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Abdullah Khan (Abdollah Khan Ozbeg) (1533/4–1598), known as "The old Khan", was an Uzbek/Turkoman ruler of the Khanate of Bukhara (1500–1785). He was the last Shaybanid Dynasty Khan of Bukhara, from 1583 until his death.[1]

Abdullah Khan II
Abdulla Khan
Abdullah Khan Uzbek II slicing melons.jpg
Abdullah Khan Uzbek II slicing melons
Reign 1583 - 1598
Coronation 1583
Predecessor Iskander bin Jani Beg
Successor Abdul-Mo'min bin Abdullah Khan
Born 1533
Died 1598
Full name
Abdullah Khan bin Iskander
Uzbeq عبد اللہ خان بن اسکندر
House Shaybanid
Dynasty Shaybanid Dynasty, Khanate of Bukhara
Religion Islam

Abdullah Khan initiated a war with Persia which lasted from 1587 to 1598. He was able to focus on this thanks to a non-aggression pact with the Mughal emperor, Akbar, through which Abdullah Khan recognized Akbar's right to rule in the territory of Kabul.

During the reign of Abdullah Khan, Abdul Karim Khan was the ruler of Kashgaria, to the east in present-day Xinjiang. However, diplomatic relations were not good between the two khans.[1][2]

Contents

BiographyEdit

Abdullah Khan was born in 1533 or 1534, in the town of Afarinkent, Samarkand Province.

The ascent to the throneEdit

After the death of Abdulaziz Shaybanid was a struggle for the throne. Khan Abdullatif, who ruled the Samarkand, sought to ruler Bukhara through his two grandchildren: Shaibani Khan Yar Muhammad Sultan and Burhan-Sultan.

However, after the death of Abdullatif Khan in 1551, Barak Khan, who ruled Tashkent, took Samarkand and established himself as ruler there under the name of Newroz Ahmed Khan. He was declared the supreme khan of the Uzbeks.[3] Shaybanidov Abdullah Sultan, who was then governor of Kermine, led the resistance against Newroz Ahmed Khan. He was assisted by his uncle, the governor of Balkh, Pirmuhammed Khan. In 1556 Newroz Ahmad died. With his death, Pirmuhammed Khan was proclaimed the supreme ruler of the Uzbeks.[4]

The struggle for the unification of the stateEdit

In 1557, Abdullah Sultan captured Bukhara with the support of Sufi sheikhs and became its ruler. In 1561, he was bold enough to proclaim his father Iskander as supreme khan of the Uzbeks.[5] He had previously ruled Kermine and Miankal. Abdullah's father was more interested in religious rites, so he entrusted the conduct of state affairs to his son Abdullah Sultan.

Abdullah set out to combine all four of the Sheibanids: Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Balkh in one single state. This took many years and it was only in 1582 that he was able to create a single state out of the four Sheibanids.[6]

To achieve unification, he had to fight a long war to take possession of Tashkent. He then took control of Fergana and in 1573 after a long siege took Balkh.

In 1574, his possessions were attached Karshi, Karshi and Hisar. In 1576, he fought off the enemies of Samarkand and Tashkent took.

In the service of the vassal Abdullah Khan were some Kazakh sultans: Sheehan and his son Tauekel.[7]

In 1582, Abdullah Khan made a trip to Dasht-i-Kipchak, Khan Baba killed and captured his fortress Shohruhiya Sairam and Ahangeran. In 1583, his son Abd al-Mumin captured and plundered Mashhad. In the same 1583, after the death of his father, Abdullah Khan was declared the Uzbeks[8] and his state was called Bukhara khanate.

Abdullah Khan's monetary reformEdit

Abdullah Khan II, in several stages, held a monetary reform. To redress the lack of silver metal and silver coins he is still with his father organized a regular production of gold coins and controlled their stamp in Bukhara, paying particular attention to maintaining a high standard. Reform of Abdullah Khan was primarily aimed at changing the course of silver coins in accordance with the rise in prices of silver. At a time when the formal head of the dynasty was still Iskandar Khan (1560-1583), minted silver coins remained decentralized. However, with the name of Iskandar bind silver thong issued in Bukhara, Samarkand, Balkh, Tashkent, Andijan, and Ahsi Yasse (Turkestan).[9]

In 1583, Abdullah Khan spent another part of the monetary reform: it is largely centralized in Bukhara, its capital, minted silver thong. For everyday urban trade of consumer goods, Abdullah Khan forged copper coins minted several advantages.

Monetary reform Abdullah Khan II was successful, it eliminated the monetary crisis, suspended mass leakage outside the state. This reform was part of domestic politics, Abdullah Khan II, aimed to create the most favorable conditions for all types of trade: transit, intercity, intercity.

