Baltimore Polytechnic Institute

The Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, colloquially referred to as BPI, Poly, and The Institute, is a U.S. public high school founded in 1883. Established as an all-male manual trade / vocational school by the Baltimore City Council and the Baltimore City Public Schools, it is now a coeducational academic institution that emphasizes sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). It is located on a 53-acre (21 ha) tract of land in North Baltimore on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. BPI and the adjacent Western High School are located on the same campus.

The Baltimore Polytechnic Institute
Baltimore Poly logo.jpg
Address

,
21209

United States
Coordinates39°20′48″N 76°38′41″W / 39.34677°N 76.64469°W / 39.34677; -76.64469[1]Coordinates: 39°20′48″N 76°38′41″W / 39.34677°N 76.64469°W / 39.34677; -76.64469[1]
Information
School typePublic, Secondary school, High School and "Magnet" school (formerly single sex school, all - male, 1883-1974)
Motto"Uniting Theory and Practice"
Established1883 on Courtland Street (in the 300 block, later renamed St. Paul Street/Place) and East Saratoga Street (opposite present-day terraced Preston Gardens)
School boardBaltimore City Board of School Commissioners (est. 1829)
School districtBaltimore City Public Schools (est.1829)
SuperintendentDr. Sonja B. Santelises [CEO]
President(student government) Marlena Milić (BPI '17)
DirectorJacqueline Willams[2][3]
Faculty88[4]
Grades912
Gender49% male; 51% female[5]
Enrollment1647[5]
AreaUrban
Color(s)Orange   and Blue  
Song"Poly Hymn"
Fight song"Poly Fight Song"
Athletics conferenceMaryland Public Secondary Schools Athletic Association (MPSSAA) since 1994 [formerly in the Maryland Scholastic Association - MSA (1919-1994)]
Sports23[5]
Mascot"Poly Parrot"
NicknameB.P.I.; Poly; Polytechnic; Tech; The Institute
Team name"The Engineers"
RivalsThe Baltimore City College ("The Black Knights" / "The Collegians")
USNWR ranking2,167[4]
Newspaper"The Poly Press" (est. 1909)
Yearbook"The Poly Cracker"
Budget$10,748,593.00 (fiscal year 2014)[6]
Websitewww.bpi.edu

HistoryEdit

BPI was founded in 1883, after Joshua Plaskitt petitioned the Baltimore City authorities to establish a school for instruction in engineering. The original school was named the Baltimore Manual Training School, and its first class was made up of about sixty students, all of whom were male. The official name of the school was changed in the 1893 to "The Baltimore Polytechnic Institute" by the Baltimore City Board of School Commissioners. The first principals were Dr. Richard Grady, Lt. John D. Ford (U.S.N.), and Lieutenant William King (U.S.N.), after whom one of the three main campus buildings – King Memorial Hall was named in the 1980s. The first building was located on the former site of the old central City Spring on Courtland Street just north of East Saratoga Street of which the area was later contained in Baltimore's first "urban renewal" plan with the tearing down of five square blocks of houses along Courtland and Saint Paul Streets to the west and the construction of Preston Gardens and Saint Paul Place from East Lexington Street to East Centre Street in the north in 1923. The former BMTS / BPI building (and earlier elementary school dating back to the 1840s) became home to the Baltimore City Department of Welfare and was later annexed by neighboring Mercy Hospital (formerly named Baltimore City Hospital) on North Calvert and Saratoga Streets to the east and later torn down for construction of their first hospital tower in 1964. In 1983, at the school's centennial observation, a historical plaque was placed in the lobby of the hospital commemorating that earlier first home of the Manual Training School for 30 years, later to become "Poly". It just so happened in an amazing coincidence, that this building was across the street and 44 years later, almost a half-century after their long-time rival public high school The Baltimore City College ("City") was established in a row house in 1839 for a few short years, also on the now vanished narrow alley-like Courtland Street.

