BBIBP-CorV

BBIBP-CorV, also known as the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine,[1] is one of two inactivated virus COVID-19 vaccines developed by Sinopharm. In late December 2020, it was in Phase III trials in Argentina, Bahrain, Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Peru, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with over 60,000 participants.[2]

BBIBP-CorV
Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine (2021) K (cropped).jpeg
A vial of the BBIBP-CorV COVID‑19 vaccine
Vaccine description
TargetSARS-CoV-2
Vaccine typeInactivated
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Intramuscular
ATC code
  • None
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
DrugBank

On December 9, the UAE announced interim results from Phase III trials showing BBIBP-CorV had a 86% efficacy against COVID-19 infection.[3] In late December, Sinopharm announced that its internal analysis indicated a 79% efficacy.[4] While mRNA vaccines like the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and mRNA-1273 showed higher efficacy of over 90%, those present distribution challenges for some nations as they require deep-freeze facilities and trucks. BIBP-CorV could be transported and stored at normal refrigerated temperatures.[5]

BBIBP-CorV shares similar technology with CoronaVac and BBV152, other inactivated virus vaccines for COVID-19 being developed in Phase III trials.[6][7]

BBIBP-CorV is being used in vaccination campaigns by certain countries in Asia,[8][9][10] Africa,[11][12][13] South America,[14][15][16] and Europe.[17][18][19] Sinopharm expects to produce one billion doses of BBIBP-CorV in 2021.[20] On March 26, Sinopharm said more than 80 million doses had been administered.[21]

No detailed efficacy data of the vaccine has been published in peer-review journals.

A vaccination certificate of BBIBP-CorV (Beijing Institute of Biological Products, Sinopharm).

Clinical research

Phases I and II

In April 2020, China approved clinical trials for a candidate COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinopharm's Beijing Institute of Biological Products (BBIBP-CorV)[22] and the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products (WIBP-CorV).[23] Both vaccines are chemically-inactivated whole virus vaccines for COVID-19.

On October 15, the Beijing Institute of Biological Products published results of its Phase I (192 adults) and Phase II (448 adults) clinical studies for the BBIBP-CorV vaccine, showing BBIBP-CorV to be safe and well-tolerated at all tested doses in two age groups. Antibodies were elicited against SARS-CoV-2 in all vaccine recipients on day 42. These trials included individuals older than 60.[22]

BIBP-CorV may have characteristics favorable for vaccinating people in the developing world. While mRNA vaccines, such as the Pfizer–BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine showed higher efficacy of +90%, mRNA vaccines present distribution challenges for some nations, as some may require deep-freeze facilities and trucks. By contrast, BIBP-CorV can be transported and stored at normal refrigeration temperatures.[24] While Pfizer and Moderna are among developers relying on novel mRNA technology, manufacturers have decades of experience with the inactivated virus technology Sinopharm is using.[24]

Phase III

Africa and Asia

On July 16, Sinopharm began conducting a Phase III vaccine trial of 31,000 volunteers in the UAE in collaboration with G42 Healthcare, an Abu Dhabi-based company.[25] By August, all volunteers had received their first dose and were to receive the second dose within the next few weeks.[26] On December 9, UAE's Ministry of Health and Prevention announced the official registration of BBICP-CorV, after an interim analysis of the Phase III trial showed BBIBP-CorV to have a 86% efficacy against COVID-19 infection.[27] The vaccine had a 99% sero-conversion rate of neutralizing antibodies and 100% effectiveness in preventing moderate and severe cases of the disease.[28]

On September 2, Sinopharm began Phase III trial in Casablanca and Rabat on 600 people.[29][30] In September, Egypt opened registration for a Phase III trial to last one year and enroll 6,000 people.[31]

In August 2020, Sinopharm began Phase III clinical trial in Bahrain on 6,000 citizens and resident volunteers.[32][33] In a November update, 7,700 people had volunteered in the trials.[34] Also in late August, Sinopharm began a Phase III clinical trial in Jordan on 500 volunteers at Prince Hamzah Hospital.[35][36]

In Pakistan, Sinopharm worked with the University of Karachi on a trial with 3,000 volunteers.[37]

South America

On September 10, Sinopharm began a Phase III trial in Peru with the long-term goal of vaccinating a total of 6,000 people between the ages of 18 and 75.[38] In October, the trials were expanded to include an additional 6,000 volunteers.[39] On January 26, a volunteer in the placebo group of the vaccine trials had died.[40]

On September 16, Argentina began a Phase III trial with 3,000 volunteers.[41]