Expanding the boundaries of the stateEdit

Combining Shaybanid state has opened up new opportunities to expand its territorial boundaries. In 1584, Abdullah Khan seized Badakhshan and Khorasan in 1588.

In the later period of his reign Abdullah waged war for the conquest of Khorezm. In the years 1593-1594 the country was finally conquered by the troops without a fight Abdullah came to Khiva. Khiva sultans were caught and executed.

Soon soured relations with the Kazakh khans, who learned about the uprising against Abdulmumin Abdullah Khan, in 1598 made a trip to Tashkent. Abdullah Khan, who was forced to go to war with his own son Abdulmumin, prepared a new army, but died before the collision with the Kazakh Chingized who, taking advantage of the situation, took Turkestan, Tashkent, Samarkand and Andijan, but have not been able to take Bukhara.

Foreign policyEdit

During the reign of Abdullah Khan khanate maintained close diplomatic relations with Akbar in India, the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire. In a letter dated 1577 Akbar informed Abdullah Khan Uzbek about his intention to expel the Portuguese from India.[10]

Recovered A.Dzhenkinsona-Russian ties soured Bukhara in the early 1580s in connection with the support of Abdullah Khan, his cousin Shaybanids - Siberian Khan Kuchum.

Tribal composition of troopsEdit

Abdullah Khan's army consisted of a detachment of soldiers from various Uzbek tribes: Shirins, Utarchs, Bishyuzs, Jalairs, Keralas, Katagans, Tan-Yaruks, Alchins, Hitays, Bahrin, Naimans, Manghud, Kushchis, Arguns, Mings, Karluks, Kungrats, Tubais (tuvas), etc.[11]

Cultural policiesEdit

Abdullah Khan was not only a talented warrior, but also an outstanding statesman. He cared about strengthening trade ties broad Bukhara (especially with Russia and India), paid great attention to the construction of monumental buildings - madrassahs and khanqahs, shopping malls and caravanserais, reservoirs and bridges.

During the reign of Abdullah Khan II (1557-1598) the architectural ensemble of the Kosh-Madrasah was erected in Bukhara. It consists of two opposing madrassas. First - madrassas Modari Khan, built around 1567 in honor of his mother, Abdullah Khan, the second is the name of Abdullah Khan and was built in 1588–1590 years.

Abdullah Khan is also the patron of education and philanthropist, has surrounded himself with scholars, writers and chroniclers. Court poets and historians have praised him. Among the poets first place belonged Mushfiki - author laudatory odes, lyric poems and epigrams, he was also able diplomat. On behalf of Abdullah Khan Mushfiki was grandiloquent labels for buildings. Court historian Hafiz Tanysh was a rich chronicle of facts "Abdullah-name". Literature continued to develop in Persian, Turkish and part in Arabic.[12] According to the observation of Academician VV Bartold "historical literature when Uzbeks in quality and quantity was even higher than in the previous century."

Abdullah Khan II himself wrote poems and left his legacy under the pseudonym "'Avaz Gazi".[13]

DeathEdit

After the death of Abdullah in 1598 the throne passed to his son Abd al-Mumin, but soon began to confuse and he was killed by the rebels, with the death of Abd al-Mumin ended Shaybanids dynasty.

Abdullah Khan was buried at the mausoleum of Bahauddin Naqshbandi near Bukhara.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b The Bukharans: A Dynastic, Diplomatic, and Commercial History, 1550-1702
  2. ^ The Bukharans: A Dynastic, Diplomatic, and Commercial History, 1550-1702 page 46
  3. ^ Barthold, W. (1954). "ʿAbd Allāhb.Iskandar". Encyclopedia of Islam. 1. 
  4. ^ "Шайбаниды". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  5. ^ Абусеитова М.Х. (1985). Казахское ханство во второй половине XVI века. Алма-Ата: Академия наук Казахской ССР Институт Истории, Археологии и Этнографии им. Ч. Ч. Валиханова. 
  6. ^ Foltz Richard (1998). Mughal India and Central Asia. Oxford university press. 
  7. ^ Материалы по истории казахских ханств XV-XVIII веков. (Извлечения из персидских и тюркских сочинений). Алма-Ата. 1969. 
  8. ^ "Шейбаниды". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  9. ^ Е. А. Давидович (1992). Корпус золотых и серебряных монет Шейбанидов. XVI век. 
  10. ^ Naim R. (1988). Farooqi, Moguls, Ottomans, and Pilgrims: Protecting the Routes to Mecca in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. The International History Review. 
  11. ^ Шараф-наме-йи шахи. Хафиз-и Таныш Бухари. 
  12. ^ История народов Узбекистана. 1933. 
  13. ^ А.Эркинов (2001). Синтез номадской и оседлой культур в поэзии Шайбанидского правителя Убайдаллах хана. International journal of Central Asian studies.