Robert Dwayne Womack (//; March 4, 1944 – June 27, 2014) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and record producer. Starting in the early 1950s as the lead singer of his family musical group the Valentinos and as Sam Cooke's backing guitarist, Womack's career spanned more than 60 years and multiple styles, including R&B, soul, rock and roll, doo-wop, and gospel.
|Birth name||Robert Dwayne Womack|
|Born||March 4, 1944|
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
|Died||June 27, 2014 (aged 70)|
Tarzana, California, U.S.
Womack was a prolific songwriter who wrote and originally recorded, (with his brothers, the Valentinos), the Rolling Stones' first UK number one hit, "It's All Over Now" and New Birth's "I Can Understand It". As a singer, he is most notable for the hits "Lookin' for a Love", "That's the Way I Feel About Cha", "Woman's Gotta Have It", "Harry Hippie", "Across 110th Street", and his 1980s hits "If You Think You're Lonely Now" and "I Wish He Didn't Trust Me So Much".
In 2009, Bobby Womack was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
Born in Cleveland's Fairfax neighborhood, near East 85th Street and Quincy Avenue, to Naomi Womack and Friendly Womack, Bobby was the third of five brothers. Friendly Jr. and Curtis were the older brothers, Harry and Cecil were his younger brothers. They all grew up in the Cleveland slums, so poor that the family would fish pig snouts out of the local supermarket's trash. He had to share a bed with his brothers. His mother told him he could "sing his way out of the ghetto." Recalling his childhood, Bobby said, "we came up very poor. My kids have had a much better life than I'd ever thought of livin,'" and, "the neighborhood was so ghetto that we didn't bother the rats and they didn't bother us."
Raised Baptist, their mother played the organ for the church choir, and their father was a steelworker, part-time minister, and musician who played the guitar and also sang gospel. Their father repeatedly ordered his sons to not touch his guitar while he was away, yet all five brothers regularly played it while their father was at work. One night, eight-year-old Bobby broke a guitar string, then tried to replace the string with a shoelace. After Friendly deduced that Bobby (who was missing a shoelace) had broken the string, he offered Bobby the chance to play the guitar for him in lieu of a whipping.
Man, I played Andres Segovia, Elmore James and BB King. Even with one string short, I played classical music, soul, country and western, and rock'n'roll. I played my ass off. Every lick I knew and then some I didn't. When I finished, Dad was in shock. He couldn't believe how good I had got and he'd been real selfish holding on to that guitar for himself.
Soon afterwards, Friendly bought guitars for all five of his sons. Because Bobby was left-handed, he flipped his guitar upside-down to play, not knowing that the guitar could have been restrung to accommodate a left-handed player.
By the mid-1950s, 10-year-old Bobby was touring with his brothers on the midwest gospel circuit as The Womack Brothers, along with Naomi on organ and Friendly Sr. on guitar. In 1954, under the moniker Curtis Womack and the Womack Brothers, the group issued the Pennant single, "Buffalo Bill". More records followed.
Sam Cooke, the lead singer of The Soul Stirrers, first saw the group performing in the mid-1950s. He became their mentor and helped them go on tour. They went on national tours with The Staple Singers. Even though Curtis often sang lead, Bobby was allowed to sing alongside him showcasing his gruff baritone vocals in contrast to his older brother's smoother tenor. During performances, Bobby would sometimes imitate the role of a preacher, which later became his nickname. At just 16, Bobby dropped out of high school.
At the beginning of the 1960s, Cooke formed SAR Records and signed the quintet to the label in 1961, where they released a handful of gospel singles. Then, Cooke changed their name to the Valentinos, relocated them to Los Angeles and convinced them to transition from gospel music to secular soul-and pop-influenced sound. Cooke produced and arranged the group's first hit single, "Lookin' for a Love", which was a pop version of the gospel song, "Couldn't Hear Nobody Pray", they had recorded earlier. The song became an R&B hit and helped land the group an opening spot for James Brown's tour. The group's next hit came in 1964 with the country-tinged "It's All Over Now", co-composed by Bobby. Their version was rising on the charts when The Rolling Stones covered it.
Womack was also a member of Cooke's band, touring and recording with him from 1961. The Valentinos' career was left shaky after Sam Cooke was shot and killed in a Los Angeles motel. Devastated by the news, the brothers disbanded and SAR Records folded. Womack attempted to start his solo career in 1965, first recording for Him Records and later the Chess Records subsidiary, Checker Records. Womack faced backlash after his marriage to Cooke's widow Barbara Cooke. He would go to radio stations and disc jockeys would throw away his records. He continued to work as a session musician. Between 1965 and 1968, he toured and recorded with Ray Charles.
