All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company
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The Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (Russian: Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания, romanized: Vserossiyskaya gosudarstvennaya televizionnaya i radioveshchatelnaya kompaniya; VGTRK, Russian: ВГТРК), also known as Russian Television and Radio (Russian: Россия. Телевидение и радио, tr. Rossiya. Televideniye i radio), is a state-owned broadcaster which operates many television and radio channels in 53 of Russia's languages. The company was founded in 1990 and is based in Moscow.
|Всероссийская государственная телевизионная и радиовещательная компания|
|Formerly||Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (RTR)|
|Type||Federal State Unitary Enterprise|
|Founded||July 14, 1990|
|Services||Television, radio, online|
|Revenue||$518 million (2017)|
|-$363 million (2017)|
|$45.9 million (2017)|
|Total assets||$868 million (2017)|
|Total equity||$29 million (2017)|
|Owner||Federal Government of Russia (unitary enterprise)|
The broadcasting of the All-Russia TV and radio channels is located in Moscow, and also via the regional transmitting centres of the Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network forming the terrestrial transmitting network. TV and radio channels from Moscow are delivered to the regions via satellite and terrestrial communication channels.
In 2022, in the context of ongoing Russian invasion of Ukraine (2022) the company has been accused spreading propaganda, disinformation, inciting discord, war, and hatred. Unlike RT, it was mostly done for internal consumption. In 2017 at least one of its channels, RTR Planeta, has been banned in Lithuania.
On June 21, 1990, the 1st Congress of People's Deputies adopts a resolution on RSFSR media ascribing the RSFSR Council of Ministers take measures to establish the Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of the RSFSR. On July 14, 1990, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR's decree establishes the Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company. The first chairman was appointed the former deputy editor of the newspaper Moscow News, Oleg Poptsov Maksimovic.
On December 10, 1990 Radio Rossii began broadcasting. It first began broadcasting on a radio channel with the first program of All-Union Radio, as well as with "Mayak" radio channel and the third with the Third All-Union Radio program. On May 13, 1991, the VGTRK began broadcasting television to Russia (originally scheduled to begin broadcasting in March 1991 but constantly postponed) and broadcasts with the Second Central Television program. On September 16, 1991, the Second Program of USSR Central Television closed and airtime on the second VHF channel had started. April 18, 1992, started programming of Broadcasting channel Rossiya 4
On July 6, 1992, the fourth channel started broadcasting to Russian universities, and broadcast with the 4th channel, Ostankino, until January 16, 1994, and from January 17, 1994, with the NTV channel, and as a part RTR television which had created the "Russian Universities" feed. In February 1996, by Presidential decree of Boris Yeltsin, Oleg Poptsov stepped down from the post of RTR Chairman. Edward Sagalev was appointed president of RTR's "Moscow Independent Broadcasting Corporation (MIBC)" TV6 Moscow. On November 11, 1996, the "Russian Universities" block stopped broadcasting, and its airtime passed to NTV. The first satellite TV networks "The RTR TV network", "Meteor Sports"and "Meteor Cinema" were launched. On November 1, 1997, the VGTRK began broadcasting an educational channel called "Culture". It began broadcasting on a VHF channel.
On May 8, 1998, the presidential decree "On Improvement of Public Electronic Media" was created by information holding RTR. On the basis of the decree of the All-Russian State Television and Radio Company became the All-Russian radio station "Mayak" and the Russian State Radio Company Voice of Russia.
In 2000, VGTRK became one of the members of Euronews and organized the Russian service of this organization. In 2002, VGTRK acquired a share in Euronews' stock.
On December 3, 2012, the VGTRK began test broadcasts of the first Russian cinema TV channel, "Kino-TV". On December 17, 2012, the VGTRK began test broadcasts with the high definition TV channel Rossiya HD. On December 29, 2012, Rossiya HD started regular broadcasting. On January 29, 2013, at the Annual Exhibition and Forum of Television and Telecommunications (CSTB-2013), RTR announced the merger of eleven digital channels under a single brand, called "Digital TV". It includes documentary, sports, entertainment and movie channels, of which are "Russian-HD", "My Planet", "Nauka 2.0", "Sport", "Sport-1-HD", " The Fighting Club", "Russian Roman", "Russian Bestseller", "Strana" and "Sarafan". On May 9, 2013, the channel began broadcasting a documentary about Russian history "History", of which had also entered the TV package "Digital TV". On April 4, 2014, the VGTRK began broadcasting a channel dedicated to domestic detective films and TV series under the name of "Russian Detective". April 15, 2014, saw the launch of the official international cognitive entertainment channel IQ HD. June 1, 2014, announced the launch of the Mult channel.
As reaction of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the European Union expressed plans for a broad ban on three of the biggest Russian state-run broadcasters in early May 2022. These TV channels are "mouthpieces that amplify Putin's lies and propaganda aggressively" said Eu-Commission President Ursula von der Leyen. BBC reported that they are thought to include the widely watched Russian-language VGTRK chanels Rossiya and RTR Planeta. Befopre the EU has already suspended the direct Kremlin owned RT and Sputnik, that broadcast in English, German and Spanish. On 8 July, the company was sanctioned.
