Year 44 BC was either a common year starting on Sunday, common year starting on Monday, leap year starting on Friday, or leap year starting on Saturday. (link will display the full Julian calendar) (the sources differ, see leap year error for further information) and a common year starting on Sunday of the Proleptic Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Julius Caesar V and Marc Antony (or, less frequently, year 710 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 44 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Gregorian calendar||44 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||710|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 280|
|- Pharaoh||Cleopatra VII, 8|
|Ancient Greek era||184th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||丙子年 (Fire Rat)|
2653 or 2593
— to —
丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
2654 or 2594
|Coptic calendar||−327 – −326|
|Ethiopian calendar||−51 – −50|
|- Vikram Samvat||13–14|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||3057–3058|
|Iranian calendar||665 BP – 664 BP|
|Islamic calendar||685 BH – 684 BH|
|Julian calendar||44 BC|
|Minguo calendar||1955 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||268/269 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||499–500|
83 or −298 or −1070
— to —
84 or −297 or −1069
44 BC is well known as in the year Julius Caesar was assassinated (March 15).
- Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.
- February – Rome celebrates the festival of the Lupercal. Mark Antony twice presents Caesar with a royal diadem, urging him to take it and declare himself king. He refuses this offer and orders the crown to be placed in the Temple of Jupiter.
- March 15 (the Ides of March) – Julius Caesar, dictator of Rome, is assassinated by a group of senators, amongst them Gaius Cassius Longinus, Marcus Junius Brutus, and Caesar's Massilian naval commander, Decimus Brutus.
- March 20 – Caesar's funeral is held. Marcus Antony gives a eulogy and in his speech he makes accusations of murder and ensures a permanent breach with the conspirators against Caesar. He snatches Caesar's bloody tunic and purple toga to show the crowd the stab wounds; the citizens tear apart the forum and cremate their Caesar on a makeshift pyre. Antony becomes the highest ranking politician in Rome.
- April – Octavian returns from Apollonia in Dalmatia to Rome to take up Caesar's inheritance, against advice from Atia (his mother and Caesar's niece) and consul Antony.
- April 18–April 21 – Octavian engages in a charm offensive with consular Cicero who is fulminating against Mark Antony.
- June – Antony is granted a five-year governorship of northern and central Transalpine Gaul (France) and Cisalpine Gaul (Northern Italy).
- September 2
- Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion.
- The first of Cicero's Philippicae (oratorical attacks) on Antony is published. He will make 14 of them over the next several months.
- December – Antony besieges Brutus Albinus in Mutina (Modena), with Octavian, an ally of Decimus, who is one of his uncle's assassins, close by.
- A Denarius with a portrait of Julius Caesar is made. It is now kept at the American Numismatic Society in New York.
- Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Roman statesman and governor (d. 20 AD)
- March 15 – Julius Caesar, Roman politician and general (assassinated in the Senate) (b. 100 BC)
- July 26 – Ptolemy XIV, king (pharaoh) of Egypt (approximate date)
- Burebista, Thracian king of the Getae and Dacian tribes
- Lucius Caninius Gallus, Roman politician
- Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, Roman consul
- Publius Sittius, Roman Mercenary commander