Seat: Bydgoszcz
  26. Minor Castellan of Brzeziny, Seat: Brzeziny
  27. Minor Castellan of Kruszwica, Seat: Kruszwica
  28. Minor Castellan of Oświęcim, Seat: Oświęcim
  29. Minor Castellan of Kamieńsk, Seat: Kamieńsk
  30. Minor Castellan of Spycimierz, Seat: Spycimierz
  31. Minor Castellan of Inowłódz, Seat: Inowłódz
  32. Minor Castellan of Kowale, Seat: Kowal
  33. Minor Castellan of Santok, Seat: Santok
  34. Minor Castellan of Sochaczew, Seat: Sochaczew
  35. Minor Castellan of Warsaw, Seat: Warsaw
  36. Minor Castellan of Gostyniec, Seat: Gostyniec or Goślice
  37. Minor Castellan of Wizna, Seat: Wizna
  38. Minor Castellan of Raciąż, Seat: Raciąż
  39. Minor Castellan of Sierpc, Seat: Sierpc
  40. Minor Castellan of Wyszogród, Seat: Wyszogród
  41. Minor Castellan of Rypin. Seat: Rypin
  42. Minor Castellan of Zakroczym, Seat: Zakroczym
  43. Minor Castellan of Ciechanowice, Seat: Ciechanowice
  44. Minor Castellan of Liw, Seat: Liw
  45. Minor Castellan of Słońsk, Seat: Słońsk (present Ciechocinek)
  46. Minor Castellan of Lubaczów, Seat: Lubaczów
  • Kasztelanowie Konarscy (Koniuszy) — 3 Equerry Castellans:
  1. Minor Konary Castellan of Sieradz, Seat: Sieradz
  2. Minor Konary Castellan of Łęczyca, Seat: Łęczyca
  3. Minor Konary Castellan of Inowrocław, Seat: Inowrocław

BibliographyEdit