1988 Israeli legislative election

Elections for the 12th Knesset were held in Israel on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%.[1]

Elections for the 12th Knesset
Israel
← 1984 1 November 1988 1992 →
Turnout79.7%
Party Leader % Seats ±
Likud Yitzhak Shamir 31.1% 40 -1
Alignment Shimon Peres 30.0% 39 -5
Shas Yitzhak Haim Peretz 4.7% 6 +2
Agudat Yisrael Moshe Ze'ev Feldman 4.5% 5 +3
Ratz Shulamit Aloni 4.3% 5 +2
Mafdal Avner Hai Shaki 3.9% 5 +1
Hadash Meir Wilner 3.7% 4 0
Tehiya Yuval Ne'eman 3.1% 3
Mapam Yair Tzaban 2.5% 3
Tzomet Rafael Eitan 2.0% 2
Moledet Rehavam Ze'evi 1.9% 2 New
Shinui Amnon Rubinstein 1.7% 2 -1
Degel HaTorah Avraham Ravitz 1.5% 2 New
PLFP Mohammed Miari 1.5% 1 -1
Mada Abdulwahab Darawshe 1.2% 1 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
Prime Minister before Prime Minister after
Yitzhak Shamir
Likud
Yitzhak Shamir
Likud
Yitzhak Shamir

Parliament factionsEdit

The table below lists the parliamentary factions represented in the 11th Knesset.

Name Ideology Symbol Leader 1984 result Seats at 1988
dissolution
Votes (%) Seats
Alignment Social democracy
Labor Zionism
אמת Shimon Peres 34.9%[a]
38 / 120
41 / 120
Mapam Labor Zionism
Socialism
מפם Yair Tzaban
6 / 120
5 / 120
Likud National conservatism
National liberalism
מחל Yitzhak Shamir 31.9%
41 / 120
41 / 120
Tehiya-Tzomet Ultranationalism
Revisionist Zionism
ת Yuval Ne'eman
Rafael Eitan
4.0%
5 / 120
5 / 120
Mafdal Religious Zionism ב Yosef Burg 3.5%
4 / 120
4 / 120
Hadash Communism
Socialism
ו Meir Vilner 3.4%
4 / 120
5 / 120
Shas Religious conservatism
Populism
שס Yitzhak Peretz 3.1%
4 / 120
4 / 120
Shinui Liberalism
Centrism
הן Amnon Rubinstein 2.7%
3 / 120
3 / 120
Ratz Social democracy
Secularism
רצ Shulamit Aloni 2.4%
3 / 120
3 / 120
Yahad Centrism ט Ezer Weizman 2.2%
3 / 120
0 / 120
PLFP Pro-peace פ Mohammed Miari 1.8%
2 / 120
2 / 120
Agudat Yisrael Religious conservatism ג Avraham Yosef Shapira 1.7%
2 / 120
2 / 120
Morasha Religious conservatism
Social Conservatism
עד Haim Drukman 1.6%
2 / 120
2 / 120
Tami Religious Zionism
Economic egalitarianism
ני Aharon Abuhatzira 1.5%
1 / 120
1 / 120
Kach[b] Religious Zionism
Kahanism
כך Meir Kahane 1.2%
1 / 120
1 / 120
Ometz National liberalism יש Yigal Hurvitz 1.2%
1 / 120
1 / 120

ResultsEdit

 
PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Likud709,30531.0740−1
Alignment 685,36330.0239−5
Shas107,7094.726+2
Agudat Yisrael102,7144.505+2
Ratz97,5134.275+2
National Religious Party89,7203.935+1
Hadash84,0323.6840
Tehiya70,7303.103−2
Mapam56,3452.473New
Tzomet45,4891.992New
Moledet44,1741.932New
Shinui39,5381.732−1
Degel HaTorah34,2791.502New
Progressive List for Peace33,6951.481−1
Arab Democratic Party27,0121.181New
Pensioners16,6740.730New
Meimad15,7830.690New
Derekh Aretz4,2530.190New
Or Movement4,1820.180New
Movement for Social Justice3,2220.140New
Yishai – Tribal Israel Together2,9470.130New
Movement for Moshavim2,8380.120New
Tarshish1,6540.070New
Silent Power1,5790.070New
Movement for Demobilised Soldiers1,0180.040New
Yemenite Association9090.040New
Unity4460.0200
Total2,283,123100.001200
Valid votes2,283,12399.03
Invalid/blank votes22,4440.97
Total votes2,305,567100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,894,26779.66
Source: IDI, Nohlen et al.

AftermathEdit

Likud's Yitzhak Shamir formed the twenty-third government on 22 December 1988, including the Alignment, the National Religious Party, Shas, Agudat Yisrael and Degel HaTorah in his coalition, with 25 ministers.

In 1990 Shimon Peres tried to form an Alignment-led coalition in a move that became known as "the dirty trick", but failed to win sufficient support. Eventually Shamir formed the twenty-fourth government on 11 June 1990, with a coalition encompassing Likud, the National Religious Party, Shas, Agudat Yisrael, Degel HaTorah, the New Liberal Party, Tehiya, Tzomet, Moledet, Unity for Peace and Immigration and Geulat Yisrael. Tehiya, Tzomet and Moledet all left the coalition in late 1991/early 1992 in protest at Shamir's participation in the Madrid Conference.

Several defections occurred during the Knesset term; five members of Likud left to form the Party for the Advancement of the Zionist Idea. After two of them returned, the party was renamed the New Liberal Party. Yitzhak Peretz left Shas and established Moria. Eliezer Mizrahi left Agudat Yisrael and established Geulat Yisrael. Efraim Gur left the Alignment to establish Unity for Peace and Immigration, which later merged into Likud.

The Twelfth Knesset saw the rise of the ultra-orthodox religious parties as a significant force in Israeli politics, and as a crucial "swing" element which could determine which of the large two secular parties (Likud, Alignment) would get to form the coalition government. Ratz, Mapam, and Shinui merged into Meretz, while Black Panthers broke away from Hadash.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Mapam had been part of the Alignment since 1969, but the party broke away prior to the 1988 election as a gesture of disapproval of the national unity government with Likud.
  2. ^ Kach was disqualified from running in the 1988 elections for violation of the amended Basic Law: the Knesset.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen, Florian Grotz & Christof Hartmann (2001) Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I, p127 ISBN 0-19-924958-X

External linksEdit