COVID-19 Variants

In February, lab studies of twelve serum samples taken from recipients of BBBP-CorV and ZF2001 retained neutralizing activity against 501.V2 variant although with weaker activity than against the original virus.[42] For BBIBP-CorV, geometric mean titers declined by 1.6-fold, from 110.9 to 70.9, which was less than antisera from mRNA vaccine recipients with a 6-folds decrease.[43] Preliminary clinical data from Novavax and Johnson & Johnson also showed they were less effective in preventing COVID-19 in South Africa, where the new variant is widespread.[42]

Manufacturing

Sinopharm's Chariman Yang Xioyun has said the company could produce one billion doses in 2021.[20]

In March 2021, Sinopharm and Abu Dhabi G42 announced plans to produce up to 200 million doses annually in the UAE at a new plant to become operational in 2021.[44]

In December, Egypt announced an agreement between Sinopharm and Egypt's VACSERA for the vaccine to be manufactured locally.[45]

In March, Serbia announced plans to produce 24 million doses of BBIBP-CorV annually starting in October. The production volume would be sufficient to meet the needs of Serbia and all of its neighbors, according to deputy Prime Minister Branislav Nedimović.[46]

In March, Belarus was looking to produce BBIBP-CorV locally.[19]

Marketing and Distribution

Authorization and deployment by country
  Full authorization
  Emergency authorization
  Received donated doses
  Eligible COVAX recipient (assessment in progress)[93]

On March 26, 2021 Sinopharm said more than 80 million doses had been administered so far out of 100 million doses supplied around the world.[21]

Asia

In February, Afghanistan was pledged 400,000 doses by China.[86]

In November 3, 2020 Bahrain granted emergency use authorization for frontline workers.[34] In December, Bahrain approved Sinopharm's vaccine, citing data from Phase III clinical trials that showed an 86% efficacy rate.[94]

In February, Brunei received the first batch of Sinopharm vaccines donated by China,[95] which has been approved for emergency use.[96]

In January, Cambodia said China would provide a million doses.[97] Cambodia granted emergency use authorization on February 4[98] and started the vaccination campaign on February 10 with the first 600,000 doses.[99]

In China, Sinopharm obtained an EUA in July.[100] On December 30, China's National Medical Products Administration approved BBIBP-CorV for general use.[8] In February, Macau received the first 100,000 doses of 400,000 doses.[101]

In October, Indonesia reached an agreement with Sinopharm to deliver 15 million dual-dose vaccines in 2020.[102]

In February, Iran approved emergency use of BBIBP-CorV,[103] and received 250,000 doses on February 28.[104]

In January, Iraq approved BBIBP-CorV for emergency use[105] and signed agreements for 2 million doses. The first doses arrived on March 2.[106]

In January, Jordan approved BBIBP-CorV for emergency use[107] and began vaccinations on January 13.[108]

In March, Kyrgyzstan received a donation of 150,000 doses[109] and began vaccinations on March 29.[65]

In January, Laos began vaccinating healthcare workers in Vientiane [110] and received another 300,000 doses in early February.[111]

In April, Lebanon received a donation of 90,000 doses[112] after granting emergency use authorization on March 2.[113]

In March, Maldives granted emergency approval for use.[69] 100,000 doses were received on March 25 out of a total of 200,000 donated doses.[114]

In February, Mongolia received a donation of 300,000 doses.[115] On March 10, Governor of Ulaanbaatar D. Sumiyabazar and Deputy Prime Minister S. Amarsaikhan received the first doses.[72]

In February, Nepal approved the vaccine for emergency use,[116] and a donation of 800,000 doses arrived on March 29.[117]

In December, Pakistan's purchased 1.2 million doses,[118] which was approved for emergency use on January 18,[119] and began a vaccination campaign on February 2.[10]

In March, Palestine received 100,000 doses donated by China.[120]

In March, Sri Lanka approved the vaccine for emergency use,[83] and received the first batch of 600,000 donated doses on March 31.[121]

On 14 September 2020, the United Arab Emirates approved the vaccine for front-line workers following successful interim Phase III trials.[25] In December, the country registered BBIBP-CorV after it reviewed the results of the interim analysis.[27] In March, a small number of people who have reduced immunity against diseases, have chronic illnesses, or belong to high-risk groups have been given a 3rd booster shot.[122]

Africa

In February, Algeria received a donation of 200,000 doses.[88]

In March, Angola received a donation of 200,000 doses.[87]

In April, Cameroon took delivery of 200,000 doses.[123]

Egypt plans to buy 40 million doses[124] which was approved for regulatory use on January 3.[124] President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi announced a vaccination campaign starting 24 January.[11]

In March, Ethiopia received a donation of 300,000 doses.[125]

In February, Equatorial Guinea received a donation of 100,000 doses which arrived on February 10. The country began vaccinations on February 15.[58]

In March, Gabon received a donation of 100,000 doses which was the second vaccine approved for use in the country.[59]

