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2004 Romanian general election

General elections were held in Romania on 28 November 2004, with a second round of the presidential elections on 12 December between Prime Minister Adrian Năstase of the ruling Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSD) and Bucharest Mayor Traian Băsescu of the opposition Justice and Truth Alliance. Băsescu was elected President by a narrow majority of just 51.2%.[1]

2004 Romanian general election

← 2000 28 November 2004 (first round)
12 December 2004 (second round)
2008
2009 →
Turnout58.5% (first round)
55.2% (second round)
  Traian Băsescu (EPP Summit 2008).jpg Adrian Năstase3.jpg
Nominee Traian Băsescu Adrian Năstase
Party PD PSD
Alliance ADA PSD+PUR
Home state Bucharest Bucharest
Popular vote 5,126,794 4,881,520
Percentage 51.23% 48.77%

President before election

Ion Iliescu
PSD

Elected President

Traian Băsescu
PD

Following 2003 amendments to the constitution which lengthened the presidential term to five years, these were the last joint elections to the presidency and Parliament.

CampaignEdit

Parliamentary electionsEdit

The main contenders were the left-wing alliance made up of the incumbent Social Democratic Party of Romania (PSD) and the Romanian Humanist Party (PUR), and, on the other hand, the center-right "Justice and Truth" alliance (Dreptate şi adevăr) comprising the liberal National Liberal Party (Romania) and the reformist Democratic Party (Romania).

Other significant contenders were the Greater Romania Party (PRM) (right-wing nationalists), the ethnic Hungarian party Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), and the Union for Romanian Reconstruction, a group of right-wing technocrats.

ConductEdit

The opposition alleged fraudulent use by the PSD of "supplementary lists", designed to help Romanians in transit to vote. Traditionally, Romanians voted with a cardboard identity card, which was stamped when they voted. Most Romanians now have laminated plastic IDs, to which a printed stamp is affixed when a person votes. However, the stamps can be easily removed. In spite of this, electoral fraud is nearly impossible to commit, as every citizen is assigned to one local voting station, the only location he/she can vote at.

The opposition claimed that there were organized "electoral excursions" of PSD supporters who were bussed to various towns to vote several times. This was corroborated by several teams of journalists, who followed the buses.

The Romanian opposition announced on 30 November that they were demanding a re-run of the election, because some of the void votes were allegedly awarded to the PSD. They showed evidence that some people voted more than once (they found about 750 persons in three counties[citation needed], but their search of the supplementary lists would continue) and also showed that many of the minutes of the electoral committees were wrongly completed[citation needed] (the sum of the number of valid votes and null votes did not match the number of voters, sometimes by a difference of hundreds or thousands of votes[citation needed]) and the central software not only allowed these contradictory figures, but it also added these differences by default to the PSD[citation needed]. The opposition announced that it had started a parallel count, which showed a PSD-DA difference of only 2% between.

The government attacked the opposition by arguing that 'rumours of fraud' affect Romania's economy and its external credibility.

In January 2005, the IMAS institute of statistics released an analysis of the voting results in the 16,824 precincts. In the top 1,000 precincts with the most votes on the supplementary lists, the PSD had 43% to the DA's 23%, while in the precincts with fewest votes on supplementary lists, the PSD had 30% to the DA's 34%. The same trend was true in the precincts with most void votes.[1]

Presidential candidatesEdit

Name Lifespan Public Administration Experience Affiliation and endorsements Alma mater and profession Candidacy
Announcement dates
 
Traian Băsescu
Born: November 4, 1951
(age 53)
Basarabi, Constanța County
Mayor of Bucharest (2000-election day)
Deputy (1992-2000)
Minister of Transport (1991-1992, 1996-1998, 1998-2000)
Sub-Secretary of State for Naval Transportation with the Ministry of Transport (1990-1991)
Director of Civil Navigation Inspectorate with the Ministry of Transport (1989-1990)
Affiliation: Justice and Truth Alliance
Aliance members: PNL and PD
Mircea cel Bătrân Naval Academy (1976)

seaman
 
Adrian Năstase
Born: June 22, 1950
(age 54)
Bucharest
Prime Minister of Romania (2000-election day)
Deputy (1990-election day)
President of the Chamber of Deputies (1992-1996)
Minister of Foreign Affairs (1990-1992)
Affiliation: National Union PSD+PUR
Aliance members: PSD and PUR
Faculty of Law, University of Bucharest (1973)
Faculty of Sociology, University of Bucharest (1978)

lawyer
 
Corneliu Vadim Tudor
Born: November 28, 1949
(age 55)
Bucharest
Died: September 14, 2015, Bucharest
Senator (1992-election day)

