- 1 Events
- 1.1 AD 40
- 1.2 AD 41
- 1.3 AD 42
- 1.4 AD 43
- 1.5 AD 44
- 1.6 AD 45
- 1.7 AD 46
- 1.8 AD 47
- 1.9 AD 48
- 1.10 AD 49
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Emperor Caligula is consul without colleague.
- Caligula starts on a campaign to conquer Britain, which fails miserably. He declares himself victorious regardless.
- Noricum and Mauretania are incorporated into the Roman Empire.
- Caligula reforms the principatus into a Hellenistic Autocracy. He distributes honors carelessly, declares himself a god and orders that all the heads of the Greek deity statues be replaced by his. He also appoints his horse, Incitatus, a senator.
- Approximate date of start of construction on the Pont du Gard aqueduct in Gallia Narbonensis.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Philo teaches that all men are born free.
- Christianity comes to Egypt as a church is founded in Alexandria. Mark the Evangelist founds the Church of Alexandria as the first Patriarch.
- An early Christian church is erected at Corinth (most probable date).
- The traditional date of Saint James the Great meeting Our Lady of the Pillar in Spain
- Consuls are the Roman emperor Caligula and Gnaeus Sentius Saturninus.
- January 24
- January 25 – After a night of negotiation, Claudius is accepted as emperor by the Senate.
- Claudius makes Agrippa king of Judea.
- Messalina, wife of Claudius, persuades Claudius to have Seneca the Younger banished to Corsica on a charge of adultery with Julia Livilla.
- Claudius restores religious freedom to Jews throughout the empire, but prohibits Jews in Rome from proselytising.
- An attack across the Rhine by the Germans is stopped by the Romans.
- Emperor Guang Wu of the Han Dynasty deposes his wife, Guo Shengtong, as empress, and creates his consort Yin Lihua empress in her place.
- The disciples of Jesus form communities after the Diaspora, especially in Damascus and Antioch. For the first time they are called Christians.
- The death of Caligula saves the Jewish people from being punished for resisting orders to worship his statue in the Temple of Jerusalem.
- Consuls are Emperor Claudius and Gaius Caecina Gargus.
- Romans take control of Ceuta, a port city on the North African side of the Strait of Gibraltar.
- The territories of the current Algeria and Morocco become a Roman province.
- The Dalmatian legate, Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, revolts but his troops defect and his rebellion quickly withers.
- Claudius begins construction of Portus, a harbour bearing a lighthouse on the right bank of the Tiber.
- 25 January – Conversion of the Apostle Paul to Christianity. The exact date is not provided in texts, but the Roman Catholic Church chooses to commemorate this date.
- Traditional date of foundation of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria by the apostle Mark the Evangelist.
- The Roman conquest of Britain begins. Aulus Plautius lands with four legions (20,000 men) and the same number of auxiliaries at Rutupiae (modern Richborough, on the east coast of Kent) and defeats the Britons, led by Caratacus and Togodumnus, in battles on the rivers Medway and Thames. He halts at the Thames and sends for Emperor Claudius, who leads the march on Camulodunum. Eleven British kings, probably including those of the Iceni and Brigantes, submit without a fight. Meanwhile, the future emperor Vespasian begins to subdue the south-west. The Romans begin to construct forts, such as at Peterborough, and a road that later becomes Ermine Street.
- The Romans capture a Brythonic settlement at Kent, and rename it Durovernum Cantiacorum (modern Canterbury). They establish a Roman fort to guard the crossing of the River Stour.
- Roman London (Londinium) is established.
- Consuls are the emperor Claudius (his second consulship as emperor, third in total) and Lucius Vitellius.
- Julia Livia, daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar, is executed at the instigation of Claudius' wife Messalina.
- Claudius annexes Lycia in Asia Minor, combining it with Pamphylia as a Roman province.
- The Romans now have complete control of the Mediterranean Sea.
- Warfare begins between the northern and southern Huns.
- The warrior Trung Sisters commit suicide after their resistance is defeated at Nam Viet.