Morocco has ordered 40 million doses, of which 2.5 million had arrived in March, with another 10 million arriving in April and May.[126] Morocco first granted emergency use approval on January 23.[127]

In March, Mauritania received a donation of 50,000 doses[128] and started its vaccination campaign on March 26.[70]

In February, Mozambique received a donation of 200,000 doses[129] and planned to start vaccinations on March 8.[130]

In March, Namibia received a donation of 100,000 doses and announced the start of vaccinations in the Khomas and Erongo regions.[75]

In March, Niger received a donation of 400,000 doses with vaccinations to begin on March 27.[77]

In February, Senegal received 200,000 doses[131] and began vaccinating health workers on February 22.[132]

In February, Sierra Leone received a donation of 200,000 doses.[133] It was approved for emergency use and vaccinations began on March 15.[82]

In January, Seychelles said it would begin administering vaccinations on January 10 with 50,000 doses it had received as a gift from the UAE.[134]

In March, Sudan received a donation of 250,000 doses.[91][92]

In March, Republic of the Congo received 100,000 doses with vaccinations prioritizing the medically vulnerable and those over 50.[135]

In February, Zimbabwe purchased 600,000 doses on top of 200,000 doses donated by China,[136] and started vaccinations on February 18.[13] Zimbabwe later purchased an additional 1.2 million doses.[137]

North America

In April, Barbados announced it would receive 30,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV, according to Prime Minister Mia Mottley.[138]

In February, the Dominican Republic ordered 768,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV.[139]

In March, Dominica received 20,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV which it began using in its vaccination campaign on March 4.[140]

In March, Mexico announced it would order 12 million doses of BBIBP-CorV pending approval by its health regulator.[141]

South America

In February, Argentina authorized emergency use of BBIBP-CorV[142] ahead of the arrival of 904,000 doses on February 26.[143] Eligibility was expanded to include people older than 60 on March 25.[14]

In February, Bolivia purchased 400,000 doses on top of 100,000 doses donated by China,[144] and started its vaccination campaign on February 26.[16]

In March, Guyana received a donation of 20,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV.[145] Vaccinations were to start on March 7.[146]

In January, Peru purchased 38 million doses of BBIBP-CorV.[147] Peru granted emergency approval on January 27[148] and started vaccinations on February 9.[15]

In March, Venezuela granted approval for the vaccine[149] and the first 500,000 doses arrived on March 2.[150]

Europe

In February, Belarus received a donation of 100,000 doses[151] and began using the vaccine on March 15.[19]

In April, Georgia received 100,000 doses for which vaccinations would begin after it receives the WHO authorization.[152]

In January, Hungary became first EU member to approve BBIBP-CorV, signing a deal for 5 million doses.[153] The first 550,000 doses arrived in Budapest on February 16[154] and vaccinations started on February 24.[18] Prime Minister Viktor Orbán was vaccinated with BBIBP-CorV on February 28.[155]

In March, Moldova received 2,000 doses donated by the UAE[156] which will be used to vaccinate doctors at the State University of Medicine and Pharmacy starting on March 22.[71]

On March 3, Montenegro received a donation of 30,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV.[90]

In February, North Macedonia signed an agreement for 200,000 doses of BBIBP-CorV, with which they hoped to launch their vaccination program later that month.[157]

On January 19, Serbia started vaccinations with BBIBP-CorV and was the first country in Europe to approve the vaccine. By April, Serbia has received 2.5 million doses. In March, Serbia's had signed an agreement for an additional 2 million doses.[158]

Oceania

In April, Solomon Islands receive a donation of 50,000 doses.[159]

Controversies

Lack of public data

Unlike Moderna's MRNA-1273, Oxford-AstraZeneca's AZD1222, and Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.COV2.S, there is little public information about the Chinese vaccine's safety or efficacy.[160] The UAE said it had reviewed Sinopharm's interim data analysis which showed the vaccine was 100% effective to prevent moderate and severe instances of COVID-19, but did not say whether it had independently analyzed the case data in its review. It was unclear how Sinopharm drew conclusions, since the UAE announcement of the approval for BBIBP-CorV noticeably lacked details such as the number of COVID-19 cases in the placebo or active group or the volunteers ages.[161]

As of December 30, 2020, no detailed efficacy data of the vaccine has been released to the public. A Sinopharm executive said detailed data would be released later and published in scientific journals in China and internationally.[8]

Sinopharm president Wu Yonglin said the trial results exceeded the WHO's requirements, but a director at a large pharmaceutical company in Shanghai expressed skepticism over the trials and the expectation that drug regulators in Bahrain and the UAE would not hold the same standard as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[162]