1967–1972: Early solo careerEdit
Circa 1965, Womack relocated to Memphis where he worked at Chips Moman's American Studios. He played guitar on recordings by Joe Tex and the Box Tops. Womack played guitar on several of Aretha Franklin's albums, including Lady Soul, but not on the hit song "Chain of Fools", as erroneously reported. His work as a songwriter caught the eye of music executives after Wilson Pickett took a liking to some of Womack's songs and insisted on recording them. Among the songs were "I'm a Midnight Mover" and "I'm in Love".
In 1968, Bobby signed with Minit Records and recorded his first solo album, Fly Me to the Moon, where he scored his first major hit with a cover of The Mamas & the Papas' "California Dreamin'". In 1969, Womack forged a partnership with Gábor Szabó and with Szabó, penned the instrumental "Breezin'", later a hit for George Benson. Womack also worked with rock musicians Sly and the Family Stone and Janis Joplin, contributing vocals and guitar work on the Family Stone's accomplished album There's a Riot Goin' On, and penning the ballad "Trust Me", for Joplin on her album Pearl. In fact, Womack was one of the last people to see Joplin alive, having visited her hours before she died at the Landmark Hotel in Los Angeles, California.
After two more albums with Minit, Bobby switched labels, signing with United Artists where he changed his attire and his musical direction with the album Communication. The album bolstered his first top 40 hit, "That's the Way I Feel About Cha", which peaked at number two R&B and number 27 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the spring of 1972.
1972–1985: Solo successEdit
Following Communication, Womack's profile was raised with two more albums, released in 1972. The first was Understanding, noted for the track "I Can Understand It", later covered by the funk band New Birth and a three-sibling lineup of Bobby's old group, the Valentinos, and two hit singles, "Woman's Gotta Have It" and "Harry Hippie". The latter song was written for Womack by Jim Ford in a country version, which Womack re-arranged in an R&B version. "Harry Hippie" later became Womack's first single to be certified gold. "Woman's Gotta Have It" became Womack's first single to hit number one on the R&B charts.
Another hit album released after Understanding was the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Across 110th Street. The title track became popular during its initial 1972 release and later would be played during the opening and closing scenes of the 1997 film, Jackie Brown. In 1973, Womack released another hit album, Facts of Life, and had a top 40 hit with "Nobody Knows You When You're Down and Out," an older song Sam Cooke had done years before.
In 1974, Womack released his most successful single during this period with a remake of his first hit single, "Lookin' for a Love". His solo version of the song became even more successful than the original with the Valentinos, becoming his second number one hit on the R&B chart and peaking at number ten on the Billboard Hot 100, becoming his only hit to reach that high on the pop chart. The song was featured on the album Lookin' for a Love Again and featured the minor charted "You're Welcome, Stop on By", later covered by Rufus & Chaka Khan. Womack's career began stalling after Womack received the news of his brother Harry's death. Womack continued to record albums with United Artists through 1975 and 1976 but with less success than previous albums. In 1975, Womack collaborated with Rolling Stones member Ronnie Wood, on Wood's second solo album, Now Look. In 1976, Womack organized a benefit at the Hollywood Palladium to raise funds for his friend, singer Jackie Wilson, who had suffered a heart attack.
Womack languished with his own recordings during the late 1970s but continued to be a frequent collaborator with other artists, most notably Wilton Felder of the Crusaders. After his son Truth Bobby died in 1978, Womack formed a production company named Truth. He hired a new co-producer and Keyboardist, Patrick Moten who worked with Ike Turner and Natalie Cole, and released the album Roads of Life on Arista Records in 1979.
In 1980, Wilton Felder released the album Inherit The Wind on MCA Records which featured Womack. It became a jazz-funk classic, notably in the UK—Robbie Vincent at Radio London included the track as one of his all-time winners in October 1982. In 1981, Womack signed with Beverly Glen Records and had his first R&B top 10 single in five years—since the 1976 single "Daylight"—with "If You Think You're Lonely Now" that peaked at number three on the R&B singles chart. His accompanying album The Poet reached number one on the R&B album charts and is now seen as the high point of his long career, bringing him wider acclaim not only in the U.S. but also in Europe. He had two more R&B top 10 singles during the 1980s including the Patti LaBelle duet, "Love Has Finally Come at Last", and "I Wish He Didn't Trust Me So Much". He had a hit featuring on the Wilton Felder single "(No Matter How High I Get) I'll Still Be Looking Up to You".