 
Baltimore Polytechnic Institute on the 200 block of East North Avenue, 1913–1967. Later renamed and served as the Calvert Educational Center until partially razed and renovated in the mid-1980s as the BCPS Alice Pinderhughes administrative headquarters (nicknamed "North Avenue")

, between North Calvert Street and Guilford Avenue to the east.

RelocationEdit

Due to continued growth of the student population of the BCPS and especially in the growing demand for higher secondary education at high schools like at BPI and BCC and the girls schools, the technical school relocated in 1913 to Calvert Street and North Avenue. The former 1860s converted mansion of the Maryland School for the Blind was purchased sitting on a slight hill and two massive wings on the east and west sides were added with a Greek Revival style columns on the front facade. For the first time in its 30 years history "Tech" had a suitable building expansive enough to handle both its academic and technical education requirements. By 1930, the old original central wing of "The Mansion" was razed and replaced by a simpler center wing between the two flanking 1913 structures with an additional large enormous auditorium/gymnasium wing further to the east facing North Avenue were constructed. This massive assembly hall was the largest at the time in the city and served many secular/civic/cultural occasions and events for decades into the mid-1980s. While at this location, the school expanded both its academic, technical and athletic programs under the extensive longtime supervision of Dr. Wilmer Dehuff, who was fourth principal from 1921 to 1958 and reluctantly (see below) oversaw the racial integration of the school in 1952, the first instance in City of Baltimore public schools with admitting African-American/then called "Negro" – "Colored" students and two years before the rest of the nation took up this serious issue of discrimination addressed finally by the Supreme Court of the United States in May 1954 in the famous case of Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Previous black students had attended Frederick Douglass High School (formerly the "Colored High School" – second oldest in the nation – founded the same year as Poly – 1883) and the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School[7][8] Dehuff later served after his 37 years career at Poly, as the president and dean of faculty at the University of Baltimore on Mount Royal Avenue.

Integration/desegregationEdit

Most Baltimore City public schools were not integrated until after the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education. BPI had an unusually advanced and difficult college engineering "A" preparatory curriculum which included calculus, analytical chemistry, electricity, mechanics and surveying; these subjects were not offered at the black high schools in the city before 1952.[9] BPI was a whites-only school but supported by taxes on the general population. No black schools in the city (black students could not attend whites-only schools) offered such courses, nor did they have classrooms, labs, libraries or teachers comparable to those at BPI City College. Because of this a group of 16 African American students, with help and support from their parents, the Baltimore Urban League and the NAACP, applied for the engineering "A" course at the Poly;[10] the applications were denied and the students sued.

The subsequent trial began on June 16, 1952. The NAACP's intentions were to end segregation at the 50-year-old public high school. In the BPI case they argued that BPI's offerings of specialized engineering courses violated the "separate but equal" clause because these courses were not offered in high schools for black students. To avoid integration, an out-of-court proposal was made to the Baltimore City school board to start an equivalent "A" course at the "colored" (for non-whites) Frederick Douglass High School. The hearing on the "Douglass" plan lasted for hours, with Dehuff and others arguing that separate but equal "A" courses would satisfy constitutional requirements and NAACP attorney Thurgood Marshall arguing that the plan was a gamble and cost the city should not take. By a vote of 5–3, the board decided that a separate "A" course would not provide the same educational opportunities for African American students, and that, starting that fall, African American students could attend Poly.[11] The vote vindicated the NAACP national strategy of raising the cost of 'separate but equal' schools beyond what taxpayers were willing to pay.[12] Thirteen African American students, Leonard Cephas, Carl Clark, William Clark, Milton Cornish, Clarence Daly, Victor Dates, Alvin Giles, Bucky Hawkins, Linwood Jones, Edward Savage, Everett Sherman, Robert Young, and Silas Young, finally entered the school that fall. They were faced daily with racial epithets, threats of violence and isolation from many of the more than 2,000 students at the school.[13] The first of those students to graduate from Poly was Dr. Carl O. Clark in 1955. Dr. Clark went on to become the first African-American to graduate from the University of South Carolina with a degree in physics in 1976.