Unauthorized use in Asia

On December 30, Philippine Defense Secretary Delfin Lorenzana said in an interview that at least one minister and president Rodrigo Duterte's bodyguards were provided BBIBP-CorV which were "smuggled" but that he felt what happened was "justified". Brigadier General Jesus Durante, head of the Presidential Security Guard (PSG), said he felt compelled and "took the risk" to have some of his men vaccinated because they provide close-in security to Duterte, who at 75 is highly vulnerable to COVID-19.[163] Ingming Aberia, an author at The Manila Times commented that FDA director-general Enrique Domingo had reason to believe Sinopharm may cause harm to the consuming public given that no COVID-19 vaccine license was issued, but out of "self-preservation", he would not initiate charges against PSG.[164]

On January 1, Mainichi Shimbun reported that 18 wealthy people, including several owners of leading Japanese companies, have been vaccinated with Sinopharm vaccines since November 2020. The vaccines were brought in by a Chinese consultant close to a senior member of the Communist Party of China.[165]

References

  1. ^ How the Sinopharm Vaccine Works Jonathan Corum and Carl Zimmer 22 March 2021, www.nytimes.com, accessed 11 April 2021
  2. ^ Reuters Staff (2020-11-19). "China Sinopharm's coronavirus vaccine taken by about a million people in emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  3. ^ "UAE: Ministry of Health announces 86 per cent vaccine efficacy". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  4. ^ Wee, Sui-Lee; Qin, Amy (2020-12-30). "China Approves Covid-19 Vaccine as It Moves to Inoculate Millions". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  5. ^ "China State-Backed Covid Vaccine Has 86% Efficacy, UAE Says". Bloomberg.com. 2020-12-09. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  6. ^ Cohen J (December 2020). "China's vaccine gambit". Science. 370 (6522): 1263–1267. Bibcode:2020Sci...370.1263C. doi:10.1126/science.370.6522.1263. PMID 33303601.
  7. ^ Tan Y (16 December 2020). "Covid: What do we know about China's coronavirus vaccines?". BBC News. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
  8. ^ a b c Liu R (2020-12-31). "China gives its first COVID-19 vaccine approval to Sinopharm". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  9. ^ Turak, Natasha (2021-01-18). "The UAE is on track to have half its population vaccinated by the end of March". CNBC. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  10. ^ a b Dawn.com (2021-02-02). "PM Imran kicks off Pakistan's Covid-19 vaccination drive". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  11. ^ a b Reuters Staff (2021-01-24). "Sisi says Egypt to begin COVID-19 vaccinations on Sunday". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-24.
  12. ^ Dumpis, Toms (2021-01-27). "Morocco Receives Half a Million Doses of Chinese Sinopharm Vaccine". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2021-01-28.
  13. ^ a b "Zimbabwe starts administering China's Sinopharm vaccines". thestar.com. 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-20.
  14. ^ a b "Argentina autoriza la vacuna china Sinopharm para mayores de 60 años". El Comercio. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  15. ^ a b Aquino, Marco (2021-02-10). "'The best shield': Peru launches inoculation drive with Sinopharm vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  16. ^ a b "Bolivia begins inoculation with Sinopharm jabs | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  17. ^ "Serbia Becomes First European Nation To Use China's Sinopharm Vaccine". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  18. ^ a b "Hungary first EU nation to use China's Sinopharm vaccine against COVID". euronews. 2021-02-24. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  19. ^ a b c d "Belarus begins COVID-19 vaccinations with Chinese shots". eng.belta.by. 2021-03-15. Retrieved 2021-03-16.
  20. ^ a b "Which companies will likely produce the most COVID-19 vaccine in 2021?". Pharmaceutical Processing World. 2021-02-05. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  21. ^ a b Liu, Roxanne (2021-03-26). "100 million doses of China Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccines supplied globally". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  22. ^ a b Xia S, Zhang Y, Wang Y, Wang H, Yang Y, Gao GF, et al. (October 2020). "Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, BBIBP-CorV: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1/2 trial". The Lancet. Infectious Diseases. 21 (1): 39–51. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(20)30831-8. PMC 7561304. PMID 33069281.
  23. ^ Xia S, Duan K, Zhang Y, Zhao D, Zhang H, Xie Z, et al. (September 2020). "Effect of an Inactivated Vaccine Against SARS-CoV-2 on Safety and Immunogenicity Outcomes: Interim Analysis of 2 Randomized Clinical Trials". JAMA. 324 (10): 951–960. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.15543. PMC 7426884. PMID 32789505.
  24. ^ a b "China State-Backed Covid Vaccine Has 86% Efficacy, UAE Says". Bloomberg.com. 2020-12-09. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  25. ^ a b Maxwell C. "Coronavirus: UAE authorises emergency use of vaccine for frontline workers". The National. Retrieved 14 September 2020.