1985–2014: Later careerEdit
Womack's solo career started to slow down after 1985, in part due to Womack's issues with drug addiction. After sobering up in the mid-1990s, he released his twentieth studio album, Resurrection on his close friend's Ronnie Wood's label. The album included session background work from admiring associates that included Rod Stewart, Ronald Isley, Keith Richards and Charlie Watts. His remaining brothers from the Valentinos, Curtis, Friendly and Cecil, featured as background singers. Two singles from the album—a duet with Ronald Isley, "Tryin' Not To Break Down", and "Forever Love"—appeared on the Billboard R&B chart, but although the album contained two of Womack's best latter songs, "Cousin Henry" and "Don't Break Your Promise (Too Soon)", the album received a mixed critical reception. A gospel album, Back to My Roots, appeared at the end of the decade, but Womack largely concentrated on session and guest work for the next ten years.
In 1986, The Manhattans released the album Back To Basics, which contained songs written and produced by Womack. Womack contributed vocals and acoustic guitar to the songs "Where Did We Go Wrong" (duet with Regina Belle), "I'm Through Trying To Prove My Love To You", "Mr D.J." and "Back Into The Night".
He is the featured vocalist on June Yamagishi's My Pleasure album, on "Inherit The Wind", a track credited to Wilton Felder, and with Allen Toussaint on "Sputin", and he contributed vocals to Rae & Christian's version of "Wake Up Everybody". Other collaborations included "You Got What It Takes" with Diane Schuur, "Ain't Nothing Like The Lovin' We Got" with Shirley Brown, "Break the Chain" with Andrew Love & Wayne Jackson and "It's a Man's Man's Man's World" with Jeanie Tracy.
In 1989, Womack sang on Todd Rundgren's "For the Want of a Nail" on the album Nearly Human. In 1998, he performed George Gershwin's "Summertime" with The Roots for the Red Hot Organization's compilation album Red Hot + Rhapsody, a tribute to Gershwin, which raised money for various charities devoted to increasing AIDS awareness and fighting the disease.
In October 1992, Womack held four tribute concert for his friend Eddie Kendricks. Womack planned the concert before Kendricks, who suffered from lung cancer, died on October 5, 1992. Womack headlined the concert; other performers included Chaka Khan, Mary Wilson, and Bill Withers.
In 2010, Womack contributed lyrics and sang on "Stylo" alongside Mos Def, the first single from the third Gorillaz album Plastic Beach. Womack was told to sing whatever was on his mind during the recording of "Stylo". "I was in there for an hour going crazy about love and politics, getting it off my chest," said Womack. He also provided vocals on the song "Cloud of Unknowing" in addition to the song "Bobby in Phoenix" on their December 2010 release The Fall.
A new album was released on June 12, 2012 by XL Recordings of London. The album, The Bravest Man in the Universe was produced by Damon Albarn and Richard Russell. The first Song "Please Forgive My Heart" was offered as a free download on XL Recordings' official website on March 8, 2012. Contact Music reported that Womack was working on a blues album called Living in the House of Blues, featuring collaborations with Stevie Wonder, Snoop Dogg and Rod Stewart. In an interview with Uncut, Womack revealed that the follow-up album would now be called The Best Is Yet to Come and feature Teena Marie and Ronnie Isley.
Womack duets with Van Morrison on "Some Peace of Mind", from Morrison's 1991 album, Hymns to the Silence, on Morrison's album Duets: Re-working the Catalogue released in 2015. Womack collaborated with Rudimental on "New Day", a song taken from their second studio album, We the Generation. He had expressed an interest in working with the group and they had exchanged ideas. Following Womack's death, his wife sent the group an a cappella vocal which he had recorded for them, and they pieced together the track.
Throughout his long recording career, many of Womack's songs have been covered by other artists. In addition to the famous Rolling Stones' version of "It's All Over Now", it has charted also with versions by Patti Drew in 1966 and as a duet between Womack and Bill Withers in 1975. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s other artists regularly recorded his songs. They included Ella Washington and Baby Washington, who recorded "I Can't Afford To Lose Him" in 1968, Jerry Butler, who released "Yes My Goodness Yes" in 1968, Margie Joseph, who issued "What You Gonna Do", and Roosevelt Grier, who had an R&B success with "People Make The World". One of his most famous songs, "Trust Me", was recorded by Janis Joplin and later by Winfield Parker amongst others. The 1960s and 1970s were especially profitable years for Womack's songwriting, either solo efforts or in partnership with the likes of Darryl Carter and Jim Ford. Whilst working as a session musician with Wilson Pickett he regularly contributed songs, including the original version of "I'm In Love", later covered by Aretha Franklin. Another Atlantic Records artist, Percy Sledge, issued "Baby Help Me" in 1967. The J. Geils Band covered "Lookin' for a Love", released on several albums, including the live album Blow Your Face Out.
