Q. Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo!

  (Redirected from Are We Not Men? We Are Devo!)

Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! is the debut studio album by the American new wave band Devo. It was originally released in August 1978 on the Warner Bros. label (Virgin Records in Europe). Produced by Brian Eno, the album was recorded between October 1977 and February 1978, primarily in Cologne, West Germany.

Q: Are We Not Men?
A: We Are Devo!
Are We Not Men We Are Devo!.jpg
Studio album by
ReleasedAugust 28, 1978 (1978-08-28)
RecordedOctober 1977, February 1978
Devo chronology
Mechanical Man EP
Q: Are We Not Men?
A: We Are Devo!

Duty Now for the Future
Singles from Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo!
  1. "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction"
    Released: September 1977
  2. "Jocko Homo"
    Released: February 1978[5]
  3. "Come Back Jonee"
    Released: August 1978[6]
Alternative cover
Cover of European editions
Cover of European editions

The album received somewhat mixed reviews from critics and peaked at No. 78 on the U.S. Billboard chart and No. 12 on the UK Albums Chart. Recent reviews of the album have been more uniformly positive and the album has been included on several retrospective "best of" lists from publications including Rolling Stone, Pitchfork, and Spin.

On May 6, 2009, Devo performed the album live in its entirety for the first time as part of the Don't Look Back concert series curated by All Tomorrow's Parties. On September 16, 2009, Warner Bros. and Devo announced a re-release of Q: Are We Not Men? and Freedom of Choice, with a tour performing both albums.[7]

Production and recordingEdit


Mark Mothersbaugh, Gerald Casale, and Bob Mothersbaugh wrote the album over three years between 1974 and 1977. Jocko Homo (Written by Mark) was demoed in 1974; this demo, which appears on the group's Hardcore compilation, is shorter than the album version by about a minute.[8] Devo first played the song live on Halloween Night of 1975.[9] A recording of this performance was featured on the live compilation album, The Mongoloid Years. The recording lasts 6 minutes,[10] although in 1997, Mark Mothersbaugh recalled it as lasting 30.[9] During this period, Devo were a quartet consisting of Mark Mothersbaugh, Gerald Casale, Bob Mothersbaugh, and Jim Mothersbaugh[10] In 1976, Alan Myers replaced Jim Mothersbaugh as the group's drummer,[11] and Bob Casale re-joined as rhythm guitarist and additional keyboardist following a two-year absence.[12][13] An early performance with this line-up from December 1976 was also featured on The Mongoloid Years and included Space Junk.[10] By February 1977, Devo were also performing Shrivel Up live as well as early versions of Uncontrollable Urge, Praying Hands, Mongoloid, Too Much Paranoias and plus 7+ minute long version of Jocko Homo.[14] In March 1977, Devo released their first single, a self-produced version of 'Mongoloid / Jocko Homo.' The version of Jocko Homo featured is slightly shorter than the album version and features an additional line that was cut from the album.[15] The line has been retained in live performances.[16]

By May 19, 1977, the group performed all the album's tracks live,[17] and would continue to develop them throughout the year.


In 1977, David Bowie and Iggy Pop received a tape of Devo demo songs from the wife of Michael Aylward, guitarist in another Akron, Ohio, band, Tin Huey.[18] Both Pop and Bowie, as well as Brian Eno and Robert Fripp, expressed interest in producing Devo's first release.[19] In October 1977, Patrick Gleeson invited to record the tracks "Come Back Jonee" and "Shrivel-Up" at Different Fur Studios, in San Francisco, California.[20] The following month, Devo returned to New York City and were introduced ahead of a show at Max's Kansas City by David Bowie, who told the audience that he planned to produce Devo's first album in Toyko over the winter.[21]

Eventually, Eno was chosen to produce the album at Conny Plank's studio located near Cologne, Germany.[19] The band were flown to Germany in February 1978.[22] Bowie was busy with filming Just a Gigolo but helped Eno produce the record during weekends.[19][23] Since Devo was without a record deal, Eno paid for the flights and studio cost for the band, confident that the band would be signed to a record contract.[19] In return for his work on the album, Eno asked for a share of any subsequent deals.[24] The earlier takes of Come Back Jonee and Shrivel Up had been overdubbed during these sessions.[20]

Gerald Casale was not present for the first day of recording, as he had missed the flight. With their bassist missing, the group spent the first day playing with Eno, Bowie, Holger Czukay and Dieter Moebius.[25]

The recording sessions were a source of frustration for Eno and Devo. Eno found the band unwilling to experiment or deviate from their early demonstrations of recorded songs.[26] Devo later admitted that "we were overtly resistant to Eno's ideas. He made up synth parts and really cool sounds for almost every part of the album, but we used them on three or four songs."[27] A majority of the tracks were later remixed by Bowie; excluding "Space Junk", and "Shrivel Up", which had Eno's production still intact.[citation needed]

Outtakes from the album include: "Be Stiff", released as a non album single that same year; "Social Fools", released as the B-side to "Come Back Jonee"; and "Penetration in the Centrefold", released as the B-side to "The Day My Baby Gave Me a Surprize" in 1979.

