A Bhaṭṭāraka (Jain Prakrit: भट्टारक "holy one") heads traditional Digambara Jain institutions. He is responsible for training scholars, maintenance of libraries, managing endowments, presiding over installation ceremonies and running Jain institutions.
The term bhaṭṭāraka was used for Virasena, Bhadrabahu and other notables. It has also been used for the Tirthankaras. It was in the past used for leaders of religious orders in Shaivism, Buddhism and other groups, but currently it is applied to heads of Digambara Jain institutions. Unlike a Digambara monk, a bhaṭṭāraka wears an orange robe, stays in a single place and is involved in management of assets of the institution.
Several of the Bhattarak seats were termed "Vidyasthana" i.e. centers of learning. These include Jaipur, Delhi, Gwalior, Ajmer, Nagaur, Rampur-Bhanpura, Karanaja, Surat, Kolhapur, Jinakanchi, Penukonda, Malkhed, Vijayanagara, Varanga and Hummacha.
भट्टारक सोहि जाण भ्रष्टाचर निवारे, धर्म प्रकाशे दोइ भविक जीव बहु तारे
सकल शस्त्र संपूर्ण सूरिमंत्र आराधे, करे गच्छ उद्धार स्वात्मकार्य बहु साधेसौम्यमूर्ति शोभाकरण क्षमाधरण गंभीरमति, भट्टारक सोहि जाणिये कहत ज्ञानसागर यति
, lit. '९'
Bhaṭṭāraka sōhi jāṇa bhraṣṭācara nivārē, dharma prakāśē dōi bhavika jīva bahu tārē| Sakala śastra sampūrṇa sūrimantra ārādhē, karē gaccha uddhāra svātmakārya bahu sādhē| Saumyamūrti śōbhākaraṇa kṣamādharaṇa gambhīramati, bhaṭṭāraka sōhi jāṇiyē kahata jñānasāgara yati.
"Thus a bhaṭṭāraka illuminates both dharmas, is an expert in all scriptures, has the authority to recite the suri-mantra (to consecrate an image). He is also responsible for preserving the order. He is the head of the six limbs of the sangha: shravaka, shravika, pandita (brahma), muni (vrati), aryika and Bhattaraka."
Many of the bhattarakas were prolific authors. They wrote hundreds of original books and commentaries on various subjects, in Sanskrit and in local languages. All existing Jain manuscripts available today owe their preservation to the libraries maintained by Bhattarakas. They trained and supported pandits. Until modern times, all pratishthas were supervised by them or pandits (such as Raighu)designated by them.
Present Bhattaraka SeatsEdit
- Shravanabelagola, seat of the Desiya Gana, Pustaka Order. The bhaṭṭāraka is named Charukirti. This is where the Siddhanta Granthas were once preserved in the library, before they were moved to Mudabidri.
- Moodabidri, also a very important great holy seat of the Desiya Gana, Pustaka Order. The bhaṭṭāraka is named Charukirti. The original manuscripts of the Siddhanta Granthas like Dhavala are preserved here. The present swamiji is very much experienced most popular India and abroad scholar, master's degree, doctorate holder in various subjects. On 29 August 1999 swamiji took charge of holy bhattarak seat; it is independent holy ancient jain digamber acharya seat.
- Humbaj, seat of Balatkara Gana, Sarasvati Order. The bhaṭṭāraka is named Devendrakirti. This is the original seat of the order which once had branches all north India from Idar in Gujarat to Shikharji in Jharkhand
- Kanakagiri Jain Matha
- Sonda Jain Math
- Nandani, seat of the Sena Gana, Pushakara Order. The bhaṭṭāraka is named Jinasena. Acharya Shantisagar belonged to this tradition.