The Russian Ministry of Defense announced in June 2022 that in the region around the occupied southern Ukrainian city of Kherson, the one million inhabitants in the area would henceforth be supplied with the most important Russian channels instead of Ukrainian television. In particular, those of the state broadcasting group VGTRK were activated.
VGTRK owns and operates five national television stations, two international networks, five radio stations, and 80 regional TV and radio networks. It also runs the information agency Rossiya Segodnya.
The All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company (VGTRK) is Russia's largest media corporation. It comprises two national TV channels: "Rossiya 1", "Rossiya K" and also broadcasts "Bibigon", the first public state television channel for children and youth, 89 regional TV and radio channels broadcasting in all regions of the Russian Federation, "Rossiya 24", Russia's first 24/7 news channel, "Rossiya 2", the sports and entertainment, "RTR Planeta", a TV channel operating worldwide since 2002; a Russian-language version of the "Euronews" TV channel; five radio channels: "Radio Rossiyi", "Mayak" (Lighthouse), "Kultura", "Vesti FM", "Yunost", and "Rossiya", and a public Internet channel combining online resources.
In early 1993, the All-Russian State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company acquired the status of a national broadcasting company. That same year, the VGTRK became a full member of the European Broadcasting Union, entitled to key decisions in the EBU operation.
"Rossiya 1", the main TV channel, traces its history back to May 1991. Today, Rossiya 1 is a national channel that broadcasts over most of the country. The channel's audience comprises 98.5 per cent of Russia's population and more than 50 million viewers in the CIS and Baltic countries. The "RTR Planeta" channel, an international version of "Rossiya 1", is watched in the U.S., Europe, Middle East, North Africa and China.
Rossiya TV is a developing company whose broadcasts carry information programs, TV miniseries and series, political journalism, talk shows, game shows, comedies and other game formats, full-length feature films and documentaries, sporting and political events along with other entertainment. Apart from acquiring broadcasting rights, Rossiya TV Channel was the first among the Russian TV channels to launch its own large-scale production of TV films, both full-length and miniseries, focusing on classics. Films represent about 35% of the total broadcasts by the Rossiya TV channel. The channel purchases film broadcasting rights in cooperation with 50 major production and distributor companies. The main news program, Vesti, is a leading information program in Russia. During the previous TV season, Vesti adopted a 24/7 production cycle with two-hour intervals, which allows for the news to be broadcast live across all Russian time zones.
- Russia-1 (Россия-1) — entertainment, news (formerly Russia, RTR-1, RTR & RTV)
- Russia-24 (Россия-24) — news channel (formerly Vesti)
- Russia-K (Россия-К) — culture channel (formerly Culture, RTR-2)
- Carousel (Карусель) — children & teenager channel (jointly with Channel One Russia)
- RTR-Planeta (РТР-Планета) — internationally broadcasting channel
- Different versions for CIS countries, Belarus, Moldova, etc.
Thematic and regionalEdit
- Moscow 24 (Москва 24) — News channel broadcasting in Moscow (formerly Stolitsa and TV Tsentr Stolitsa)
- 360° Moscow Region
- The Russian-language edition of Euronews named "Euronews in Russian language" (Euronews на Русском языке), not to be confused with "Evronovosti TV/Евроновости"
- 20 theme-channels under the brand "Digital Television".
- 90 regional TV channels in Russia
- Bibigon (Бибигон) – channel dedicated to children and adolescents, replaced by Carousel in 2010.
- Russia-2 (Россия-2) — sports, entertainment, documentaries, movies, news channel, acquired by Gazprom-Media in 2015, replaced by Match TV
- Sport (Спорт) — sports channel, acquired by Gazprom-Media in 2015
- Sport-1 (Спорт-1) — pay-TV sports channel, acquired by Gazprom-Media in 2015
- Radio Kultura – cultural radio, only broadcast terrestrially at 91.6 FM in Moscow
- Radio Mayak – general entertainment, current affairs, and adult contemporary music
- Radio Rossii – talk radio and regional programming
- Radio Yunost – Online only, formerly European and American pop music, now older Soviet music
- Vesti FM – news radio
- "RTR IS THE LARGEST MEDIA CORPORATION IN RUSSIA". Сетевое издание “Государственный Интернет-Канал “Россия”.
- Romanova, Alisa (4 November 2010). "Трудности перевода". Национальное вещание ВГТРК. BECTИ.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "The Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Company". bloomberg.com. Bloomberg. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Weapons of mass deception. Russian television propaganda in wartime". OSW Centre for Eastern Studies. 2022-05-06. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
- DebunkEU (2022-05-27). "Coining lies. Kremlin spends 1.5 Billion per year to spread disinformation and propaganda". DebunkEU.org. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
- "Ukraine war: EU plans Russian oil ban and war crimes sanctions". BBC News. 2022-05-04. Retrieved 2022-05-05.
- "The EU's "Ban" of RT and Sputnik". Verfassungsblog (in German). Retrieved 2022-05-05.
- "New sanctions hit Russian TV, media in crackdown on disinformation". Canada's National Observer. July 8, 2022. Retrieved 2022-07-11.
- News, Team; Tunk, Carola. "Ukraine: Gesamte Region Cherson auf russisches Fernsehen umgestellt". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 2022-06-21.
|last1=has generic name (help)
- VGTRK official website (in Russian)