Modern campus (1960s–present)Edit

Baltimore Polytechnic Institute's campus
right: Dehuff Hall academic building

In 1967, then-principal Claude Burkert (1958–1969) oversaw the relocation of his school to its current location at 1400 West Cold Spring Lane, a fifty-three-acre tract of land bordering Falls Road and Roland Park. Also occupying this site is the Western High School, an all-girls school founded in 1844. Notable buildings on the campus include Dehuff Hall, also known as the academic building, where students attend normal classes, and Burkert Hall, also called the engineering building, where students attend classes in the Willard Hackerman Engineering Program. Both Western High School and Poly students make use of the auditorium/cafeteria complex, and likewise share the swimming pool and sports fields. Although the two schools share these facilities, their respective academic programs and classrooms are completely separate from one another.

In 1974, Poly officially became coeducational when it began admitting female students. The first female to enroll and successfully graduate from the "A" course was an African-American named Cindy White (1974–1978). In the late 1980s, the title "principal" was changed to "director." After the retirement of Director John Dohler in 1990, Barbara Stricklin became the first woman to head the school, as she accepted the title of Interim Director.

 
Auditorium, shared by Poly and Western students

During Director Ian Cohen's tenure (1994–2003), Poly's curriculum was again expanded when it began offering Advanced placement (AP) classes. During the 2001–2002 school year, Poly was recognized by the Maryland State Department of Education when it was named a "Blue Ribbon School of Excellence."[14] In 2011, Poly was ranked 1552 nationally and 44 in Maryland as a "Silver Medal School" by U.S. News and World Report.[4]

In 2004, Dr. Barney Wilson, a 1976 Poly graduate, became Baltimore Polytechnic Institute's first African-American director. In August 2010, assistant principal Matthew Woolston, was appointed interim director. Later on during the year, Jacqueline Williams was appointed as interim director for the 2011–2012 school year. By the end of the school year – and after a two-year, nationwide search – Williams became the first female director of the institution. Williams worked her way through the Poly ranks from student (Class of 1981), to teacher, then department head, to assistant principal, and to dean of students, before appointment to her current position as director.[2]

AcademicsEdit

Poly is a magnet school with specialized courses drawing students from across Baltimore's regular district boundaries. Admission to the school is highly competitive. Course concentrations include: the Honors STEM Program; the Ingenuity Project offering advanced science and math in conjunction with area universities; AP Capstone emphasizing Social Sciences and Humanities; and Computer Science.[15] In its 2019 nationwide survey of STEM programs spanning 2015–2019, Newsweek ranked Poly #36 among US high schools.[16]

AthleticsEdit

 
Poly's Lumsden-Scott Stadium

In addition to the school's football program, Poly's sports include basketball, soccer, cross-country, track and field, lacrosse, baseball, hockey, swimming, tennis, volleyball, and wrestling.[17] The boys' basketball team won three state championship titles in a row between 2016 and 2019.[18] The Poly Engineers baseball team has won nine Baltimore City championships since 2005 under head coach Corey Goodwin.[19]

FootballEdit

Since the early 1900s the Engineers, along with City College, had dominated the Maryland Scholastic Association (MSA) football scene. However, since joining the MPSSAA in 1993, Poly made it to the final game once in 1993, the semifinals once in 1997 and the quarterfinals in 1994 and 1998.[20]

