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The Crafoord Prize is an annual science prize established in 1980 by Holger Crafoord, a Swedish industrialist, and his wife Anna-Greta Crafoord. The Prize is awarded in partnership between the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and the Crafoord Foundation in Lund. The Academy is responsible for selecting the Crafoord Laureates.[1] The prize is awarded in four categories: astronomy and mathematics; geosciences; biosciences, with particular emphasis on ecology; and polyarthritis, the disease from which Holger severely suffered in his last years.

The Crafoord Prize
Awarded for in astronomy and mathematics, biosciences, geosciences or polyarthritis research, awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Country Sweden
Presented by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
First awarded 1982 (1982)
Website www.crafoordprize.se

According to the Academy, "these disciplines are chosen so as to complement those for which the Nobel Prizes are awarded".[2] Only one award is given each year, according to a rotating scheme – astronomy and mathematics; then geosciences; then biosciences.[2] A Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis is only awarded when a special committee decides that substantial progress in the field has been made.[2] The recipient of the Crafoord Prize is announced each year in mid-January; on Crafoord Day in April, the prize is presented by the King of Sweden, who also presents the Nobel Prizes at the ceremony in December.[2][3] The prize money, which as of 2015 is 6,000,000 kr (or US$700,000), is intended to fund further research by the laureate.

The inaugural laureates, Vladimir Arnold and Louis Nirenberg, were cited by the Academy for their work in the field of non-linear differential equations. The first woman to be awarded the prize was astronomer Andrea Ghez in 2012.