- Vietnam is designated a province of China.
- In Coptic Orthodox Christianity, Mark the Evangelist becomes the first Pope of Alexandria, thus establishing the Christian Church in Africa.
Arts and ScienceEdit
- Emperor Claudius returns from his British campaign in triumph, the southeast part of Britannia now held by the Roman Empire, but the war will rage for another decade and a half.
- Boudicca marries Prasutagus, king of the British Celtic tribe the Iceni.
- Mauretania becomes a Roman province.
- The Isle of Rhodes returns to the Roman Empire.
- Judaea is controlled by Roman governors.
- Cuspius Fadus, Roman governor of Judea, suppress the revolt of Theudas who is decapitated.
Arts and ScienceEdit
- Marcus Vinicius and Titus Statilius Taurus Corvinus become Roman consuls.
- Servius Sulpicius Galba becomes the commander of Legio III Augusta.
- Salzburg (Juvavum) is awarded the status of a Roman municipium.
- Emperor Claudius expels the Jews from Rome.
- Claudius founds Savaria, today the Hungarian city of Szombathely.
- The Senate holds consultations regarding real estate speculation in Rome.
- Consuls are Decimus Valerius Asiaticus and Marcus Junius Silanus Torquatus.
- The settlement at Celje gets municipal rights and is named municipium Claudia Celeia.
- Dobruja is annexed into Roman Moesia.
- A census shows that there are more than 6,000,000 Roman citizens.
- After the death of its king, Thracia becomes a Roman province.
- Rome and its northeast border are reunited by the Danube Road.
- According to Orosius, there was a serious famine in Syria
- A drought and an invasion of locusts hit the Mongolian steppes, causing a famine and a revolt at Xiongnu.
- Consuls are Emperor Claudius and Lucius Vitellius. Claudius revives the censorship and ludi saeculares and organises the order of the Haruspices with sixty members.
- Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo is made commander of the Roman army in Germania Inferior. He conquers the Chauci and fights against the Cherusci and Frisians.
- Cauci pirates led by the Roman deserter Gannascus ravage the Gallic coast; Corbulo uses the Rhine fleet against them. The Frisian revolt is suppressed.
- Publius Ostorius Scapula becomes governor of Britain, in place of Aulus Plautius. The south-east of the island is now a Roman province, while certain states on the south coast are ruled as a nominally independent client kingdom by Tiberius Claudius Cogidubnus, whose seat is probably at Fishbourne near Chichester. Ostorius immediately faces incursions from unconquered areas, which he puts down.
- Corbulo orders the construction of the canal Fossa Corbulonis, between the Rhine and Meuse in the Netherlands, which connects the city Forum Hadriani (Voorburg).
- Romans build the Traiectum fortification near the mouth of the Rhine, which will later grow to be the city of Utrecht.
- Claudius founds the city Forum Claudii Vallensium (modern Martigny) in the Alpes Poeninae (Switzerland).
- Musselburgh is founded in Roman Britain (Scotland).
- Pliny the Elder sees military service in Germany.
- Consuls are Aulus Vitellius and Lucius Vipstanus Poplicola.
- Emperor Claudius invests Agrippa II with the office of superintendent of the Temple in Jerusalem.
- After the execution of his wife Messalina, Claudius gets senatorial approval to marry his niece, Agrippina the Younger.
- Publius Ostorius Scapula, governor of Britain, announces his intention to disarm all Britons south and east of the Trent and Severn. The Iceni, an independent, allied kingdom within that area, revolt but are defeated. Ostorius then moves against the Deceangli in north Wales, but is forced to abandon the campaign to deal with a revolt among the allied Brigantes.
- Gallic nobles are admitted to the Roman Senate. Claudius grants the rights of citizenship to the Aedui.
- Emperor Guang Wu of Han, restores Chinese domination of Inner Mongolia. The Xiongnu are made confederates and guard the Northern border of the empire.
- The Xiangnu empire dissolves.
- Probable date of the Apostolic Council. Paul of Tarsus begins his first mission (approximate date, see AD 47).