Artwork and packagingEdit

The phrase "Are we not men?" is from The Island of Doctor Moreau (1896), by H. G. Wells.[28] It is part of the litany of the Law,[29] spoken by the Speaker of the Law to the Beast Folk, creatures surgically force-evolved by the mad doctor.

The cover was illustrated by Joe Heiner. According to an essay by Devo co-founder and bass guitarist Gerald Casale included on the Complete Truth About De-evolution DVD, the cover of their debut album is based on an image of the famous professional golfer Juan "Chi-Chi" Rodríguez that they had found on a golf strap. According to Casale, David Berman, Senior Vice President of business affairs at their record label, Warner Bros., decided that the image could not be used because "he was a golf fan and felt we were making fun of Chi Chi." The band offered to contact Rodriguez personally but had time constraints, due to the forthcoming production of their album. The manager of the company's art department, Rick Serini, recommended an artist who could airbrush and alter the face of the picture, while lead singer Mark Mothersbaugh offered a picture he'd procured from a local newspaper that morphed the faces of U.S. presidents John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson, Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford. These ideas were later morphed with the original "Chi Chi" Rodriguez image to create the cover art of the album.[24]

The band did eventually get Rodriguez's permission to use the original photograph. Since the "morphed" album sleeves were already in production by that time, Serini claimed it would cost the band $2,500 to halt production and reinstate the image intended originally by the band, which forced the band to keep the morphed version. According to Casale, "we were able to come out with something that by the corporate interference and misunderstanding of the business side of Warner Bros. Records, actually unwittingly produced something far more Devo than the original [image]."[24] The original cover illustration, with Rodriguez's face intact, turned up on the picture sleeve for the band's third single, "Be Stiff".

The European version has completely different artwork and, like the American version's inner sleeve, had photographs taken from the music video for "Jocko Homo". The front cover of the European version depicts a man wearing goggles, bow tie, and rubber gloves, while the back cover features heads with sunglasses under nylon stockings).[30]

A history of the design of the sleeve is presented in episode 328 of the podcast 99% Invisible, "Devolutionary Design", featuring interviews with members of the band, Chi-Chi Rodriguez and representatives of the record industry from the time.


Devo received offers to release Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! from Warner Bros., Island, Virgin and David Bowie's production company, Bewlay Brothers.[19][27] Virgin obtained the rights to release the album in the United Kingdom, while Warner Bros. held the rights for North America.[27] The album was originally planned for a Spring 1978 release, but had to be delayed due to legal disputes between Warner and Virgin.[31] It was eventually released by Warner in the United States on August 28, 1978, and by Virgin in the United Kingdom on September 1, 1978.[27][32] Virgin also released a picture disc version of the album,[33] illustrated with a still from the band's 1976 short film The Truth About De-Evolution.

In North America, Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! peaked at No. 78 on the Billboard charts, while in the United Kingdom it entered the charts on September 16, 1978, and remained there for seven weeks, peaking at No. 12.[34][35] Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! was also successful in Japan.[36] The album went "silver" in the United Kingdom on January 15, 1979 and "gold" in the United States on July 27, 2001 (2001-07-27).[32][37]

The album's opening track, "Uncontrollable Urge", has been used in several films and television shows, including The Wolf of Wall Street,[38] Fun with Dick and Jane,[39] Ridiculousness[40] (as a cover along with Mark Mothersbaugh and "yeahs" provided by Rob Dyrdek)[41] and Jackass.[better source needed]

Critical receptionEdit

Professional ratings
Review scores
AllMusic     [2]
The Encyclopedia of Popular Music     [42]
The Rolling Stone Album Guide     [43]
Spin Alternative Record Guide9/10[44]
The Village VoiceB+[45]

Initial critical reaction to Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! was somewhat mixed. Tom Carson, writing in Rolling Stone, claimed that "There's not an ounce of feeling anywhere, and the only commitment is to the distancing aesthetic of the put-on", and opined that "Devo lacks most of Eno's warmth and much of Bowie's flair for mechanized melodrama. For all its idiosyncrasies, the music here is utterly impersonal."[46] Robert Christgau of The Village Voice reacted with muted praise, highlighting Devo's "catchy, comical, herky-jerky rock and roll" while concluding: "In small doses it's as good as novelty music ever gets, and there isn't a really bad cut on this album. But it leads nowhere."[45] Nonetheless, it was voted one of the best albums of the year in The Village Voice's Pazz & Jop critics poll for 1978.[47] In January 1980, Trouser Press also named it one of the best albums of 1978.[48]