  26. ^ "Coronavirus: 15,000 register as volunteers for Covid-19 vaccine trial in UAE". The National. 13 August 2020. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
  27. ^ a b Reuters Staff (2020-12-09). "UAE says Sinopharm vaccine has 86% efficacy against COVID-19". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  28. ^ "UAE: Ministry of Health announces 86 per cent vaccine efficacy". gulfnews.com. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
  29. ^ "Morocco orders R-Pharm Covid-19 vaccine | The North Africa Post". northafricapost.com. Retrieved 2020-10-07.
  30. ^ "Chinese Clinical Trial Register (ChiCTR) - The world health organization international clinical trials registered organization registered platform". www.chictr.org.cn. Retrieved 2020-10-21.
  31. ^ "Egypt to start receiving volunteers for COVID-19 vaccine trials". Egypt Independent. 2020-09-12. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  32. ^ "Bahrain starts Phase III trial of Sinopharm's Covid-19 vaccine". Clinical Trials Arena. 24 August 2020.
  33. ^ Manama TD. "Vaccine trial continues | THE DAILY TRIBUNE | KINGDOM OF BAHRAIN". DT News. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  34. ^ a b Barrington L (3 November 2020). "Bahrain allows Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine candidate use in frontline workers". Reuters. Retrieved 3 November 2020.
  35. ^ Liu R (5 September 2020). "China's CNBG, Sinovac find more countries to test coronavirus vaccines". Reuters. Retrieved 6 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Jordan starts phase 3 trial of China's COVID-19 vaccine". Jordan Times. 2020-08-30. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
  37. ^ "Coronavirus vaccine should be available in Pakistan 'within 6-8 weeks'". www.geo.tv. Retrieved 2020-11-14.
  38. ^ "Third Phase of Human Trials for Coronavirus Vaccine Underway in Peru | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 2020-09-11.
  39. ^ "6,000 additional volunteers required for trials of Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine" (in Spanish). Andina. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
  40. ^ Aquino, Marco (2021-01-27). "Peru volunteer in Sinopharm vaccine trial dies of COVID-19 pneumonia, university says". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  41. ^ "Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy, Immunogenicity and Safety of the Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (COVID-19) - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov". clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2020-09-28.
  42. ^ a b Liu, Roxanne (2021-02-03). "Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine remained active against S.Africa variant, effect reduced - lab study". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  43. ^ Huang, Baoying; Dai, Lianpan; Wang, Hui; Hu, Zhongyu; Yang, Xiaoming; Tan, Wenjie; Gao, George F. (2021-02-02). "Neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 VOC 501Y.V2 by human antisera elicited by both inactivated BBIBP-CorV and recombinant dimeric RBD ZF2001 vaccines". bioRxiv: 2021.02.01.429069. doi:10.1101/2021.02.01.429069.
  44. ^ "Sinopharm Covid-19 shot dubbed Hayat Vax for local rollout after UAE-China deal". Arabian Business.
  45. ^ "Chinese COVID-19 vaccine effective: Egypt's MoH". EgyptToday. 2020-12-13. Retrieved 2020-12-15.
  46. ^ "Serbia to produce 24 mln doses of China's Sinopharm vaccine annually - deputy PM". seenews.com. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
  47. ^ "Bahrain approves China's Sinopharm coronavirus vaccine". Arabian Business Industries. 13 December 2020.
  48. ^ Kuo L. "China approves Sinopharm coronavirus vaccine, the country's first for general use". The Washington Post.
  49. ^ "President Ramkalawan and First Lady receives second dose SinoPharm Vaccine". statehouse.gov.sc. Retrieved 5 February 2021.
  50. ^ Wee S (9 December 2020). "Chinese Covid-19 Vaccine Gets Key Push, but Doubts Swirl". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  51. ^ "Coronavirus: UAE authorises emergency use of vaccine for frontline workers". The National. Retrieved 24 November 2020.
  52. ^ Biannchi, Walter (21 February 2021). "Argentina approves Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  53. ^ "Bolivia begins inoculation with Sinopharm jabs | The Star". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 28 February 2021.
  54. ^ "COVID-19: Brunei to begin mass vaccination on April 3". The Scoop. 2021-04-02. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  55. ^ Rinith T (4 February 2021). "Health Ministry grants Emergency Use Authorization to China's Sinopharm vaccine". Khmer Times. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  56. ^ "Dominica: Melissa Skerrit receives the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine". WIC News. 4 March 2021. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  57. ^ "Egypt licenses China's Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use: health minister – Xinhua | English.news.cn". Xinhua News Agency.
