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Amram Aburbeh (Hebrew: עמרם אבורביע, 1892– 1966), also spelled Abourabia and Aburabia, was the Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic congregation in Petah Tikva, Israel and author of Netivei Am, a collection of responsa, sermons, and Torah teachings.
|Title||Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic congregation in Petah Tikva, Israel|
March 16, 1892
|Died||December 20, 1966 (aged 72)|
Petah Tikva, Israel
|Parents||Rabbi Shlomo Aburbeh|
|Alma mater||Porat Yosef Yeshiva|
|Occupation||Rabbi Judge and teacher|
|Buried||Segula cemetery Petah Tikva, Israel|
|Semicha||Rabbi Yosef Haim HaCohen|
Amram Aburbeh was born on March 16, 1892 (17 Adar 5652) in Tétouan, Morocco. During his youth, he studied in Midrash Shlomo, a beit midrash (study hall) run by his father, Rabbi Shlomo Aburbeh. His mother was Yocheved Khalfon.
In 1906 Aburbeh immigrated to Palestine with his paternal grandparents, Rabbi Yosef and Billiada Aburbeh. The rest of the family followed them 7 years later, settling in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. Here Aburbeh's father held a yeshiva in his home called Or Zaruaa. Aburbeh studied in the Touvy Yisba'u yeshiva of the Ma'araviim congregation until 1910. He later studied in the Porat Yosef Yeshiva. He received rabbinical ordination from his teacher, Rabbi Yosef Haim HaCohen, president and Rabad (chief judge) Rosh Av Beit Din of the Ma'araviim congregation in Jerusalem, when he was 29 years old. Aburbeh also became a certified shochet (ritual slaughter) and bodek. He married his teacher's daughter, Rivka, in 1919; the couple had five sons and one daughter.
Aburbeh co-owned a store which sold Hebrew religious books and Judaica to North African Jewry and other communities in the Diaspora, together with his friend Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Shloush, head of the Ma'araviim congregation in Jerusalem. The store operated first in the Old City and later moved to the Mahane Yehuda neighborhood.
In addition to his occupation at the shop, Aburbeh taught at Porat Yosef Yeshiva and at Yeshivat Shaarey Zion, established by Chief Rabbi Ben-Zion Meir Hai Uziel. Uziel appointed Aburbeh as Chief Rabbi of the Nachlaot neighborhood in Jerusalem, where he served from 1925-1951. During the same time, Aburbeh was a dayan (religious court judge) for the Ma'araviim rabbinical court in Jerusalem, headed by Rabbi Ben-Zion Avraham Cuenca. In 1934 Aburbeh was appointed as shadar (funds emissary) on behalf of the Ma'araviim institutions in Jerusalem. He was dispatched to Morocco, where he successfully collected funds for a year.
In 1920 Aburbeh was among the founders of the new Jerusalem neighborhood of Bayit Vegan. In 1926 he founded and built a new synagogue in the Nachlaot neighborhood for the Ma'araviim congregation called Or Zaruaa, which he named after the beit midrash headed by his late father. This new synagogue included a beit midrash that he headed. Or Zaruaa Synagogue was chosen to be included as one of the buildings for preservation in Jerusalem. In 1930 Aburbeh was elected as an executive committee member of the Ma'araviim congregation in Jerusalem.
He was an active Zionist, and took part in the struggle to establish the state of Israel. The British Mandate authorities in Palestine arrested him due to his connections with the Haganah paramilitary organization. During this time, Aburbeh volunteered for the Mishmar Ha'Am (People's Guard). His sons were members of the Notrim police force and later served in the Israel Defense Forces.
An official publication Reshumot (Portofolio of Notifications 130) announcement on the election to Jerusalem municipality council, that were held on 14 November 1950, states that among the approved candidates Rabbi Amram Aburbeh was candidate number 7 to honor the Yichud Shevet Yehudah party candidates list, representing the religious Sephardi Jews.
In 1951 Aburbeh was elected by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel Council as Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic congregation of Petah Tikva. He served alongside the city's Ashkenazi chief rabbi, Rabbi Reuven Katz. Aburbeh gave lectures in several of Petah Tikva's downtown synagogues, including Beth Israel, Ohel Chaim, and Beit Avraham (called the "Great Sephardic Synagogue", which he founded). On Shabbat he gave lectures in additional neighborhoods. He was a member of the Chief Rabbinate of Israel Council and chairman of the National Rabbinical Council of the Sephardic community.
- Netivei Am (Hebrew: נתיבי-עם), Jerusalem customs, responsa and collected sermons, published in two volumes; Vol. 1 pub. 1963, Vol. 2 pub. 1966; second edition 1969.third edition 1977, fourth edition 1989, fifth edition 2006. sixth edition 2014 נתיבי עם. He received approbations for his sefarim from Rabbi Ovadia Hadaya, Rabbi Ezra Attiya, Chief Rabbi Ovadia Yosef, and in later editions published by his sons Chief Rabbi Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron, Rabbi She'ar Yashuv Cohen, and Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar; the latter was one of the last students to be rabbinically ordained by Aburbeh.
- ספר שבחי האר״י [Sefer Shivchei HaAri] (in Ladino). 1911.
- ברית עולם [Brit Olam]. Amram Aburbeh. 1948.