- According to Christian legend, Martha travels to Avignon.
- Emperor Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger (approximate date).
- Seneca the Younger becomes Nero's tutor.
- Melankomas is the boxing champion at the 207th Olympic Games.
- Likely date for the expulsion of the Jews from Rome.
- Nero becomes engaged to Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius.
- Agrippina the Younger charges Octavia's first fiancé Lucius Junius Silanus Torquatus with incest. He is brought before the Senate and sentenced to death.
- In Britain, governor Publius Ostorius Scapula founds a colonia for Roman veterans at Camulodunum (Colchester). Verulamium (St Albans) is probably established as a municipium the same year. A legion is stationed on the borders of the Silures of South Wales in preparation for invasion.
- June 13 – Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman governor (d. AD 93)
- Claudia Octavia, daughter of Claudius and Messalina (d. AD 62)
- Dio Chrysostom, Greek philosopher and historian (d. c. 115)
- Ma, Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty (d. AD 79)
- Pedanius Dioscorides, Greek physician and pharmacologist (d. AD 90)
- Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman general and military author (d. 103)
- Titus Petronius Secundus, Roman prefect (d. AD 97)
- Herennius Philo, Greek grammarian and writer (d. 141)
- Sixtus I, pope of the Catholic Church (d. 124)
- Marcus Valerius Martialis (Martial), Roman poet (approximate date)
- Ban Zhao, first female Chinese historian (d. 116)
- Domitilla the Younger, Roman noblewoman (d. AD 66)
- Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus, Roman politician (d. 136)
- Lucius Vipstanus Messalla, Roman orator (approximate date)
- Plutarch, Greek historian and biographer (approximate date)
- Publius Papinius Statius, Roman poet (approximate date)
- Tiberius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, Roman politician
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, husband of Agrippina the Younger (b. 17 BC)
- Faustus Cornelius Sulla, Roman politician and suffect consul
- Ptolemy of Mauretania, Roman client king (executed by Caligula)
- January 24
- Asprenas Calpurnius Serranus, Roman politician
- Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus, Roman consul (b. 17 BC)
- Julia Livilla, daughter of Germanicus (starved to death) (b. 18 AD)
- Arria, Roman noblewoman (committed suicide)
- Aulus Caecina Paetus, Roman politician (committed suicide)
- Gaius Appius Junius Silanus, Roman consul (executed)
- Lucius Annius Vinicianus, Roman politician (committed suicide)
- Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus, Roman politician (committed suicide)
- Aemilia Lepida, Roman noblewoman (b. 5 BC)
- Appius Junius Silanus, Roman consul (executed)
- Julia Livia, daughter of Drusus Julius Caesar (executed)
- Togodumnus, king of the Catuvellauni
- Daemusin, Korean ruler of Goguryeo
- Herod Agrippa I, king of Judea (b. 11BC)
- James the Great, apostle of Jesus
- Wu Han, general of the Han Dynasty
- Pomponius Mela, Roman geographer (approximate date)
- Vardanes I, king of the Parthian Empire (approximate date)
- Marcus Vinicius, Roman consul and governor (b. c. 5 BC)
- Rhoemetalces III, Roman client king of Thrace (murdered)
- Servius Asinius Celer, Roman politician (executed)
- Decimus Valerius Asiaticus, Roman politician and consul
- Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus, Roman consul
- Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, Roman nobleman
- Quintus Sanquinius Maximus, Roman politician
- Vardanes I, king of the Parthian Empire
- Gaius Silius, Roman politician (b. AD 13)
- Minjung, Korean ruler of Goguryeo
- Mnester, Roman pantomime actor
- Valeria Messalina, wife of Claudius
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Eodem anno imperii eius fames grauissima per Syriam facta est, quam etiam prophetae praenuntiauerant; sed Christianorum necessitatibus apud Hierosolymam conuectis ab Aegypto frumentis Helena Adiabenorum regina conuersa ad fidem Christi largissime ministrauit.(early 5th century)
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