  58. ^ a b "Equatorial Guinea President receives 1st dose of Chinese COVID-19 vaccine". dailynewsegypt.com. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  59. ^ a b "Gabon receives 100,000 doses of Sinopharm's vaccine from China". Gabon 24. 2021-03-12. Retrieved 2021-03-13.
  60. ^ "Sinopharm vaccine rollout starts this weekend". Stabroek News. 6 March 2021. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  61. ^ "Hungary signs deal for Chinese Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine, first in EU". National Post.
  62. ^ "Iran Launches Phase Two of Mass Inoculation Campaign". Financial Tribune. 22 February 2021. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  63. ^ "Iraq approves Sinopharm, AstraZeneca vaccines". Big News Network.com. Retrieved 30 January 2021.
  64. ^ "First batch of Chinese Sinopharm vaccine arrives in Jordan". Roya News. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  65. ^ a b "Kyrgyz health minister is vaccinated as rollout begins". Информационное Агентство Кабар. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  66. ^ "Laos declares Covid-19 vaccinations safe, more to be inoculated next week | The Star". The Star. Malaysia. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  67. ^ Crean, Rosabel. "China donates 50,000 doses of Sinopharm vaccine to Lebanon | News , Lebanon News | THE DAILY STAR". Daily Star. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  68. ^ "Macau receives first batch of COVID-19 vaccines". IAG. 7 February 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2021.
  69. ^ a b "MFDA approves Pfizer, Sinopharm Covid-19 vaccines for emergency use". raajje.mv. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  70. ^ a b "Mauritania begins COVID-19 vaccination campaign". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2021-03-26.
  71. ^ a b Cristina (2021-03-19). "O mie de studenți și medici-rezidenți din cadrul USMF vor fi imunizați anti-COVID cu vaccinul BBIBP-CorV, produs de către Sinopharm Beijing Institute of Biological Products". Ziarul de Gardă (in Romanian). Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  72. ^ a b "Deputy PM and City Governor get the first dose of Sinopharm vaccine". MONTSAME News Agency. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  73. ^ "Covid-19: Morocco authorizes use of the Sinopharm vaccine". en.yabiladi.com.
  74. ^ Reuters Staff (6 March 2021). "Mozambique expects to vaccinate 16 million against coronavirus by 2022". Reuters. Retrieved 7 March 2021.
  75. ^ a b Namibian, The. "Khomas, Erongo first to get vaccinated". The Namibian. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
  76. ^ Poudel, Arjun. "China's Shinopharm vaccine gets emergency use authorisation in Nepal". Kathmandu Post. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  77. ^ a b "Covid-19 : Le Niger réceptionne 400.000 doses de vaccin SINOPHARM, un don de la Chine | Agence Nigérienne de Presse". www.anp.ne. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  78. ^ Shahzad A (19 January 2021). "Pakistan approves Chinese Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". Reuters.
  79. ^ "Peru grants 'exceptional' approval for Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine – government sources". Reuters. 27 January 2021.
  80. ^ Asala, Kizzi. "Senegal Kicks Off COVID-19 Vaccination Campaign with China's Sinopharm". Africanews. Retrieved 23 February 2021.
  81. ^ "Serbia Becomes First European Nation To Use China's Sinopharm Vaccine". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  82. ^ a b Thomas, Abdul Rashid (2021-03-15). "Sierra Leone's President Bio leads the way in taking COVID-19 Vaccine". SIERRA LEONE TELEGRAPH. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
  83. ^ a b "NMRA approves sinopharm vaccine for emergency use". Colombo Gazette. 2021-03-19. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  84. ^ Sequera, Vivian (1 March 2021). "Venezuela approves use of China's Sinopharm coronavirus vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  85. ^ Mutsaka, Farai (18 February 2021). "Zimbabwe starts administering China's Sinopharm vaccines". The Star. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  86. ^ a b "China 'to provide 400,000 COVID vaccine doses' to Afghanistan". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-03-01.
  87. ^ a b "Angola recebeu doação chinesa de 200 mil doses de vacinas Sinopharm". Notícias ao Minuto (in Portuguese). 2021-03-25. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  88. ^ a b Presse, AFP-Agence France. "Algeria Receives 200,000 Coronavirus Jabs From China". www.barrons.com. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  89. ^ Flick, Maggie (2021-03-29). "Ethiopia to get 300,000 doses of Sinopharm COVID-19 shot, health minister says". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  90. ^ a b Radomir, Ralev. "Montenegro receives 30,000 doses of China's COVID-19 vaccine".