Later reception of the album has been more uniformly positive. Steve Huey of the online music database AllMusic termed it "arguably Devo's strongest set of material" and "a seminal touchstone in the development of American new wave."[2] Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! has scored on several "best of" lists, including Spin's list of the "50 Most Essential Punk Records" and Pitchfork's list of the 100 best albums of the 1970s.[49][50] It was ranked number 447 in Rolling Stone's 2003 list of The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, climbing to number 442 in the 2012 update and shooting up to number 252 in the 2020 reboot of the list.[51][52][53] It is also listed in the book 1001 Albums You Must Hear Before You Die.

Track listingEdit

Side one
1."Uncontrollable Urge"Mark Mothersbaugh3:09
2."(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction"Mick Jagger, Keith Richards2:40
3."Praying Hands"Gerald Casale, M. Mothersbaugh2:47
4."Space Junk"G. Casale, Bob Mothersbaugh2:14
5."Mongoloid"G. Casale3:44
6."Jocko Homo"M. Mothersbaugh3:40
Side two
7."Too Much Paranoias"M. Mothersbaugh1:57
8."Gut Feeling" / "(Slap Your Mammy)"M. Mothersbaugh, B. Mothersbaugh / G. Casale4:54
9."Come Back Jonee"G. Casale, M. Mothersbaugh3:47
10."Sloppy (I Saw My Baby Gettin')"M. Mothersbaugh, B. Mothersbaugh, G. Casale, Gary Jackett2:40
11."Shrivel-Up"G. Casale, M. Mothersbaugh, B. Mothersbaugh3:05
Total length:34:24

On the European version, the second song appears as "Satisfaction (I Can't Get Me No)".[54]

Additional tracks




  • Brian Eno – producer, additional synthesizers on "Space Junk" and "Shrivel Up", distorted vocals on "Space Junk"
  • David Bowie – additional co-production
  • Conny Plank – engineer
  • Dave Hutchins – engineer
  • Patrick Gleeson – engineer
  • Devo Inc. – graphic concept and execution
  • John Cabalka – graphic supervision
  • Erik Munsön – package production design
  • Bobbi Watson – photography


To support the album, Devo undertook a lengthy world tour, lasting from October 1978 to June 1979. The look of the tour was largely based around the live act they'd been developing throughout the previous year, with the only differences being the increased budget allowing for higher quality costumes and a basic set, and a focus on the album's material, whilst teasing then unreleased songs for the next album.

The show would open with the band's 1976 short film The Truth About De-Evolution, followed by their 1978 promo videos for "Satisfaction" and "Come Back Jonee". When the band arrived on stage, they performed two songs that were not on the album supporting the tour. Then Mark Mothersbaugh would get a modified electric guitar, which would only be used for the songs "Satisfaction" and "Too Much Paranoias."

As the show would continue, the group's signature yellow suits would be gradually torn, until "Jocko Homo," where Devo would strip down to black shorts and T shirts with knee and shoulder pads. During the intro to "Smart Patrol", the group donned orange helmets, which were shaken off during the next song, "Mr. DNA." The show was ultimately concluded with lead singer Mark Mothersbaugh becoming Booji Boy and singing two songs: "Red Eye" and "The Words Get Stuck in My Throat."[57][58][59][60]

Concert Dates
Date Venue Notes
First Leg (1978–1979)
October 9, 1978 Starwood, West Hollywood, CA Opening act: The Visitors[61]
October 10, 1978 This show was shot for their The Men Who Make the Music film
October 14, 1978 Saturday Night Live, New York, NY Television appearance, performing "Satisfaction" and "Jocko Homo", the album's two lead singles
October 17, 1978 The Bottom Line, New York, NY Sold out shows
October 17, 1978
October 20, 1978 Showplace, Dover, NJ Opening act: The Two Timers
October 21, 1978 Gaston Hall, Georgetown University, Washington, DC Opening act: Razz
October 22, 1978 The Paradise, Boston, MA
October 24, 1978 El Casino, Metro Place des Arts, Montréal, QC, Canada
October 25, 1978 El Mocambo, Toronto, ON, Canada Show broadcast live on FM radio

