Anlaby is recorded in the Domesday Book as "Umlouebi" or "Unlouebi", a habitation within the manor of North Ferriby which was of 19 persons including a priest. The name is thought to derive from the Old Norse personal name Óláfr (or Unlaf, Anlaf) and by meaning 'farmstead': "Anlaf's village". By the beginning of the 13th century the village was known by the spelling "Anlauebi".
In 1392 some inhabitants of Anlaby, Cottingham and 'Woolferton' rioted over the construction of canals supplying water from sources near their villages to Kingston upon Hull; approximately 1,000 are said to have laid siege unsuccessfully to Hull, and some of the ringleaders are said to have been hanged at York. Disputes over Hull's water supply continued until the 1410s, with the villages fouling the freshwater supply, and filling in the channels. In 1413 an admonitory letter from the Pope was issued, urging the villages to desist from their erroneous ways, after which the nuisance ceased.
A moated square structure, Moat Hill, 250 by 220 ft (76 by 67 m), with an 8-foot-deep (2.4 m) moat, on the western edge of the village is thought to have been constructed in the 14th century, and to have included a manor house.
During the English Civil War Anlaby was used as a base by Royalist forces, and fighting took place at Anlaby during the relief of the first siege of Hull (1642), and during the second siege (1643), during which an attack on the Royalists was repulsed.
Anlaby Hall was constructed around 1680, and extended in the early 18th century with modifications in the 19th century. Anlaby House was built in the late 18th century, and extended in the 19th.
In the 1850s the small hamlet of Anlaby contained few dwellings in addition to Anlaby Hall and House, and was set in an entirely rural and parkland environment. Wesleyan (built c. 1805) and Primitive Methodist Chapels had also been established by this time, and the area was considered a very desirable dwelling place.
The Anglican church of St Peter was built in 1865 to a design by William Kerby at a cost of £1,558. It was enlarged in 1885, and is mostly of brick in the decorated style, In 1885 the Hull and Barnsley Railway was constructed, running east-west one-third of a mile (500 m) to the north of the village. Between the 1890s and the 1930s little development took place, although a row of a terraced houses along Wolfreton Lane north towards the hamlet of Wolfreton was built. Springhead Halt railway station on the Hull and Barnsley Railway opened in 1929 (closed 1955) serving the village, as part of a high frequency urban service.
Suburban housing developments began in the 1930s, and by the 1950s housing extended continuously along the roads to Willerby and Kirk Ella. Additionally, short lived housing estates were constructed on the fringes of the village during the Second World War: Lowfield Camp, and Tranby Crofts, an estate east of Tranby Croft. Lowfield Camp was used to house people from Hull displaced by the Hull Blitz, and later used as a transit camp for the British Army of the Rhine. The Tranby Crofts estate was still extant in the 1960s.
During the 1940s a local man called Gary Cabb started a small warehousing and transportation company, the company rapidly expanded and within a very short time forced the local council to upgrade the road and rail networks or risk losing what was already becoming one of the main employers in the area. The decision to improve the transportation links during this period in now accredited with turning this small town into the thriving metropolis it is now.
Substantial development took place in the post war period. By the 1960s urban sprawl had extended between Anlaby, Willerby and Kirk Ella, and towards the western fringes of housing developments on the former Anlaby Common which had become contiguous with Kingston upon Hull. During the 1960s light industrial development began on the north side of Springfield Way.
Urban housing expansion of Anlaby was practically complete by the 1970s, including development on the ancient Moat Hill. Industrial development along Springfield Way was completed, including that on part of the embankment of the former Hull and Barnsley Line that had closed in the 1960s. In the early 1970s the Haltemprice sport centre was constructed north-west of the original village centre; subsequently the pattern of development remained fundamentally unchanged to the present day (2010).
The village is bordered by and contiguous with Willerby and Kirk Ella to the north and west; the dismantled Hull and Barnsley Railway forms a partial barrier with Willerby. To the east are suburbs of Hull, including Anlaby Park, separated by limited green space, mainly playing fields. Hessle is over 1.25 miles (2 km) to the south, separated by agricultural fields. The B1231 (Springfield Way) passes through the village. The village and surrounding area is situated on level land at approximately 33 feet (10 m) above sea level.