Poly and CityEdit

City victoriesPoly victoriesTie games
No.DateCityPolyNotes
121889-1900City won the first 12 games of the series
131901City5Poly0
141903City10Poly0No game was played in 1902
151904City6Poly0
161905City6Poly4
171906City5Poly0
181907City2Poly2
191908City0Poly11Poly win
201909City0Poly11
211910City3Poly0
221911City0Poly6
231912City13Poly6
241913City10Poly20
251914City0Poly3
261915City0Poly13
271916City0Poly13City's only loss of the season
281917City0Poly26
291918City3Poly13
301919City7Poly19
311920City2Poly14
321921City0Poly27
331922City27Poly0
341923City14Poly6
351924City13Poly6City retired the Evening Sun City-Poly trophy[21]
361925City12Poly0
371926City0Poly3future City coach kicks winning field goal for Poly
381927City11Poly18
391928City6Poly33
401929City0Poly7first year with numerals on both sides of game jersey(City)
411930City0Poly18
421931City7Poly7
431932City0Poly0
441933City6Poly12
451934City13Poly0
461935City26Poly0
471936City20Poly6
481937City6Poly6
491938City33Poly0
501939City12Poly0
511940City19Poly0
521941City18Poly0
531942City19Poly7
541943City12Poly19
551944City7Poly7
561945City6Poly7
571946City6Poly0
581947City7Poly623,000 in attendance[22]
591948City13Poly12
601949City26Poly6
611950City0Poly12Lumsden was assistant coach
621951City7Poly18
631952City0Poly21
641953City0Poly620,000 in attendance
651954City0Poly19
661955City12Poly1217,242 in attendance
671956City6Poly12
681957City0Poly30
691958City6Poly12
701959City0Poly12
711960City30Poly26City's first win in 11 years
721961City30Poly8
731962City6Poly14
741963City0Poly28
751964City14Poly6
761965City52Poly6Schmoke City's quarterback, 22,676 in attendance[23]
771966City42Poly6Anderson was team captain
781967City20Poly16City headcoach George Young coaches his last high school game.
791968City26Poly6
801969City12Poly6
811970City0Poly6
821971City14Poly22
831972City6Poly32
841973City0Poly29
851974City0Poly6
861975City6Poly20
871976City0Poly34
881977City0Poly7
891978City6Poly30only 5,000 in attendance[24]
901979City7Poly31no City varsity game played by JVs[24]
911980City0Poly47no City varsity game played by JVs[24]
921981City0Poly32
931982City12Poly30
941983City0Poly18
951984City0Poly48
961985City0Poly33
971986City21Poly41
981987City34Poly22City's Chris Smith throws 100 yd TD pass,[25] first win in last 17 years
991988City20Poly7
1001989City36Poly6100th anniversary of rivalry, Mayor Schmoke throws out first ball[26]
1011990City0Poly27
1021991City14Poly8
1031992City20Poly0last game played on Thanksgiving
1041993City20Poly21
1051994City7Poly6
1061995City14Poly31
1071996City26Poly20
1081997City7Poly0
1091998City13Poly12
1101999City20Poly38
1112000City18Poly6
1122001City2Poly0Poly was forced to forfeit game (ineligible player)
1132002City6Poly7
1142003City21Poly41
1152004City6Poly24
1162005City15Poly12game played at Ravens Stadium
1172006City44Poly8game played at Ravens Stadium
1182007City26Poly20game played at Ravens Stadium
1192008City13Poly16City led 13-0 at halftime
1202009City20Poly26City dominates statistically, Poly wins in overtime.
1212010City6Poly14game was tied 6-6 at halftime
1222011City16Poly22
1232012City20Poly14
1242013City36Poly14
1252014City22Poly12both teams entered the game with losing records
1262015City42Poly6
1272016City30Poly28the game was tied at 16 at the end of regulation
1282017City22Poly18last game at M&T Bank Stadium
1292018City32Poly14game played at Hughes Stadium (Morgan State)
1302019City10Poly6City played without 10 suspended players
1312020no game due to covid-19
1322021City20Poly18Poly missed game winning field goal as time expired
1332021City24Poly12teams met for a MPSSAA playoff game
Series: City leads 67–59–6

The Poly-City football rivalry is the oldest American football rivalry in Maryland and one of the oldest public school rivalries in the U.S.—predated by the rivalry between the Boston Latin School and the English High School of Boston.[citation needed] The rivalry began in 1889, when a team from Baltimore City College (City) met a team from the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (Poly), and has continued annually.[citation needed] City leads the series with the record standing at 63–62–6.

