Alliance is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio. Most of the city is located in northeast Stark County while a small portion is in adjacent Mahoning County approximately 16 miles (26 km) northeast of Canton, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Youngstown and 51 miles (82 km) southeast of Cleveland. The population was 22,322 as of the 2010 census. Alliance was established in 1854 by combining three smaller communities. The city was a manufacturing and railroad hub for much of the 20th century and is also associated with the state flower of Ohio, the scarlet carnation, and is known as "The Carnation City". The University of Mount Union, a private liberal arts college established in 1846, is located in Alliance.
Location of Alliance, Ohio
Location of Alliance in Stark County
|• Mayor||Alan Andreani|
|• Total||8.96 sq mi (23.21 km2)|
|• Land||8.92 sq mi (23.10 km2)|
|• Water||0.04 sq mi (0.10 km2)|
|Elevation||1,158 ft (353 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||2,502.5/sq mi (966.2/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||234 & 330|
|GNIS feature ID||1064313|
Most of the city is part of the Canton–Massillon, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area, while the small portion of the city in Mahoning County is within the Youngstown–Warren–Boardman, OH-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Alliance was founded in 1854 by the merger of three smaller communities called Williamsport (formed in 1827), Freedom (formed in 1838), and Liberty (formed in 1850). A fourth community, Mount Union, was added in 1888. Alliance was incorporated as a city in 1889.
On April 12, 1856, Alliance was directly struck by a tornado, causing extensive damage. A roof of a church was removed, and another church was moved off of its foundation. A train that stopped at the Alliance Train Spot was pushed off its rails. The destruction was estimated to be $15,000 to $20,000 (in 1856 dollars, equivalent to $557,704 in 2018). A few injuries and one fatality was confirmed. 
There are two popular theories regarding the origin of the city's name. One holds that it was chosen because of the "alliance" of three small settlements into a larger entity. The other theory says the name reflects the fact that two major railroad lines, the Cleveland and Wellsville Railroad and the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, intersected at Alliance, once known as "The Crossing".
Alliance is a town where Main Street was originally laid out to bring traffic to the train station, the heart of the city's transportation hub. The railroads were central to industry and personal transportation, bringing in raw materials for factories and sending out finished goods. Due to this, Alliance is sometimes referred to as "The town where Main Street is a dead end."
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Alliance is a town rich with social, industrial and railroad history, with the restored Glamorgan Castle, previous home of the owner of Morgan Engineering, the Haines House, a restored underground railroad home, and the Mabel Hartzell historic home. The name of Levi L. Lamborn, the man who cultivated the scarlet carnation, Ohio's state flower, can still be seen on the facade of a building in the old downtown district. The Richardsonian Romanesque stone house of the Devine family is currently being renovated. The historic downtown area is experiencing a gradual renaissance, with the opening of a Saturday Farmers' Market on Main Street near the historic Caboose, and the renovation of a storefront on Main Street as an art gallery and live performance space, joining a scattering of antique shops and other businesses.
The Cat Fanciers' Association relocated to the former Midland-Buckeye bank, at 260 East Main Street, in June 2011, opening the CFA Foundation's Feline Historical Museum, the first of its kind of the United States.
Alliance was also home to the World War History & Art Museum, located in College Plaza at 1300 East State Street. WWHAM had a dozen exhibits including a world class collection of 320 original paintings and drawings by the troops of World War I, an HO scale model of the German 2nd Panzer Division in 1944, and original art by the pilots and airmen of World War II. It closed to the public on April 17, 2014 and now does traveling shows.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.96 square miles (23.21 km2), of which 8.92 square miles (23.10 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) is water. There are no lakes within city limits, although the Mahoning River flows through the northeast part of the city.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, there were 22,322 people, 8,631 households, and 5,232 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,502.5 inhabitants per square mile (966.2/km2). There were 10,022 housing units at an average density of 1,123.5 per square mile (433.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.6% White, 10.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.
There were 8,631 households of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.4% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96.
The median age in the city was 35.3 years. 22% of residents were under the age of 18; 16.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.4% were from 25 to 44; 23.9% were from 45 to 64; and 15.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female.
As of the census of 2000, there were 23,253 people, 8,908 households, and 5,665 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,700.1 people per square mile (1,042.7/km2). There were 9,730 housing units at an average density of 1,129.8 per square mile (436.3/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.51% White, 11.19% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, and 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population.
There were 8,908 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98.
In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $30,078, and the median income for a family was $37,011. Males had a median income of $31,033 versus $20,063 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,185. About 12.7% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.
Alliance is served by Amtrak's Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington D.C, via Alliance Station, located at 820 East Main Street. The municipality is also served by the Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) bus system.
The Carnation CityEdit
Alliance is commonly referred to as the Carnation City, having been given that designation by the Ohio General Assembly in 1959. Alliance gave Ohio its official state flower, the scarlet carnation. Alliance's association with the carnation began in 1866 when an Alliance doctor, Levi L. Lamborn, purchased six potted carnation plants to grow in a greenhouse at his house. At that time this flower was rarely cultivated in the United States. In 1876 Lamborn ran against William McKinley for the Congressional seat from this district. The two men were personal friends, although they were political opponents. McKinley had expressed his admiration for Lamborn's carnations, so before each of their political debates Lamborn gave McKinley a carnation to wear on his lapel. Mr. McKinley won the election and associated the carnation with his success, and wore carnations during his successful campaigns for Governor of Ohio and then President of the United States.
In 1884 Lamborn suggested that Ohio should make the carnation a state emblem. In 1904, three years after President McKinley's assassination, the Ohio General Assembly designated the scarlet carnation as the official state flower as a "token of love and reverence to the memory of William McKinley". On 29 January of each year (President McKinley's birth anniversary), a bouquet of red carnations is placed in the hands of McKinley's statue at the Capitol in Columbus.
Every year since 1960 Alliance has held a Carnation Festival during August.
Alliance is served by the Alliance City School District, which oversees the only high school in the city. The local Catholic parish school, Holy Cross Academy – Regina Coelli Campus, is overseen by the Diocese of Youngstown and serves students from pre-kindergarten to eighth grade.
- Charles Armstrong, virologist.
- Ken Blackwell, Mayor of Cincinnati
- Herman Carr, physicist and pioneer of magnetic resonance imaging
- Len Dawson, 1987 Pro Football Hall of Fame inductee
- William Miller Jenkins, 5th Governor of Oklahoma Territory
- Perry King, actor, star of Riptide
- Levi L. Lamborn, doctor, horticulturalist, and politician who lived in the city. Grew carnations and urged the state of Ohio to make the scarlet carnation the state flower
- Don Panoz, pharmaceutical and motorsport entrepreneur.
- Barbara Quinlin, Miss Ohio 1954
- Gertrude Tressel Rider, library for the blind
- Ivan Sag, linguist and cognitive scientist.
- Lorin B. Sebrell, rubber chemist.
- Hugh Wilson, botanist and professor at Texas A&M University
- Yuri Lowenthal, American voice actor.
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