Opening act: Nash the Slash

October 27, 1978 Punch and Judy Theatre, Grosse Pointe, MI Two shows each on these dates
October 28, 1978
October 29, 1978 Bogart's, Cincinnati, OH
October 30, 1978 Agora Ballroom, Cleveland, OH Pre-Halloween concert, opening for Willie Alexander and the Boom Boom Band
October 31, 1978 Akron Civic Theatre, Akron, OH Halloween concert
November 1, 1978 B'ginnings, Schaumburg, IL
November 3, 1978 Walker Art Center Auditorium, Minneapolis, MN Broadcast on radio; an excerpt from this show is heard on Recombo DNA
November 6, 1978 Dooley's, Tempe, AZ
November 8, 1978 Coffee House, University of California, Davis, CA Two shows, at 8:00 and 10:30 p.m.
November 10, 1978 Old Waldorf, San Francisco, CA This sold out show was broadcast live on FM radio
November 11, 1978
November 15, 1978 Kant Kino, Berlin, Germany The group's first show in Germany
November 16, 1978 Volksbildungsheim, Frankfurt, Germany
November 17, 1978 Markthalle, Hamburg, Germany
November 19, 1978 Theatre Le Palace, Paris, France The group's first show in France
November 21, 1978 Congresgebouw, The Hague, The Netherlands The group's first show in the Netherlands
November 21, 1978 Ancienne Belgique, Brussels, Belgium The group's first show in Belgium
November 26, 1978 Odeon Theatre, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Opening act: Doll by Doll
November 27, 1978 Glasgow Apollo, Glasgow, United Kingdom
November 29, 1978 Newcastle City Hall, Newcastle, United Kingdom
November 30, 1978 Sheffield City Hall, Sheffield, United Kingdom According to attendees, this show may have been rescheduled to December 13
December 1, 1978 Odeon Theatre, Birmingham, United Kingdom
December 2, 1978 Hammersmith Odeon, London, United Kingdom Opening act: Doll by Doll
December 3, 1978
December 4, 1978 Free Trade Hall, Manchester, United Kingdom
December 5, 1978 Old Grey Whistle Test, London, United Kingdom TV appearance filmed but never broadcast; the group performed "Satisfaction"[62]
December 6, 1978 Empire Theatre, Liverpool, United Kingdom Opening act: Doll by Doll
December 7, 1978 Colston Hall, Bristol, United Kingdom
December 9, 1978 Chorus, Paris, France Full concert filmed and broadcast on France 2 program Chorus
December 17, 1978 Music Hall, Detroit, MI Attendees claim this show was at the Music Hall, but newspaper listings claim it was at the Masonic Auditorium[63]
December 27, 1978 Agora Ballroom, Atlanta, GA
December 29, 1978 Painters Mill Music Fair, Owings Mills, MD
December 30, 1978 Tower Theater, Upper Darby, PA
December 31, 1978 Avery Fisher Hall, New York, NY New Year's Eve show; concert started at 12:15 a.m.
January 3, 1979 Mary Seaton Room, Kleinhans Music Hall, Buffalo, NY [64]
January 4, 1979 Akron Civic Theatre, Akron, OH
January 5, 1979 Music Hall, Detroit, MI
January 6, 1979 Park West, Chicago, IL
January 10, 1979 Paramount Theatre, Portland, OR
January 11, 1979 Paramount Northwest Theatre, Seattle, WA
January 12, 1979 Commodore Ballroom, Vancouver, BC, Canada
Second Leg (1979)
May 22, 1979 Festival Hall, Osaka, Japan The group's first show in Japan
May 23, 1979 Shi Kokaido Hall, Nagoya, Japan
May 28, 1979 Nippon Budokan Hall, Tokyo, Japan This show was filmed and broadcast for Japanese television[65]
June 1, 1979 Campus Center Ballroom, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI This show was cancelled[66]
June 2, 1979 Last date of the tour; two shows were performed


  1. "Wiggly World"
  2. "Secret Agent Man" (only performed on second leg)
  3. "Pink Pussycat"
  4. "(I Can't Get No) Satisfaction"
  5. "Too Much Paranoias"
  6. "Praying Hands"
  7. "Uncontrollable Urge"
  8. "Mongoloid"
  9. "Jocko Homo"
  10. "Smart Patrol"
  11. "Mr. DNA"
  12. "Sloppy (I Saw My Baby Gettin')"
  13. "Come Back Jonee"
  14. "Gut Feeling"
  15. "Slap Your Mammy"
  16. "Devo Corporate Anthem"
  17. "Red Eye Express"
  18. "The Words Get Stuck in My Throat"

The following songs were also played during the tour, but only as one-offs:

Chart performanceEdit

Chart Peak
Australian Kent Music Report Albums Chart[71] 57
UK Albums Chart[72] 12
US Billboard 200[73] 78


Organization Level Date
RIAA – U.S. Gold July 27, 2007 (2007-07-27)[37]


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External linksEdit