The 40s decade ran from January 1, AD 40, to December 31, AD 49.

An anachronistic depiction of the Trung sisters' rebellion (40–43 AD)

Claudius became Roman Emperor in 41, following the assassination of Caligula. In 43, he sent Aulus Plautius with four legions to Britain (Britannia), initiating the decades-long Roman conquest of Britain. In China, The Trưng sisters' rebellion took place in the south of Han China between 40 AD and 43 AD: In 40 AD, the Vietnamese leader Trưng Trắc and her sister Trưng Nhị rebelled against Chinese authorities in Jiaozhi (in what is now northern Vietnam). In 42 AD, Han China dispatched General Ma Yuan to lead an army to strike down the Yue rebellion of the Trưng sisters. In 43 AD, the Han army fully suppressed the uprising and regained complete control.

Christianity came to Egypt as the Church of Alexandria was founded with Mark the Evangelist as the first Patriarch. James the Great died in 44: One of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, he was the first to be martyred according to the New Testament. Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome between 41 and 53: Silvia Cappelletti describes Claudius's motivation as the need to control the population of Rome and prevent political meetings. (He "did not have an anti-Jewish policy.")[1] Donna Hurley explains that Suetonius includes the expulsion "among problems with foreign populations, not among religions"[2]

Between 44 and 48, a famine took place in Judea. Josephus relates that Helena of Adiabene "went down to the city Jerusalem, her son conducting her on her journey a great way. Now her coming was of very great advantage to the people of Jerusalem; for whereas a famine did oppress them at that time, and many people died for want of what was necessary to procure food withal, queen Helena sent some of her servants to Alexandria with money to buy a great quantity of corn, and others of them to Cyprus, to bring a cargo of dried figs. And as soon as they were come back, and had brought those provisions, which was done very quickly, she distributed food to those that were in want of it, and left a most excellent memorial behind her of this benefaction, which she bestowed on our whole nation. And when her son Izates was informed of this famine, he sent great sums of money to the principal men in Jerusalem."[3][4]

Literary works of this decade include the Histories of Alexander the Great (written by Quintus Curtius Rufus), and essays by Seneca (including De Ira, Ad Marciam, De consolatione, De Brevitate Vitæ, De Consolatione ad Polybium, and Ad Helviam matrem, De consolatione).

Manning (2008) tentatively estimates the world population in AD 40 as 247 million.

Demographics

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Due to lack of reliable demographic data, estimates of the world population in the 1st century vary wildly, with estimates for AD 1 varying from 150[5] to 300[6] million. Demographers typically do not attempt to estimate most specific years in antiquity, instead giving approximate numbers for round years such as AD 1 or AD 200. However, attempts at reconstructing the world population in more specific years have been made, with Manning (2008) tentatively estimating the world population in AD 40 as 247 million.[7]

Events

By place

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Roman Empire
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Europe
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Parthia
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Vietnam
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By topic

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Arts and sciences
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  • Philo teaches that all men are born free.
Religion
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By place

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Roman Empire
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China
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By topic

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By places

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Roman Empire
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Korea
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China
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By topic

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Religion
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By place

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Britain
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Roman Empire
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Central Asia
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  • Warfare begins between the northern and southern Huns.
Vietnam
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Parthia
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By topic

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Religion
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Arts and Science
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By place

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Roman Empire
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Korea
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By topic for

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Arts and Science
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By place

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Roman Empire
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China
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By topic

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Religion
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By place

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Roman Empire
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  • The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights, and is named municipium Claudia Celeia.
  • Dobruja is annexed into Roman Moesia.
  • A census shows that there are more than 6,000,000 Roman citizens.
  • After the death of its king, Thracia becomes a Roman province.
  • Rome and its northeast border are reunited by the Danube Road.
Central Asia
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By place

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Roman Empire
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By topic

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Religion
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  • Ananias becomes high priest in Judaea.
  • Paul starts his evangelistic work (first missionary journey), accompanied by Barnabas and Mark (possible date).