Former presidential elections:
2000: 28.3% (2nd place, 1st round), 33.2% (2nd place, 2nd round)
1996: 4.7% (5th place, 1st round)
Affiliation: PRM Faculty of Philosophy, University of Bucharest (1971)

journalist, writer
 
Béla Markó
Born: September 8, 1951
(age 53)
Târgu Secuiesc, Covasna County
Senator (1990-election day) Affiliation: UDMR Faculty of Philology, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca (1974)

journalist, poet
 
Gheorghe Ciuhandu
Born: June 15, 1947
(age 57)
Timișoara, Timiș County
Mayor of Timișoara (1996-election day) Affiliation: PNȚCD Faculty of Constructions, Politehnica University of Timișoara (1970)

building engineer
 
Gigi Becali
Born: June 25, 1958
(age 46)
Vădeni, Brăila County
Affiliation: PNG "Iuliu Maniu" High-school, Bucharest (1978)

shepherd, football club owner
 
Petre Roman
Born: July 22, 1946
(age 58)
Bucharest
Senator (1996-election day)
Minister of Foreign Affairs (1999-2000)
President of the Senate of Romania (1996–1999)
Deputy (1990-1996)
Prime Minister of Romania (1989-1991)

Former presidential elections:
2000: 3.0% (6th place, 1st round)
1996: 20.5% (3rd place, 1st round)
Affiliation: Democratic Force Faculty of Energy, Politehnica University of Bucharest (1968)

hydroelectric powerplant engineer
 
Gheorghe Dinu
Born: unknown birthdate
unknown birtplace
Affiliation: none unknown education

intelligence officer
 
Marian Petre Miluț
Born: December 29, 1955
(age 48)
Craiova, Dolj County
Affiliation: People's Action Faculty of Automation, Computers and Electronics, University of Craiova (1980)

IT engineer
 
Ovidiu Tudorici
Born: October 16, 1969
(age 35)
Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava County
Deputy Mayor of Câmpulung Moldovenesc (2004-election day) Affiliation: Union for Romania's Reconstruction Faculty of Law, Petre Andrei University of Iași (1997)

salesman, marketing specialist
 
Aurel Rădulescu
Born: August 13, 1953
(age 51)
Adamclisi, Constanța County
Affiliation: Christian Democratic People's Alliance Faculty of Law and Faculty of Tehology, unknown universities (unknown years)

priest
 
Raj Tunaru
Born: November 12, 1959
(age 45)
Țânțăreni, Gorj County
Affiliation: Democratic Youth Party University of Petroșani (unknown year)

mining engineer


ResultsEdit

PresidentEdit

 
Winner by county in the first round
 
Winner by county in the runoff
Candidate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Traian Băsescu Justice and Truth Alliance 3,545,236 33.9 5,126,794 51.2
Adrian Năstase National Union PSD+PUR 4,278,864 40.9 4,881,520 48.8
Corneliu Vadim Tudor Greater Romania Party 1,313,714 12.6
Béla Markó Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 533,446 5.1
Gheorghe Ciuhandu Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party 198,394 1.9
Gigi Becali New Generation Party 184,560 1.8
Petre Roman Democratic Force 140,702 1.4
Gheorghe Dinu Independent 113,321 1.1
Marian Petre Miluț People's Action 43,378 0.4
Ovidiu Tudorici Union for Romania's Reconstruction 37,910 0.4
Aurel Rădulescu Christian Democratic People's Alliance 35,455 0.3
Alexandru Raj Tunaru Democratic Youth Party 27,225 0.3
Invalid/blank votes 339,010 103,245
Total 10,791,215 100 10,111,559 100
Registered voters/turnout 18,449,344 58.5 18,316,104 55.2
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

ParliamentEdit

SenateEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
National Union PSD+PUR 3,798,607 36.3 57 –8
Justice and Truth Alliance 3,250,663 31.1 49 +23
Greater Romania Party 1,394,698 13.3 21 –16
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 637,109 6.1 10 –2
New Generation Party 241,486 2.3 0 New
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party 196,027 1.9 0 New
Democratic Force Party of Romania 95,953 0.9 0 New
Ecologist Party of Romania 83,771 0.8 0 New
United Socialist Party 60,027 0.6 0 New
Romanian National Unity Party 56,414 0.5 0 0
People's Action Party 52,487 0.5 0 New
Other parties 584,963 5.6 0
Invalid/blank votes 339,010
Total 10,791,215 100 137 –3
Registered voters/turnout 18,449,344 58.5
Source: Nohlen & Stöver