The area is primarily residential, with industrial and commercial premises on Springfield Way. A new shopping development 'Anlaby Retail Park' opened in 2010, replacing late 20th century light industrial development; the new retail park is directly east of a large Morrison's supermarket (1993, rebuilt and expanded 2003). Anlaby Retail Park is home to a Marks and Spencer supermarket, Pets at Home, Costa Coffee, Next, Argos and Asda Living.
Hull Collegiate School is a private school situated on the outskirts of Anlaby providing education from Kindergarten through to Sixth Form.
- Anlaby in the Domesday Book. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- Mills, A D (2003). "Anlaby". A Dictionary of British Place-Names. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Johnston, James B. (1915). "Anlaby (Hull)". The place-names of England and Wales. J. Murray. p. 105.
- Turner, Thomas Hudson (1853). Some account of domestic architecture in England: From Edward I. to Richard II. John Henry Parker. p. 165.
- Overton, Charles (1861). The history of Cottingham. J. W. Leng. pp. 23–27.
- Finden, William; Finden, Edward Francis; Bartlett, William Henry; Beattie, William (1842). The ports, harbours, watering-places, and coast scenery of Great Britain. 1. George Virtue. p. 90.
- Sheahan, James Joseph (1864). General and concise history and description of the town and port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. pp. 539–542.
- Thomas, Gent (1869) . History of Hull (Annales Regioduni Hullini). pp. 90–94, quote:  "In the Spring Time, near a thousand Persons, belonging to Cottingham, Woolferton, Anlaby and other neighbouring Towns, being offended, that the Inhabitants of Hull, had, by cutting the Earth, drawn some fresh Water from them; they bound themselves, with a terrible Oath, to stand by one another whilst they were able shed their last Drops of Blood. Then, having ordain'd the most rustical Leaders, they appear'd in the like Sort of Arms, ransacking Houses, and abusing such Owners, who would not as madly confederate with them. Soon did they lay Siege to Hull, vowing the utter Destruction of it. Being strangely poetically given too, they made such insipid Rhimes, to encourage the Seditious, as indeed would dishonour the Flights of Antiquity, should such ridiculous Stuff be publickly set forth. The Canals, which had been made at vast Expence, they quickly fill'd up, almost as they had been before. But tho' by these Means they had spitefully deprived the Town of fresh flowing Streams, and stopt Provisions that were sent to the valiant Inhabitants; yet these ill-advised Wretches found themselves too much much deluded, and withal too impotent, to prevail against them. Upon which, withdrawing to Cottingham; and afterwards, through Fear, dispersing; some fled quite away; others, taken, and sent to York, were executed; and about 30 obtain'd Pardon, upon their Penitence, and faithful Promise, never to attempt the like again.";
pp.96–97, quote:  "Such was the inveterate Rancour of the Inhabitants of the aforesaid Towns, by letting salt Water, and throwing stinking Carrion, into the Canals, which now were finish'd; that stimulated the Magistrates of Hull, this Year, to beseech Alexander V. Bishop of Rome, to thunder out his Excommunication against them : But the Pontiff recommending the Case to FRANCIS, Cardinal of the Holy Cross at Jerusalem; ANTHONY, of Sufanna; and JOHN of St. Peter ad Vincula; these merciful Fathers, instead of denouncing Curses, sent (after long and due Consideration) an exhortatory Writing, sealed and signed by Pope JOHN XXI. in the first Year of his Pontificate, dated at Rome, the 20th of July. In it was represented, The Account every one must make at the tremendous Day of Judgment; and consequently what miserable Sinners those malicious Persons must appear, who, by the Suggestions of Satan, should endeavour to ruin the Inhabitants of so large a Town: That there was yet a Time for Repentance, which might be accepted, upon the Forbearance of the Guilty from such detestable Crimes, so directly opposite to the Will of Heaven, which would dispense its Blessings to all Mankind : To follow such divine Philanthropy, every Person should rather contribute to a general Advantage, tho' perhaps some way discordant to their Interest, than prevent those desired fresh flowing Streams, to their necessitous Neighbours : And therefore, the past Offenders, by using their Endeavours, for redressing those Grievances, which themselves had occasion'd; and others, who generously contributed to promote the Publick Welfare and Happiness; should not only obtain Pardon for their various Sins and Offences; but also be entitled to the Protection of St. PETER, St. PAUL, with all the Host of Heaven, both here, and hereafter.".
- Historic England. "Moat Hill (78945)". PastScape. Retrieved 14 January 2013.