Early yearsEdit

Little is known of the first American football game between Baltimore Polytechnic Institute (Poly) and Baltimore City College (City) in 1889, except that a JV team from Poly met City, in Clifton Park and City emerged the victor. That began the oldest football rivalry in Maryland.[citation needed] City continued to win against Poly through 1901, however in 1902, for the only time in history of the series no game was played; though, in 1931, an extra game was played to compensate.[27] Between 1903 and 1906, City won the series, but the tide turned in 1907, when the first tie in the series occurred.[28] The next year Poly scored its first victory in the rivalry.[28]

1910s and 1920sEdit

Poly dominated the series in the 1910s. The only year of the decade that City won was 1912,[29] and between 1914 and 1917, Poly shut out City. Poly's streak continued through 1921, completing a nine-year winning streak, which City broke in 1922 with a 27–0 victory.[30]

In 1926, one of the most famous Poly-City games was played. Prior to the game, the eligibility of City's halfback, Mickey Noonen, was challenged. A committee was formed to investigate Noonen's eligibility, but Noonen's father—frustrated with the investigation—struck one of the members of the committee. The result was that Noonen was not only barred from the team, but also expelled from the Baltimore City school system.[31] In spite of Noonen's removal, the two teams met at the Baltimore Stadium with 20,000 fans in attendance. The game remained scoreless well into the fourth quarter. Finally, Poly's Harry Lawrence—who later became a coach at City—kicked a successful field goal from the 30-yard leading to a 3–0 victory over City.[citation needed]

1930s and 1940sEdit

The 1930s ushered in a period of resurgence for the City team. Poly, which had dominated in the previous two decades, only picked up two wins in the 1930s.[29] In 1934, Harry Lawrence, who had kicked the winning field goal against City in 1926, became the head coach at his former rival.[32] Lawrence led City to a series of victories over Poly through the 1930s and early 1940s. In 1944, the game, which had been played on the Saturday following Thanksgiving, was moved to Thanksgiving Day. The change was the result of a scheduling conflict with the Army–Navy Game.[citation needed] The game remained on Thanksgiving Day for nearly 50 years.

Lumsden and Young: 1950s and 1960sEdit

Poly won five straight games against City to open the 1950s, and 9 of the decade's 10 games, under legendary coach Bob Lumsden, for whom the school's current football stadium is named. Lumsden finished with an 11–7 record against City when he retired as head coach in 1966. He also coached 9–0 Poly to the unofficial National High School Championship Game at Miami's Orange Bowl in 1962, against the Miami High Stingarees, but Poly lost by a score of 14–6. The team's fortunes changed later in the 1960s, when City was coached by George Young. Young guided his teams to six wins over Poly, and an equal number of Maryland Scholastic Association championships.[33] One of Young's most memorable victories occurred on Thanksgiving Day, 1965, at Memorial Stadium, when undefeated City beat undefeated Poly 52–6.[34]

1970s–presentEdit

Poly controlled the series throughout the 1970s, and well into the 1980s. City lost a total of 17 consecutive games to Poly, before winning the 99th meeting between the two programs in 1987.[citation needed] Poly's dominance during this period is the longest winning streak in the series. City also went on to win the historic 100th showdown a year later, before Poly got on another roll, starting with the 101st clash in 1989 winning the game 36–8. Poly won the 102nd meeting 27–0.

Baltimore City's public schools withdrew from the Maryland State Athletic Association, in 1993, and joined the Maryland Public Secondary Schools Athletic Association (MPSSAA).[35] This change meant that the football season would end earlier, forcing Poly and City to move their game from Thanksgiving Day to the first Saturday in November. Poly and City met for the 119th time in November 2007, a contest marred by the outbreak of a large brawl outside M&T Bank Stadium after the final whistle. Poly and City met for the 120th time on November 8, 2008. Baltimore Polytechnic Institute and Baltimore City College then met for the 121st time on November 7, 2009, with the score of 26–20. Poly and City met for the 122nd time on November 6, 2010. As of the 2018 game, City had won the prior 7 contests.