In the following decade, Millie Jackson with "Put Something Down On It", Kokomo and New Birth with "I Can Understand It", Ronnie Wood with "I Got A Feeling", and George Benson with the instrumental "Breezin'", recorded versions of Womack songs. Lou Donaldson, the American jazz saxophonist, reinterpreted "You're Welcome To Stop On By" in 1974. The British singer Rod Stewart used the distinctive string arrangement from "Put Something Down On It" for his massive hit "Do Ya Think I'm Sexy". Other significant artists to record Bobby Womack songs include: Georgie Fame and Kelly Rowland and Vicki Sue Robinson, 1976 with "Daylight", Aretha Franklin and O V Wright's separate covers of "That's The Way I Feel About You" and reggae acts Dennis Alcapone, who issued a distinctive version of "Harry Hippy" entitled "Sorry Harry", and Triston Palma, who issued "Love Has Finally Come At Last" in 1984.
Jodeci's K-Ci Hailey, a notable admirer of Womack's work, covered "If You Think You're Lonely Now" in 1994. Hailey again covered Womack in 2006 with his rendition of "A Woman's Gotta Have It". The song is referenced in Mariah Carey's song "We Belong Together", a number one hit in June 2005. Carey sings "I can't sleep at night / When you are on my mind / Bobby Womack's on the radio / Singing to me: 'If you think you're lonely now.' " In 2007, R&B singer Jaheim interpolated the song as "Lonely" on his album The Makings of a Man. Neo soul singer Calvin Richardson also covered many of Womack's tunes. "That's the Way I Feel About Cha" was covered by the late R&B musician Gerald Levert and fellow singer Mary J. Blige on Levert's 1998 album Love & Consequences.
Film director Quentin Tarantino used "Across 110th Street" (which, in a different version, had been the title song of the 1972 movie) in the opening and closing sequences of his 1997 film Jackie Brown. His work has been used in several other popular films, including Meet the Parents (2000), Ali (2001) and American Gangster (2007). A 2003 Saab commercial used Womack's interpretation of "California Dreamin." In 2005, "Across 110th Street" appeared in the hit Activision video game True Crime: New York City.
During the spring of 1997, R&B singer Rome covered the original song from his self-titled debut album.
In 2008, Kelly Rowland recorded her own version of his R&B hit "Daylight" with Travis McCoy of the Gym Class Heroes, which became a hit in the UK Singles Chart, where it was previously released as a single by Womack in 1976.
In 2009, Calvin Richardson was chosen to record a tribute album to Womack to coincide with Womack's induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. The Grammy-nominated album was entitled Facts of Life: The Soul of Bobby Womack. It reached No. 30 on the US R&B chart.
On February 26, 1965, 77 days after Sam Cooke's death, 20-year-old Womack and Cooke's widow Barbara Cooke, who was 10 years his senior, attempted to marry at the Los Angeles county courthouse. Womack wore one of Cooke's suits to the courthouse and the media was present to record the event, but their application was rejected. According to the Los Angeles Sentinel, it was denied because Womack was under 21 years old and did not have his parents' permission to marry. They were finally married on March 5, the day after his 21st birthday. Their marriage was considered a scandal by some in the music business and Womack found himself ostracized in the soul music world. Womack's brothers turned against him, as did his audiences and disc jockeys. Cooke's family was also enraged. His brothers Charles and David Cook broke Womack's jaw during an attack at a hotel in Chicago. Womack later claimed he initially went to Barbara's side to console her following Cooke's death for fear that if she were left alone, she would "do something crazy."
In 1970, Womack and Barbara separated after she discovered he was sexually abusing his 17-year-old stepdaughter Linda Cooke (daughter of Barbara and Sam Cooke). In the ensuing tussle, Barbara fired a gun at her husband and the bullet grazed his head. Their divorce was finalized in 1971. According to Womack, Linda never spoke to her mother again.
On December 31, 1975, Womack married his third wife 19-year-old Regina Banks. Together they had three children. In the early 1990s, Regina left him and went to New York. They later remarried in 2013.
Womack had six children, with two passing away before him.