Historical Bhattaraka SeatsEdit
Bhaṭṭāraka seats existed at the following places until recent centuries:
- North India: Delhi, Hisar, Haryana, Mathura
- Rajasthan: Jaipur, Nagaur, Ajmer, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh, Rajasthan, Dungarpur, Narsimhapur, Rishabhdeo, Mahavirji
- Madhya Pradesh: Gwalior, Sonagiri, Ater, Chanderi, Sironj, Rehli, Panagar
- Gujarat: Idar, Sagwada, Surat, Bhanpur, Sojitra, Kalol, Jerhat
- Maharashtra: Karanja, Nagpur, Latur, Nanded, Kolhapur, Nandani
- Karnataka: Malakheda, Karkal, Swadi
The Terapanth movement arose in 17th century because of opposition by elite householders to Bhattarakas. Still many Bhaṭṭāraka seats in North India existed until the beginning of the 20th century. In some locations disputes arose and the reformists opposed existing Bhattarakas because they did not display the scholarship expected, or disapproval of their spending of the institutional funds. Many Bhattarakas were unable to find suitable disciples to take their place after them.
Theories of OriginEdit
There are several theories of how the modern Bhattarka institution originated.
In its modern form, with the Bhattaraka as an orange-robed advanced layman, its founding is often attributed to Prabhachandra of Mula Sangh, Balatkara Gana Saraswati gachchha, who travelled from Pattana (Gujarat) to Delhi, where he was anointed in a ceremony as the first Bhattaraka of Delhi. He was invited by the ruler of Delhi, who is identified as Muhammad Bin Tughlaq.
However Shrutasagara, in his commentary on Shatprabhrita, mentioned Prabhachandra's predecessor Vasantakirti as having adopted body coverage first. The lineage linking Vasabtakirti and Prabhachandra is given as following (see Balatkara Gana):
- Vasantakirti at Mandapadurg
- Vishalakirti (or Prakhyatkirti), Ajmer
- Shubhakirti, Ajmer
- Dharmachandra, Ajmer
- Ratnakirti, Ajmer
- Prabhachandra, who visited Delhi
Originally the wearing of clothes was regarded to be an exception to be used when going out. Until recent time, many Bhattarakas used to discard clothing within the monastery on specific occasions like eating, image consecretion or initiating another Bhattaraka.
- Vilas Adinath Sangave, Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers, 2001, Popular Prakashan. p. 133-143
- [https://books.google.com/books?id=dXVOXRrYQiQC&pg=PA492&lpg=PA492&dq=Acharyas+Dharsena+Bhattaraka&source=bl&ots=-lH_ak9sVk&sig=ACfU3U3AJmSOrLN9ST63vyYBGGbww8_Gng&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi49s--4fzkAhUCUK0KHXSeBawQ6AEwC3oECAkQAQ#v=onepage&q=Acharyas%20Dharsena%20Bhattaraka&f=false Agama Aura Tripitaka: Eka Anusilana Volume 2, Nagraj (Muni.), Concept Publishing Company, 1986, p. 492]
- Monolithic Jinas: The Iconography Of The Jain Temples Of Ellora, José Pereira, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 2001, p. 91
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- Joharapurkar, Vidyadhar Pasusa (September 1964). "Jain sangh ke chhah anga". Anekānta.
- साहित्यिक उन्नयन में भट्टारकों का अवदान, PC Jain, Parshvanath Vidyapith Swarna Jayanti Granth, 1994, p. 214-218
- Vidaydgar Johrapurkar, Bhaṭṭāraka Sampradaya, Solapur, 1958
- Facets of Jainology: Selected Research Papers on Jain Society, Religion and Culture, by Vilas Adinath Sangave, Published 2001
- Bhattarak Charcha, Shri Digambar Jain Narhihapura Navyuvak Mandal, Bhindar, 1941
- ‘मंदिर से हमें आचार्यश्री के बताए मार्ग पर चलने की प्रेरणा मिलेगी’ Dainik Bhaskar, Apr 7, 2014
- दिल्ली पट्ट के मूलसंघीय भट्टारक प्रभाचन्द्र और पद्मनन्दि, Parmanand Jain, Agarchand Nahta Abhinandan Granth Part 2, 1977, p.191-197
- Jain Dharma Ka Maulik Itihas, Gajsimha Rathod, Jaipur
- Bhattarak Parampara, Biharilal Jain, Kesarimalji Surana Abhinandan Granth, 1982, p. 66-70
- YASHODHAR-CHARITA : SACHITRA PANDULIPIYAN By Dr. Kamala Garg, Moortidevi Granthamala, 1991
- Ravindra K. Jain, The Universe as Audience: Metaphor and Community among the Jains of North India, Indian Institute of Advanced Study, 1999, p. 33.