BasketballEdit

In February 2020, ESPN ranked the boys basketball team in the top 25 in the country.[36]

Principals/DirectorsEdit

  • Dr. Richard Grady (1883–1886)
  • Lt. John D. Ford (1886–1890)
  • Lieutenant William King (1890–1921)
  • Dr. Wilmer Dehuff (1921–1958)
  • Claude Burkert (1958–1969)
  • William Gerardi (1969–1980)
  • Zeney Jacobs (1980–1984)
  • Gary Thrift (1984–1985)
  • John Dohler (1985–1990)
  • Barbara Stricklin^ (1990–1991)
  • Dr. Albert Strickland (1991–1994)
  • Ian Cohen (1994–2003)
  • Sharon Kanter^ (2003–2004)
  • Dr. Barney Wilson (2004–2010)
  • Matthew Woolston^ (2010–2011)
  • Jacqueline Williams (2011–present)

^ Denotes interim director while a search for a permanent director was occurring or ongoing at the time

Notable alumniEdit

Arts, literature, and entertainmentEdit

BusinessEdit

EducationEdit

GovernmentEdit

Judicial branchEdit

Legislative branchEdit

MilitaryEdit

  • Alfred J. Stewart, 1977 - Brigadier General, United States Air Force
  • James A. Sagerholm, 1946 - Vice Admiral, United States Navy
  • George E. Voelker, 1968 - Rear Admiral, United States Navy
  • Paul J. Wiedorfer, 1939 – Won Medal of Honor at Battle of the Bulge.

SciencesEdit

SportsEdit

School songs and hymnsEdit

  • Poly Fight Song[57]
  • Polytechnic Hymn, written by James Sagerholm, Class of 1946:[57]