Chamber of DeputiesEdit

Party Votes % Seats +/–
National Union PSD+PUR 3,730,352 36.61 132 –23
Justice and Truth Alliance 3,191,546 31.33 112 +51
Greater Romania Party 1,316,751 12.92 48 –36
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania 628,125 6.17 22 –5
New Generation Party 227,443 2.23 0 0
Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party 188,268 1.85 0 New
Democratic Force Party of Romania 79,376 0.78 0 New
Ecologist Party of Romania 73,001 0.72 0 0
Social Democratic Roma Party of Romania 56,076 0.55 1 0
Romanian National Unity Party 53,222 0.52 0
People's Action Party 48,152 0.47 0 New
United Socialist Party 44,459 0.44 0 New
Democratic Forum of Germans 36,166 0.35 1 0
Romanian Workers' Party 35,278 0.35 0 New
Union for Romanian Reconstruction 32,749 0.32 0 New
Socialist Alliance Party 28,429 0.28 0 New
Romanian Socialist Party 28,034 0.28 0 0
National Christian Democratic Party 27,650 0.27 0 New
New Democracy Party 20,926 0.21 0 New
Social Democratic Party "Constantin Titel Petrescu" 20,318 0.20 0 0
People's Alliance of Christian Democrats 18,594 0.18 0 New
Democratic Youth Party 16,271 0.16 0 New
Bulgarian Union of Banat–Romania 15,283 0.15 1 0
Third Millennium Party 15,109 0.15 0 New
Alliance for a United Romania 15,041 0.15 0 New
Party for the Motherland 14,882 0.15 0 0
Union of the Ukrainians of Romania 10,888 0.11 1 0
Community of the Lippovan Russians in Romania 10,562 0.10 1 0
Union of Croatians of Romania 10,331 0.10 1 0
Union of Armenians of Romania 9,810 0.10 1 0
Association of Macedonians of Romania 9,750 0.10 1 0
Cultural Association of Slavonic Macedonians of Romania 9,595 0.09 0 New
Federation of the Jewish Communities in Romania 8,449 0.08 1 0
Democratic Union of Croatians of Romania 7,769 0.08 0 0
Democratic Turkish Union of Romania 7,715 0.08 1 0
Ethnic Turks Association 7,396 0.07 0 New
Hellenic Union of Romania 7,161 0.07 1 0
Union of Serbs of Romania 6,643 0.07 1 0
Turco-Muslim Union of Romania 6,517 0.06 0 New
Democratic Union of Turkish-Muslim Tatars 6,452 0.06 1 0
Democratic Association of Slavonic Macedonians of Romania 6,344 0.06 0 New
Bulgarian Cultural Association of Romania 6,240 0.06 0 0
Association of Italians of Romania 6,168 0.06 1 New
Democratic Union of Slovaks and Czechs of Romania 5,950 0.06 1 0
Union of Poles of Romania 5,473 0.05 1 0
Italian Community of Romania 5,181 0.05 0 –1
Cultural Union of Poles of Romania 5,159 0.05 0 New
League of Albanians of Romania 5,011 0.05 1 0
Bratstvo Community of Bulgarians in Romania 4,065 0.04 0 0
Cultural Union of Ruthenians of Romania 2,871 0.03 1 0
People's Party of Romania 2,336 0.02 0 New
Force of Justice 1,123 0.01 0 New
Independents 51,646 0.51 0 0
Invalid/blank votes 599,641
Total 10,787,450 100 332 –13
Registered voters/turnout 18,449,344 58.47
Source: Nohlen & Stöver, Global Elections Database

AftermathEdit

On 13 December, the PUR president Dan Voiculescu hinted that they have more in common with the DA (both have a center-right orientation) and that they might break from the PSD, but one day later said that he would remain with PSD. It has been suggested by the press that this could be result of a blackmail about his communist past. By 25 December both UDMR and PUR signed a protocol of alliance with DA (Justice and Truth), with the designated prime minister being Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu. Thus, the PSD was left in opposition while Justice and Truth, the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania and the Humanist Party (now the Conservative Party) formed the government.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1616 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7

External linksEdit