Contents

LaureatesEdit

Year Category Image Laureate Nationality Work Ref.
1982 Mathematics   Vladimir Arnold Russian Theory of non-linear differential equations [4][5]
  Louis Nirenberg Canadian American[A] [4][6]
1983 Geosciences Edward Norton Lorenz American Geophysical hydrodynamics [4][7]
  Henry Stommel American
1984 Biosciences   Daniel H. Janzen American Co-evolution [4][8]
1985 Astronomy   Lyman Spitzer American Studies of the interstellar medium [4][9]
1986 Geosciences   Claude Allègre French Isotope geochemical relations [4][10]
Gerald J. Wasserburg American
1987 Biosciences Eugene Odum American Ecosystem ecology [4][11]
  Howard T. Odum American
1988 Mathematics   Pierre Deligne Belgian Algebraic geometry [4][12]
  Alexander Grothendieck None[B] [4][13]
1989 Geosciences   James Van Allen American Exploration of space, the discovery of the Van Allen belts [4][10]
1990 Biosciences   Paul R. Ehrlich American Dynamics and genetics of fragmented populations [4][14]
  E. O. Wilson American Theory of island biogeography [4][15]
1991 Astronomy Allan Sandage American Study of galaxies [4][16]
1992 Geosciences Adolf Seilacher German Research into evolution of life [4][10]
1993 Biosciences W. D. Hamilton British Theories of kin selection and genetic relationship [4][17]
  Seymour Benzer American Genetical and neurophysiological studies of fruit flies [4][18]
1994 Mathematics   Simon Donaldson British Four-dimensional geometry [4][19]
  Shing-Tung Yau American[C] Non-linear techniques in differential geometry [4][20]
1995 Geosciences Willi Dansgaard Danish Development of isotope geological analysis methods [4][10]
  Nicholas Shackleton British
1996 Biosciences   Robert May Australian Ecological research [4][21]
1997 Astronomy   Fred Hoyle British Study of nuclear processes in stars, stellar evolution [4][22]
Edwin Ernest Salpeter American [4][23]
1998 Geosciences   Don L. Anderson American Study of the structures and processes in the interior of the Earth [4][18]
Adam M. Dziewonski American[D] [4][24]
1999 Biosciences   Ernst Mayr American Developing the concept of evolutionary biology [4][25]
  John Maynard Smith British
George C. Williams American
2000 Polyarthritis Marc Feldmann British Definition of TNF-alpha [3][4]
  Ravinder N. Maini British
2001 Mathematics   Alain Connes French Theory of operator algebras, founder of the non-commutative geometry [4][26]
2002 Geosciences Dan McKenzie British Dynamics of the lithosphere [4][27]
2003 Biosciences   Carl Woese American Third domain of life [4][28]
2004 Polyarthritis Eugene C. Butcher American Study of molecular mechanisms concerning white blood cells [4][29]
Timothy A. Springer American
2005 Astronomy   James E. Gunn American Understanding the large-scale structure of the Universe [4][18]
  James Peebles American [4][30]
  Martin Rees British
2006 Geosciences   Wallace Smith Broecker American Research into the global carbon cycle [4][31]
2007 Biosciences Robert Trivers American Analysis of social evolution [4][32]
2008 Astronomy   Rashid Alievich Sunyaev Russian Contributions to high-energy astrophysics and cosmology [4][33]
Mathematics   Maxim Kontsevich Russian[E] Contributions to mathematics from modern theoretical physics [4][34]
  Edward Witten American
2009 Polyarthritis   Charles Dinarello American Isolation of interleukins, understanding their role in the onset of inflammatory diseases [4][35]
  Tadamitsu Kishimoto Japanese
  Toshio Hirano Japanese
2009   Magnus Bäck Sweden
2010 Geosciences   Walter Munk American "for his pioneering and fundamental contributions to our understanding of ocean circulation, tides and waves, and their role in the Earth's dynamics". [4][18]
2011 Biosciences   Ilkka Hanski Finnish "for his pioneering studies on how spatial variation affects the dynamics of animal and plant populations". [4][36]
2012 Astronomy   Reinhard Genzel German "for their observations of the stars orbiting the galactic centre, indicating the presence of a supermassive black hole". [4][37]
Andrea M. Ghez American
Mathematics   Jean Bourgain Belgian "for their brilliant and groundbreaking work in harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, ergodic theory, number theory, combinatorics, functional analysis and theoretical computer science". [4][38]
  Terence Tao Australian American
2013 Polyarthritis   Peter K. Gregersen American "for their discoveries concerning the role of different genetic factors and their interactions with environmental factors in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management of rheumatoid arthritis". [4][39]
  Lars Klareskog Swedish
  Robert J. Winchester American
2014 Geosciences Peter Molnar American "for his ground-breaking contribution to the understanding of global tectonics, in particular the deformation of continents and the structure and evolution of mountain ranges, as well as the impact of tectonic processes on ocean-atmosphere circulation and climate". [4][40]
2015 Biosciences Richard Lewontin American "for their pioneering analyses and fundamental contributions to the understanding of genetic polymorphism". [4][41]
Tomoko Ohta Japanese
2016 Astronomy   Roy Kerr New Zealand "for fundamental work concerning rotating black holes and their astrophysical consequences" [42][43]
  Roger Blandford American
Mathematics   Yakov Eliashberg American[F] "for the development of contact and symplectic topology and groundbreaking discoveries of rigidity and flexibility phenomena"
2017 Polyarthritis   Shimon Sakaguchi Japanese "for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases." [44]
Fred Ramsdell American
  Alexander Rudensky American[G]

NotesEdit

a Nirenberg was born in Canada.[6]

b Grothendieck was born in Germany, but spent most of his life in France and was legally stateless. He declined his prize.[13]

c Shing-Tung Yau was born in China.[45]

d Dziewonski was born in Poland.[24]

e Kontsevich was born in Russia.[34]

f Eliashberg was born in Russia.[43]

g Rudensky was born in Russia.[46]