  91. ^ a b "China To Provide Sudan With 250,000 Doses Of Sinopharm Vaccine On Friday - Ambassador". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  92. ^ a b "China-donated Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccines arrive in Sudan". dailynewsegypt.com. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  93. ^ "Regulation and Prequalification". World Health Organization. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  94. ^ "Bahrain approves Chinese COVID-19 vaccine for use". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  95. ^ "Vaccine donation from China arrives | The Star". www.thestar.com.my. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  96. ^ "COVID-19: Brunei to begin mass vaccination on April 3". The Scoop. 2021-04-02. Retrieved 2021-04-03.
  97. ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-15). "Cambodia says China donates 1 million doses of COVID-19 vaccines". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-16.
  98. ^ "Health Ministry grants Emergency Use Authorization to China's Sinopharm vaccine". Khmer Times. 2021-02-04. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
  99. ^ "Lt Gen Manet first to be inoculated today with the Sinopharm vaccine". Khmer Times. 2021-02-09. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  100. ^ "Sinovac's coronavirus vaccine candidate approved for emergency use in China - source". Reuters. 2020-08-29. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
  101. ^ "First Sinopharm Covid-19 vaccines to arrive today". Macau Business. 2021-02-06. Retrieved 2021-02-07.
  102. ^ Taufiqurrahman M. "Indonesia can be manufacturing hub for COVID-19 vaccine, says Chinese foreign minister". Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  103. ^ "Iran Launches Phase Two of Mass Inoculation Campaign". Financial Tribune. 2021-02-22. Retrieved 2021-02-23.
  104. ^ "Iran Gets Chinese Vaccine for Coronavirus - Society/Culture news". Tasnim News Agency. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  105. ^ Jangiz, Khazan. "Iraq approves the emergency use of two more COVID-19 vaccines". www.rudaw.net. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  106. ^ "Iraq receives first Covid vaccines, gift from China". France 24. 3 March 2021.
  107. ^ "Jordan approves China's Sinopharm Covid vaccine". France 24. 2021-01-09. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  108. ^ Omari, Raed. "Jordan begins COVID-19 vaccination drive as physician, 87, gets first jab". Arab News.
  109. ^ KHARIZOV, Ruslan (2021-03-19). "150,000 doses of Sinopharm coronavirus vaccine delivered to Kyrgyzstan". 24.kg. Retrieved 2021-03-20.
  110. ^ Thanabouasy, Phayboune (2021-01-27). "Laos Begins Vaccinations for Over 600 Medical Workers". Laotian Times. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  111. ^ Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Laos receives 300,000 vaccine doses from China". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2021-02-10.
  112. ^ "90,000 Sinopharm vaccines will join a trend in inoculations distributed outside the national vaccination plan". L'Orient Today. 2021-04-06. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  113. ^ March 2021, Naharnet Newsdesk 01; 20:39. "Lebanon Authorizes Use of Chinese Vaccine Sinopharm". Naharnet. Retrieved 2021-03-07.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  114. ^ "Maldives receives shipment of 100,000 Chinese Sinopharm doses". raajje.mv. Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  115. ^ "Mongolia receives COVID-19 vaccine donation from China – The Manila Times". www.manilatimes.net. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  116. ^ "China's Shinopharm vaccine gets emergency use authorisation in Nepal". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  117. ^ "China-gifted 800,000 doses of vaccine arrive in Nepal". kathmandupost.com. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  118. ^ Peshimam GN (2020-12-31). "Pakistan to purchase 1.2 million COVID-19 vaccine doses from China's Sinopharm". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-12-31.
  119. ^ Shahzad, Asif (2021-01-19). "Pakistan approves Chinese Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  120. ^ "Palestinians receive 100,000 Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccines donated by China". Al Arabiya English. 2021-03-29. Retrieved 2021-03-29.
  121. ^ "SriLankan Airlines transports first batch of Sinopharm vaccines; President receives stock". Lanka Business Online. 2021-03-31. Retrieved 2021-03-31.
  122. ^ Sircar, Nandini. "UAE Covid vaccine: Third dose to help those with weak immunity". Khaleej Times. Retrieved 2021-03-19.
  123. ^ Kouagheu, Josiane (2021-04-11). "Cameroon receives 200,000 doses of Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-04-11.
  124. ^ a b "Egypt approves Chinese COVID vaccine, roll-out likely this month". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-01-03.
  125. ^ "Ethiopia gets 300,000 virus vaccine doses from China". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2021-03-30.
  126. ^ Kasraoui, Safaa (2021-04-07). "Morocco to Receive 10 Million Doses of COVID-19 Vaccines From China". Morocco World News. Retrieved 2021-04-08.
  127. ^ "Moroccan health ministry grants emergency approval to Sinopharm's Covid-19 vaccine". wam. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
  128. ^ "Mauritania receives first Covid-19 vaccines from China". Africanews. 2021-03-24. Retrieved 2021-03-25.