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Baltimore Polytechnic Institute. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS). Retrieved June 22, 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Polytechnic Institute graduate becomes first female African-American director". WBAL-TV. May 24, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  3. ^ "New Principal At Poly Makes History As First Black Woman In Position". WJZ-TV. May 24, 2012. Retrieved February 15, 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute in Baltimore, MD". U.S. News and Report. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". www.bpi.edu. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 19, 2015. Retrieved January 19, 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Templeton (Winter 1954), p. 22-29
  8. ^ Thomsen (Fall 1984), p. 235-238
  9. ^ Templeton, Furman L. (Winter 1954). "The Admission of Negro Boys to the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute "A" Course". The Journal of Negro Education. 23 (1): 29. doi:10.2307/2293243. JSTOR 2293243.
  10. ^ Crockett, Sandra. "Breaking The Color Barrier at Poly in 1952". Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore, MD.
  11. ^ "Integration of Baltimore Polytechnic High School". Maryland Civil Rights.org. Archived from the original on October 6, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  12. ^ Olson, Sherry H. Baltimore: The Building of an American City (1997) p. 368-69. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland. ISBN 0-8018-5640-X
  13. ^ Glazer, Aaron M. "Course Correction". Baltimore City Paper Online. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
  14. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". www.bpi.edu.
  15. ^ "Academic Programs". bpi.edu. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  16. ^ "The Top 500 STEM High Schools". Newsweek. November 8, 2019. Retrieved November 16, 2019.
  17. ^ "Athletic Team Schedules". bpi.edu. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  18. ^ Stackpole, Kyle (March 16, 2019). "Poly boys basketball blows out Reservoir, becomes first program to win three straight Class 3A state titles". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  19. ^ Eisenberg, Wick (April 17, 2017). "Poly Baseball Looking To Change Baltimore City's Baseball Culture". Press Box. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
  20. ^ "MPSSA Football Championships Tournament History" (PDF). Maryland Public Secondary Schools Athletic Association. Retrieved September 15, 2007.
  21. ^ Saye, Hyman, ed. (1925). The 1925 Green Bag.
  22. ^ Offit, Benson, ed. (1948). The 1948 Green Bag.
  23. ^ Jackson, James B. (November 26, 1965). "Unbeaten City Deals Poly First Loss 52–6". Baltimore Sun.
  24. ^ a b c Dixon, Joseph V., ed. (1979). The 1979 Green Bag.
  25. ^ Mills, Keith (November 8, 2007). "City vs. Poly: Tradition Time Is Here Again". The Press Box. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
  26. ^ Mills, Keith. "City vs. Poly: Tradition Time Is Here Again". Press Box Preps. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
  27. ^ Leonhart (1939), p. 219.
  28. ^ a b Leonhart (1939), p. 221.
  29. ^ a b Leonhart (1939), p. 229.
  30. ^ Leonhart (1939) p. 224.
  31. ^ Leonhart (1939), p. 225–226.
  32. ^ Leonhart (1939), p. 227.
  33. ^ Marudas, Kyriakos (1988). The Poly-City Game. Baltimore: Gateway Press. p. 66.
  34. ^ DiBlasi, Joe (November 9, 2006). "Poly-City". Word Smith Media Ventures. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved July 26, 2007.
  35. ^ Mills, Keith (November 8, 2007). "Poly vs. City: Tradition Time Is Here Again". Word Smith Media Ventures, LLC. Archived from the original on December 5, 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2007.
  36. ^ "ESPN High School Top 25". espn.com. ESPN. Retrieved February 17, 2020.
  37. ^ "H.L. Mencken | Biography, Books, Significance, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  38. ^ "House school prayer vote today is largely a case of symbolism Congress reluctant to act, but fears the power of the religious right". tribunedigital-baltimoresun.
  39. ^ "About Edward Wilson". edwardwilson.info. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
  40. ^ Hamlin, Jesse (February 7, 2005). "Dashiell Hammett's legacy lies not only in his writing, but in his living -- rough, wild and on the edge". SFGATE.
  41. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". bpi.edu.
  42. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". bpi.edu.
  43. ^ "Joseph Allan Panuska". The University of Scranton: A Jesuit Institution. The University of Scranton. Retrieved April 28, 2015.
  44. ^ "Grinnell College - A private liberal arts college in Iowa". www.grinnell.edu.
  45. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". bpi.edu.
  46. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". bpi.edu.
  47. ^ "Senate – Former Senators". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  48. ^ "Andrew J. Burns Jr., delegate, dies". tribunedigital-baltimoresun.
  49. ^ "Baltimore Polytechnic Institute". bpi.edu.
  50. ^ Alaska State House 100 years - Bio Joe Hayes Retrieved July 25, 2017
  51. ^ "Nick Mosby, District 7: Baltimore City Council". baltimorecitycouncil.com. Archived from the original on January 8, 2015.
  52. ^ "afl.com". www.afl.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2008. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  53. ^ "Jim Ostendarp profile". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved May 5, 2016.
  54. ^ "Mike Pitts, DE at NFL.com". National Football League. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  55. ^ "HS Then & Now: For Abiamiri, Draft Day Was Just Gorgeous". Press Box Online. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved September 4, 2012.
  56. ^ "Maryland State Championship". MileSplit Maryland.
  57. ^ a b "Poly Traditions". bpi.edu.

SourcesEdit

  • Leonhart, James Chancellor (1939). One Hundred Years of the Baltimore City College. Baltimore: H.G. Roebuck & Son.
  • Daneker, David C., ed. (1988). 150 Years of the Baltimore City College. Baltimore: Baltimore City College Alumni Association.
  • Marudas, Kyriakos (1988). The City-Poly Game. Baltimore: Gateway Press.
  • Templeton, Furman L. “The Admission of Negro Boys to the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute ‘A’ Course.” Journal of Negro Education 23(1) (Winter 1954)
  • Thomsen, Roszel C. “The Integration of Baltimore’s Polytechnic Institute: A Reminiscence.” Maryland Historical Magazine 79 (Fall 1984)

External linksEdit