- חסד ואמת [Chesed Ve'Emet: Jewish mourning laws and customs]. Chevra Kadisha Jerusalem. 1996.
- "Law of Shvi'it fruits". Kol-Tora: 16–17. August–September 1958.
- "On the purity of Shvi'it fruits". Kol-Tora: 23. April–May 1959.
- "Comments". Kol-Tora: 19. July–August 1959.
- "Pouring water on the Holiday". Kol-Tora: 10–13. September–October 1960.
- "This is the beginning of the redemption" (PDF). Yesha Shelanu (76): 4–5. December 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-20. Cite uses deprecated parameter
Memorials to Aburbeh were dedicated in several places and institutions in Israel:
- Netivei Am AMIT schools, Toranic and Scientific Education branches
- Netivei Am Street in the Ramot Alon neighbourhood of Jerusalem; Aburbeh Street in the Ein Ganim neighbourhood of Petah Tikva
- Beit Midrash Netivei Am in Beersheba
- Aburbeh Scholars Fund for Student Excellence
- Netivei Am organization to acquire rescue equipment
- Or Zaruaa Synagogue, Jerusalem, Israel unveiling of metal plate event honoring and commemorating Rabbi Amram Aburbeh as founder of the synagogue for the Ma'araviim community in Nachlaot neighbourhood with the participants Chief Rabbi Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron,and Chief Rabbi Shlomo Amar.
- A Sefer Torah was written as a memorial to honor Rabbi Amram Aburbeh and his wife Rivka. It was donated by their sons and daughter in 1968 to The Great Sephardic Synagogue in Petach Tikva called Beit Avraham. Later it was transferred to Mishkan Yonah synagogue in Petach Tikva. In 2017 this Torah scroll was borrowed by the synagogue of Arbel religious Elementary school in Nof HaGalil.
Title page of Siddur Rinat Israel, Rinat Yisrael Nusach HaSfaradim and Edot HaMizrach.
- "Zionism and the State of Israel as Viewed by Leading Sephardic-Oriental rabbis (1948-1967)", in On Both Sides Of The Bridge: Religion and State in the Early Years of Israel. Mordechay Bar-On and Zvi Zameret, eds. 2002. Jerusalem:Yad Ben Zvi.
- Zvi Zohar on Rabbi Amram Aburbeh, in Daf LeTarbut Yehudit, Ministry of Education, Aryeh Strikovski editor, vol. 277, 2008, pp. 54 – 58.
- Zvi Zohar, The Luminous Face of the East: Studies in the Legal and Religious Thought of the Sephardic Rabbis of the Middle East. Tel Aviv: 2001. (Hebrew)
- המסע לגילוי המנהג הספרדי-ירושלמי: הרב עמרם אבורביע ויצירתו נתיבי עם ("The Journey to Uncover the Sephardi-Yerushalmi Custom: Rabbi Amram Aburbeh and his Opus, Netivei Am"), in Rabbi Uzziel And His Contemporaries: Law, Leadership and Values, Zvi Zohar and Shalom Ratzabi eds. 2009, pp. 120–165.
- Malka, G. (January–February 2009). "קוים לדמותו של בעל ה-נתיבי עם". HaMeasef: 124–128.
- Neri Horovitz, "The Shas party and Zionism: Historical Analysis, New Directions", Judaism and Zionism Journal, vol. 2, 2000, pp. 30 – 60.
- Shimon Reem, "Stories beyond tombstones in Petach Tikva". Amram Aburbeh p.45. Shimon Reem editor, 2015. Haifa
- עמרם אבורביע [Amram Aburbeh]. Jewish Encyclopedia Daat (in Hebrew). Herzog College. Retrieved 18 January 2013.
- רחוב אבורביע, הרב [Rabbi Aburbeh Street] (in Hebrew). rishonim.org.il. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- חברת נתיבי עם [Netivei Am Organization] (in Hebrew). getswot.com. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "בית חינוך ממ"ד אמי"ת - "נתיבי עם [Netivei Am National Religious School - AMIT] (in Hebrew). Orianit. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter
- בית ספר ממלכתי דתי אמי"ת "נתיבי עם" [Netivei Am National Religious School - AMIT] (in Hebrew). School Administration of Beersheba. 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "נתיבי עם" ע"ש הרה"ג עמרם אבורביע זצ"ל [Netivei Am, named after Rabbi Amram Aburbeh, zt"l] (in Hebrew). www.organizations.co.il. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- Video on YouTube
- Website detailing the Aburbeh family (Hebrew)
- Petah-Tikva historic museum website – Rabbi Amaram Aburbeh (Hebrew)
- Petah Tikva History Archives and Museum (Hebrew)
- Netivei Am, Volume I, first edition, 5724
- Netivei Am, Volume II, first edition, 5726
- Government of Israel official document stating a proof of Or Zaruaa Synagogue as building for preservation in Jerusalem
- Portofolio of Notifications officially published by the government of Israel announcement of approved candidates to Jerusalem council election
- Photo of Or Zaruaa synagogue
- Photo of entrance to Or Zaruaa synagogue
- 160 Sephardic wisemen
- Rabbi Amram Aburbeh 51 years memorial lecture, Arutz 7
- Historical Jewish Press HABOKER 16.05.1941 page 8 Rabbi Amram Aburbeh, Mahne Yehudah Jerusalem is licensed to check Tefillin and Mezuzahs