  129. ^ "China, Africa and the Vaccine Donations". Modern Ghana. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  130. ^ Mucari, Manuel (2021-03-06). "Mozambique expects to vaccinate 16 million against coronavirus by 2022". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  131. ^ Staff, Reuters (2021-02-18). "Senegal takes delivery of China's Sinopharm vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  132. ^ AfricaNews (2021-02-23). "Senegal begins covid-19 vaccination with doses from China's Sinopharm". Africanews. Retrieved 2021-02-23.
  133. ^ AFP. "Sierra Leone to receive 200,000 virus vaccine doses". ewn.co.za. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  134. ^ "Seychelles to start vaccinations with Chinese-made Sinopharm". AP NEWS. 2021-01-08. Retrieved 2021-01-08.
  135. ^ "Covid-19: le Congo-Brazzaville reçoit des milliers de doses du vaccin chinois Sinopharm". RFI (in French). 2021-03-10. Retrieved 2021-03-12.
  136. ^ Banya, Nelson (2021-02-11). "Zimbabwe purchases 600,000 Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccinations -information minister". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  137. ^ Staff, Reuters (2021-02-24). "Zimbabwe to buy 1.2 million more COVID-19 vaccine doses from China". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  138. ^ "Barbados to get 30,000 doses of Chinese Sinopharm vaccine - PM Mottley". Barbados Today. 2021-04-01. Retrieved 2021-04-01.
  139. ^ Lopez, Ezequiel Abiu (2021-02-16). "Dominican Republic launches COVID-19 vaccination campaign". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
  140. ^ "Dominica: Melissa Skerrit receives the Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine". WIC News. 2021-03-04. Retrieved 2021-03-05.
  141. ^ Jorgic, Drazen (2021-03-10). "Mexico leans on China after Biden rules out vaccines sharing in short term". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-10.
  142. ^ Biannchi, Walter (2021-02-21). "Argentina approves Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
  143. ^ "Buenos Aires Times | Shipment of 900,000 Sinopharm vaccine doses arrives in Argentina". www.batimes.com.ar. Retrieved 2021-02-26.
  144. ^ Ramos, Danny (2021-02-11). "Bolivia signs deal with China´s Sinopharm for coronavirus vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  145. ^ "China-donated Sinopharm vaccine received". Guyana Chronicle. 2021-03-03. Retrieved 2021-03-03.
  146. ^ "Sinopharm vaccine rollout starts this weekend". Stabroek News. 2021-03-06. Retrieved 2021-03-07.
  147. ^ Reuters Staff (2021-01-06). "Peru inks deals with Sinopharm, AstraZeneca for coronavirus vaccines -president". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-07.
  148. ^ Aquino, Marco (2021-01-27). "Peru grants 'exceptional' approval for Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine - government sources". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-01-28.
  149. ^ Sequera, Vivian (2021-03-01). "Venezuela approves use of China's Sinopharm coronavirus vaccine". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
  150. ^ Sequera, Vivian (2021-03-02). "Venezuela receives donated coronavirus vaccine from China". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-03-02.
  151. ^ "China sends 100,000 coronavirus vaccines to Belarus". eng.belta.by. 2021-02-19. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  152. ^ "Georgia Receives 100,000 Sinopharm COVID Vaccines". Civil.ge. 2021-04-03. Retrieved 2021-04-04.
  153. ^ "Hungary signs deal for Chinese Sinopharm's COVID-19 vaccine, first in EU". nationalpost. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  154. ^ Staff, Reuters (2021-02-16). "First 550,000 doses of Chinese Sinopharm's vaccine arrive in Hungary". Reuters. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
  155. ^ "Hungary's PM Viktor Orbán vaccinated against COVID with Chinese Sinopharm vaccine". euronews. 2021-02-28.
  156. ^ "Emiratele Arabe Unite au donat Republicii Moldova un lot de vaccin împotriva COVID-19". TV8 (in Romanian). 13 March 2021.
  157. ^ "Vaccine delay in North Macedonia stirs political tension". ABC News. Retrieved 2021-02-12.
  158. ^ "Serbia receives further 500,000 doses of China's COVID-19 vaccine". seenews.com. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
  159. ^ "China's Sinopharm Vaccine Arrives - Solomon Times Online". SolomonTimes.com. Retrieved 2021-04-12.
  160. ^ "Abu Dhabi starts COVID-19 vaccinations". Arab News. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
  161. ^ Wee SL (9 December 2020). "Chinese Covid-19 Vaccine Gets Key Push, but Doubts Swirl". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 December 2020.
  162. ^ Yu, Sun (December 31, 2020). "China approves first domestic Covid-19 vaccine for general use". Financial Times. Retrieved January 12, 2021.
  163. ^ Dancel R. "Philippine officials under fire from critics, health authorities for unsanctioned Covid-19 vaccinations". The Straits Times.
  164. ^ Aberia, Ingming (6 January 2021). "Did Sinopharm forget that Duque exists?". The Manila Times. Retrieved 9 January 2021.
  165. ^ "水面下で出回る中国ワクチン 富裕層から永田町へ? 狙われる日本市場". Mainichi Daily News (in Japanese). 2020-12-31. Retrieved 2021-01-02.

External links