Womack's firstborn from his marriage to Barbara, Vincent Dwayne Womack, was born in 1966. He committed suicide at the age of 21 by a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head. Barbara had two daughters from her previous marriage to Sam Cooke, Tracy and Linda. She also had a son, Vincent Lance Cooke (1961–1963), who drowned aged 18 months old in the family pool.
Womack had two sons, Truth Bobby (1978–1978) and Bobby Truth, and a daughter, GinaRe, with his wife Regina. Truth Bobby, whose name was suggested by Womack's friend Sly Stone, died aged 4 months old after falling into a coma when he was found "wedged between the wall and the bed." His death caused Womack to delve deeper into drug addiction. Bobby Truth got involved with gangs and was sent to a youth detention center at about 11 or 12 years old.
Womack fathered two sons, Cory and Jordan, from his relationship with Jody Laba.
In 1974, Bobby's brother Harry Womack was fatally stabbed in the neck with a steak knife, by his girlfriend Patricia Wilson, in a jealous rage. She had found another woman's clothes in a room he was occupying at Bobby's house. It turned out that the clothes actually belonged to Bobby's girlfriend. After his death, Bobby established the 'Harry James Womack Memorial Scholarship Fund' in his memory. The $50,000 scholarship fund was to aid minority students complete college, because Harry had always "wished he had gone on and gotten a degree."
Bobby's former stepdaughter, Linda Cooke, co-wrote his 1972 hit song "Woman's Gotta Have It." They collaborated in the late 1970s for her planned debut album. She married Bobby's younger brother Cecil Womack, and the duo teamed up as Womack & Womack. The song "Baby I'm Scared of You" by Womack & Womack, from their album Love Wars, was released as a single in 1983.
Drug addiction and health issuesEdit
Womack opened up about his frequent drug use in his memoir, Midnight Mover. Womack said he began using cocaine sometime in the late 1960s. He had become close friends with Sly Stone, and was an enthusiastic participant in Stone's infamous drug binges. Womack told Rolling Stone in 1984: "I was really off into the drugs. Blowing as much coke as I could blow. And drinking. And smoking weed and taking pills. Doing that all day, staying up seven, eight days. Me and Sly [Stone] were running partners."
In 1974, Womack experienced "temporary blindness" after he suffered a concussion from a blow to his head when he flipped off backwards over an amplifier.
His cocaine use turned into an addiction by the late 1970s. Womack partially attributed his drug addiction to his infant son Truth's death in 1978, which he said changed him forever. Throughout most of the 1980s, Womack struggled with a worsening addiction. During this period his career slowed down significantly, partly as a result of his drug usage. In 1985, after completing 14 one-nighters, Womack was hospitalized after experiencing a blood circulation problem in his left leg. Towards the end of the 1980s, he went into a rehabilitation center to get over his cocaine addiction, which he said he conquered.
Womack survived prostate cancer. A series of health problems would follow, including diabetes, pneumonia, colon cancer and the early signs of Alzheimer's disease.
Womack developed diabetes in his later years. It was revealed in March 2012 that Womack was diagnosed with colon cancer after Bootsy Collins reported it on his Facebook page. Womack announced afterwards that he was to undergo cancer surgery. On May 24, 2012, it was announced that Womack's surgery to remove a tumor from his colon was successful and he was declared cancer free. On January 1, 2013, Womack admitted that he struggled to remember his songs and other people's names, and later he was diagnosed with early stages of Alzheimer's disease.
Womack died at his home in Tarzana, California at the age of 70 on June 27, 2014. He was cremated, and his ashes were interred at the Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery in Glendale, California, in The Great Mausoleum, Memorial Terrace, Memorial Terrace Columbarium.
Awards and nominationsEdit
In 2009, Womack was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. However, his original vocal group, his brothers, The Valentinos (Friendly Womack, Jr., Curtis Womack, Harry Womack and Cecil Womack), were not inducted with him.
- Fly Me to the Moon (1969)
- My Prescription (1970)
- Communication (1971)
- Understanding (1972)
- Facts of Life (1973)
- Lookin' for a Love Again (1974)
- I Don't Know What the World Is Coming To (1975)
- Safety Zone (1975)
- BW Goes C&W (1976)
- Home Is Where the Heart Is (1976)
- Pieces (1978)
- Roads of Life (1979)
- The Poet (1981)
- The Poet II (1984)
- So Many Rivers (1985)
- Someday We'll All Be Free (1985)
- Womagic (1986)
- The Last Soul Man (1987)
- Save the Children (1989)
- Resurrection (1994)
- Back to My Roots (1999)
- Traditions (1999)
- The Bravest Man in the Universe (2012)
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