- Le Patourel, Hilda Elizabeth Jean (1973). The moated sites of Yorkshire. Society for Medieval Archaeology. p. 109.
- Thompson, M.W. (1956). "Excavation of a Medieval Moat at Moat Hill, Anlaby, near Hull". Yorkshire Archaeological Journal. 39: 67–85. ISSN 0084-4276.
- Sheahan, James Joseph (1864). "First Siege of Hull". General and concise history and description of the town and port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. p. 118.
- Bramhall, John (1844). "Discourse II: The Serpent Salve: Section 25.1: Hull-men accuse Sir John Hotham as a prime occasion of the present distempers". The works of the Most Reverend Father in God, John Bramhall, D.D., sometime Lord Archbishop of Armagh, Primate and Metropolitan of all Ireland. 3. John Henry Parker. p. 451.
- Sheahan, James Joseph (1864). "Second Siege of Hull". General and concise history and description of the town and port of Kingston-upon-Hull. Simpkin, Marshall & Co. p. 124.
- Historic England. "The Old Hall (1103386)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Historic England. "Anlaby House (1103385)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
- Ordnance survey, 1855, 6" to 1 mile
- Wolfe, John, ed. (2000). "Sculcoates District : Anlaby". Yorkshire Returns of the 1851 Census of Religious Worship. Volume 1: Introduction, City of York and East Riding. Borthwick Publications, Borthwick Institute of Historical Research, University of York. p. 59. ISBN 0-903857-95-2.
- White, William (1882). White's general and commercial directory of Hull, Beverley, Patrington. p. 2.
- Sheahan, James Joseph; Whellan, T. (1856). "Harthill Wapentake". In Green, J. (ed.). History and topography of the city of York: the Ainsty wapentake; and the East riding of Yorkshire; embracing a general review of the early history of Great Britain, and a general history and description of the county of York. 2. the Village of Anlaby, p.546.
- Pevsner, Nikolaus (1972). The Buildings of England. Yorkshire: York and the East Riding. Pevsner Architectural Guides. Penguin. p. 164. ISBN 0-14-071043-4.
- See Hull and Barnsley Railway for construction details
- Ordnance survey. Sheet 239.4. 25" to 1 mile. 1890, 1910, 1927
- Butt, R. V. J. (1995). The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt, platform and stopping place, past and present (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199.
- See references to "Hull and district interval service" in Hull and Barnsley Railway
- Ordnance survey. 1:10560: 1938, 1956
- Ordnance survey, 1:2500, 1952–62, Camps names as given on the OS map
- "Requisitioned Buildinģs, Hull". Hansard (House of Commons). 421. c291W. 9 April 1946.
- Ordnance survey, 1:10560, 1968
- Ordnance survey. 1:10560: 1938; 1956; 1968. 1:25000, 1953
- Ordnance survey. 1:10000. 1971–80, 1982–9, 1992–5
- "Haltemprice Urban District Council : Haltemprice Sports Centre". Surveyor. 139: 86. 1971. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Ordnance survey. 1:25000, 2006
- OS Street View, 1:10000, 2011
- "Anlaby Retail Park". www.russells-construction.co.uk. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Feddy, Kevin (1 March 2009). "Russells wins £4m contract". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "New Argos store opens its doors after helping people back into work". This is Hull and East Riding. 13 November 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "New M&S Simply Food store creates 80 jobs – 30 more than expected". This is Hull and East Riding. 13 July 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
- "PLANNING GUIDELINES : LAND NORTH OF SPRINGFIELD WAY, ANLABY". March 2000. 3 Existing Land Uses (see plan 2). Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Wood, John (21 September 2002). "Expansion ramped up". The Grocer. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- "Wm MORRISON SUPERMARKETS PLC : Report and financial statements 2004" (PDF). Wm Morrisons PLC. Chairman's statement, p.6. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
During the year sales were helped by the opening of new stores at Port Talbot, Ebbw Vale, Barrow, Liverpool, Bristol and Barnsley and large new replacements, which began trading at Anlaby, Failsworth and Rotherham
- "Student Information Pack, Morrisons" (PDF). www.ngfl-cymru.org.uk. Wm Morrison Supermarkets PLC. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
Stores Opened in 2003 ... Anlaby – Opened 14th July
- "Anlaby Primary School". Archived from the original on 16 April 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
- Media related to Anlaby at Wikimedia Commons