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "About the Crafoord Prize - The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences". www.kva.se. Retrieved 2017-07-04. 
  2. ^ a b c d "About the Crafoord Prize". The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 4 July 2017. 
  3. ^ a b "King of Sweden awards Crafoord Prize to IC researchers". Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. 4 October 2000. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar "The Crafoord Prize 1982–2014" (PDF). The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  5. ^ Maugh II, Thomas H. (21 June 2010). "Vladimir Arnold dies at 72; Russian mathematician". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  6. ^ a b "Louis Nirenberg Receives National Medal of Science" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. October 1996. p. 1111. Retrieved 4 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Smith, Leonard A. (23 October 2011). "Professor Edward Lorenz: Meteorologist whose work on weather prediction led to the discovery of chaos and the 'butterfly effect'". The Independent. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  8. ^ "Daniel H. Janzen Wins 2011 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award". University of Pennsylvania. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  9. ^ Gahm, Gösta. "The Crafoord Prize 1985 in Astronomy to Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr.". IOP Publishing. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  10. ^ a b c d Reed, Christina (2009). Earth Science. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. p. 291. ISBN 978-1-4381-0979-4. 
  11. ^ Becher, Anne; Richey, Joseph (2008). American Environmental Leaders: M-Z. Amenia, NY: Grey House Publishing. p. 603. ISBN 978-1-5923-7119-8. 
  12. ^ Ruelle, David (2007). The Mathematician's Brain. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-6911-2982-2. 
  13. ^ a b Matthews, Robert (20 August 2006). "Mathematics, where nothing is ever as simple as it seems". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  14. ^ "Paul R. Ehrlich". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  15. ^ "Edward O. Wilson". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  16. ^ "Allan Sandage". The Daily Telegraph. 21 November 2010. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  17. ^ "William Donald Hamilton". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  18. ^ a b c d "Crafoord Laureates". California Institute of Technology. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  19. ^ "Simon Donaldson". Royal Society. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  20. ^ "Shing-Tung Yau". University of St Andrews. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  21. ^ Levine, Simon A. (September 1996). "Robert May Receives Crafoord Prize" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. p. 977. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  22. ^ "Professor Sir Fred Hoyle". The Daily Telegraph. 22 August 2001. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  23. ^ "Edwin Salpeter". The Guardian. 4 February 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  24. ^ a b "Dziewonski Receives 2002 William Bowie Medal". American Geophysical Union. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  25. ^ "Sussex Biologist Scoops Crafoord Prize". University of Sussex. 26 February 1999. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  26. ^ "Connes Receives 2001 Crafoord Prize" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. May 2001. p. 502. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  27. ^ "Dan McKenzie". British Library. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  28. ^ Yardley, William (31 December 2012). "Carl Woese Dies at 84; Discovered Life's 'Third Domain'". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  29. ^ Baker, Mitzi (11 February 2004). "Pathology professor Butcher takes home Sweden's other big prize, the Crafoord". Stanford University. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  30. ^ Schilling, Govert (27 January 2005). "Cosmology Pays Off". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  31. ^ "Wallace Broecker". Royal Society. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  32. ^ "Behavioral and Brain Sciences". Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  33. ^ "Crafoord Prize 2008 awarded to Rashid Sunyaev". Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics. 21 January 2008. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  34. ^ a b "Kontsevich and Witten Receive 2008 Crafoord Prize in Mathematics" (PDF). American Mathematical Society. May 2008. p. 583. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  35. ^ "Techne Corporation Board Member Recognized". PR Newswire. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  36. ^ "Ilkka Hanski receives the Crafoord Prize". University of Helsinki. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  37. ^ "Reinhard Genzel wins Crafoord Prize". Royal Astronomical Society. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  38. ^ "Jean Bourgain and Terence Tao Named 2012 Crafoord Laureates in Mathematics". Institute for Advanced Study. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  39. ^ Wollheim, Frank A. (22 August 2013). "The Crafoord Prize in polyarthritis 2013" (PDF). pp. 1–2. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/ket285. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  40. ^ "Peter Molnar wins Crafoord Prize in Geosciences". Royal Astronomical Society. 17 January 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  41. ^ Lane, Isabel (19 January 2015). "Crafoord Prize in Biosciences goes to genetic polymorphism research". Biofuels Digest. Retrieved 13 November 2015. 
  42. ^ "NZ astrophysicist awarded $1m prize". Sky News Australia. 15 January 2016. Archived from the original on 18 January 2016. Retrieved 16 January 2016. 
  43. ^ a b "Yakov Eliashberg awarded the Crafoord Prize in Mathematics". Stanford University. Retrieved 17 January 2016. 
  44. ^ Crafoord Prize 2017
  45. ^ Overbye, Dennis (17 October 2006). "The Emperor of Math". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 July 2009. 
  46. ^ "Alexander Rudensky Appointed Immunology Program Chair". Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Retrieved 24 May 2017. 

External linksEdit