This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (November 2021)
|Motto: Firme por la Unión|
|Andrés de Santa Cruz|
|21 June 1836|
|25 August 1839|
|ISO 3166 code||BO|
|Today part of||Bolivia|
The Peru-Bolivian Confederation was a plan that attempted to reunite the Alto Perú ("Upper Peru", now Bolivia) and Bajo Perú ("Lower Peru", now simply Peru) into a single political and economic entity. Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz promoted an ambitious project to reunite these two territories on the basis of a confederacy. This integration was based not only on historical, cultural and ethnic reasons but also on sound economic motives. The union was trying to restore the ancient commercial routes and promote a policy of open markets.
As President of Bolivia, Santa Cruz instigated several failed plots to achieve a political union with Peru, taking advantage of that country's chronic political unrest. His best opportunity came in 1835 when the Peruvian President General Luis José de Orbegoso requested his assistance to fight the rebel armies of Generals Agustín Gamarra and Felipe Santiago Salaverry. Santa Cruz defeated Gamarra at the Battle of Yanacocha on 13 August 1835 and Salaverry at the Battle of Socabaya on 7 February 1836.
With Bolivian help, General Orbegoso quickly regained his leadership throughout the country and had Salaverry summarily executed. In retribution to the support he received from Santa Cruz, he acceded to the formation of the new Peru–Bolivian Confederation. Santa Cruz assumed the Supreme Protectorship of the confederation and Orbegoso maintained only the presidency of the newly created Republic of North Peru.
The Bolivian Republic was divided into 7 departments:
- "Ley Fundamental de la Confederación Perú - Boliviana (1837)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2021.