By place

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Roman Empire
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China
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Korea
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By topic

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Religion
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By place

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Roman Empire
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By topic

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Religion
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Significant people

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Births

AD 40

AD 41

AD 42

AD 43

  • Martial, Roman poet (approximate date)

AD 45

AD 46

AD 47

AD 48

Deaths

AD 40

AD 41

AD 42

AD 43

AD 44

AD 45

AD 46

AD 47

AD 48

AD 49

References

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  1. ^ Silvia Cappelletti, The Jewish Community of Rome (Leiden: Brill, 2006) ISBN 9789004151574 p.82.
  2. ^ Donna W. Hurley (ed.), Suetonius: Diuus Claudius (Cambridge University Press, 2001) ISBN 9780521596763 p.176.
  3. ^ "New Testament Parallels to the Works of Josephus - Page Two". www.josephus.org. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  4. ^ Josephus, "Book XX", The Antiquities of the Jews, retrieved 2023-03-09
  5. ^ John H. Tanton, 1994, "End of the Migration Epoch? Time For a New Paradigm", The Social Contract, Vol. 4 (no 3), pp. 162–173.
  6. ^ Haub (1995): "By 1 A.D., the world may have held about 300 million people. One estimate of the population of the Roman Empire, from Spain to Asia Minor, in 14 A.D. is 45 million. However, other historians set the figure twice as high, suggesting how imprecise population estimates of early historical periods can be."
  7. ^ Manning, Scott (2008-01-12). "Year-by-Year World Population Estimates: 10,000 B.C. to 2007 A.D." Historian on the Warpath. Retrieved 2023-03-05.
  8. ^ Fabre, Guilhem; Fiches, Jean-Luc; Paillet, Jean-Louis (1991). "Interdisciplinary Research on the Aqueduct of Nimes and the Pont du Gard". Journal of Roman Archaeology. 4: 63–88. doi:10.1017/S104775940001549X.
  9. ^ a b Barrett, Anthony A. (2002). Caligula: The Corruption of Power. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-203-13776-5.
  10. ^ a b Adkins, Lesley; Adkins, Roy A. (2004). Handbook to life in ancient Rome (2nd ed.). Infobase Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8160-5026-0.
  11. ^ Dixon, William Hepworth (1865). The holy land. Vol. 2. B. Tauchnitz. p. 222.
  12. ^ Moran, Michael G. (2005). Ballif, Michelle (ed.). Classical rhetorics and rhetoricians: critical studies and sources. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 343. ISBN 978-0-313-32178-8.
  13. ^ Freedman, David Noel, ed. (2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Amsterdam University Press. p. 262. ISBN 978-90-5356-503-2.
  14. ^ Scullard, H. H. (2010). From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome 133 BC to AD 68. Taylor & Francis. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-415-58488-3.
  15. ^ Xiao Hong Lee, Lily; Stefanowska, A. D., eds. (2007). Biographical dictionary of Chinese women: antiquity through Sui, 1600 B.C.E.–618 C.E. Vol. 3. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0-7656-1750-7.
  16. ^ a b c d e Palmer, Alan; Palmer, Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 16–20. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  17. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History.
  18. ^ Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars.
  19. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 47. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  20. ^ Carolyn D. Williams (2009). Boudica and Her Stories: Narrative Transformations of a Warrior Queen. University of Delaware Press. pp. 79–82. ISBN 978-0-87413-079-9.
  21. ^ "New Testament Parallels to the Works of Josephus - Page Two". www.josephus.org. Retrieved 2023-03-09.
  22. ^ Josephus, "Book XX", The Antiquities of the Jews, retrieved 2023-03-09
  23. ^ a b "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  24. ^ a b "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
  25. ^ Roberts, John. The Oxford dictionary of the classical world. Oxford University Press. p. 695. ISBN 9780192801463.
  26. ^ Kvint, Vladimir (2015). Strategy for the Global Market: Theory and Practical Applications. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317485575.
  27. ^ Wiedemann, Thomas E. J. (1989). Adults and children in the Roman Empire. Taylor & Francis. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-415-00336-0.
  28. ^ Asma, Stephen T. (2009). On Monsters: An Unnatural History of Our Worst Fears. Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 9780199745777.
  29. ^ a b Varner, Eric R. (2004). Mutilation and transformation: damnatio memoriae and Roman imperial portraiture. Brill. p. 21. ISBN 978-90-04-13577-2.
  30. ^ Lightman, Marjorie; Lightman, Benjamin (2007). A to Z of ancient Greek and Roman women. Vol. 2. Infobase Publishing. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-8160-6710-7.
  31. ^ Joseph P. Free; Howard Frederic Vos (1992). Archaeology and Bible History. Zondervan. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-310-47961-1.
  32. ^ Chrystal, Paul (2017). Roman Women: The Women who influenced the History of Rome. Fonthill Media. p. 101.
  33. ^ Chrystal, Paul (2017). Roman Women: The Women who influenced the History of Rome. Fonthill Media. p. 101.
  34. ^ Wadley, Stephen (2006). Proceedings of the First North American Conference on Manchu Studies. Portland, Oregon: Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 133. ISBN 978-3-447-05226-9.