Hadash (Hebrew: חד"ש, lit. New), an acronym for HaHazit HaDemokratit LeShalom uLeShivion (Hebrew: הַחֲזִית הַדֶּמוֹקְרָטִית לְשָׁלוֹם וּלְשִׁוְיוֹן, lit. The Democratic Front for Peace and Equality); Arabic: الجبهة الديمقراطية للسلام والمساواة, romanized: al-Jabhah ad-Dimuqrāṭiyyah lis-Salām wa'l-Musāwah) is a far-left political coalition in Israel formed by the Israeli Communist Party and other leftist groups.
|Hebrew name||החזית הדמוקרטית לשלום ולשוויון|
|Arabic name||الجبهة الديمقراطية للسلام والمساواة|
|Merger of||Rakah, Black Panthers and other groups|
|National affiliation||Joint List|
|Colors||Red and Green|
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It currently has five members in the 20th Knesset.
The party was formed on 15 March 1977 when the Rakah and Non-Partisans parliamentary group changed its name to Hadash in preparation for the 1977 elections. The non-partisans included some members of the Black Panthers (several others joined the Left Camp of Israel) and other left-wing non-communist groups. Within the Hadash movement, Rakah (which was renamed Maki, a Hebrew acronym for Israeli Communist Party, in 1989) has retained its independent status.
In its first electoral test, Hadash won five seats, an increase of one on Rakah's previous four. However, in the next elections in 1981 the party was reduced to four seats. It maintained its four seats in the 1984 elections, gaining another MK when Mohammed Wattad defected from Mapam in 1988. The 1988 election resulted in another four-seat haul, though the party lost a seat when Charlie Biton broke away to establish Black Panthers as an independent faction on 25 December 1990. The 1992 elections saw the party remain at three seats.
In the 1996 elections the party ran a joint list with Balad. Together they won five seats, but split during the Knesset term, with Hadash reduced to three seats. The 1999 elections saw them maintain three seats, with Barakeh and Issam Makhoul replacing Ahmad Sa'd and Saleh Saleem.
In the 2003 elections Hadash ran on another joint list, this time with Ahmed Tibi's Ta'al. The list won three seats, but again split during the parliamentary session, leaving Hadash with two MKs, Barakeh and Makhoul.
Policies and ideologyEdit
Hadash is a left party that supports a socialistic economy and workers' rights. It emphasizes Jewish–Arab cooperation, and its leaders were among the first to support a two-state solution. Its voters are principally middle class and secular Arabs, many from the north and Christian communities. It also draws 6,000–10,000 far-left Jewish voters during national elections.
The party supports evacuation of all Israeli settlements, a complete withdrawal by Israel from all territories occupied as a result of the Six-Day War, and the establishment of a Palestinian state in those territories. It also supports the right of return or compensation for Palestinian refugees. In addition to issues of peace and security, Hadash is also known for being active on social and environmental issues. In keeping with socialist ideals, Hadash's environmental platform, led by Maki official Dov Khenin, calls for the nationalization of Israel's gas, mineral, and oil reserves.
Hadash defines itself as a non-Zionist party, originally in keeping with Marxist opposition to nationalism. It calls for recognition of Palestinian Arabs as a national minority within Israel. Despite its Marxist–Leninist roots, Hadash has in recent times included elements of Arab nationalism in its platform.
Hadash shifted to a more Arab nationalist appeal after running on a joint list with Ta'al in 2003. Avirama Golan of Haaretz wrote in 2007 that Hadash had "succumbed to the separatist-nationalist and populist stream ... and chosen to turn its back on a social and civil agenda in favor of questions related to Palestinian nationalism...."
In 2015, Hadash declared its support for international campaigns against companies operating in the occupied Palestinian territories.
The party's platform for the 2009 elections consisted of:
- Achieving a just, comprehensive, and stable peace: Israeli/Palestinian and Israeli/Arab
- Protecting workers' rights and issues
- Developing social services: health, education, housing, welfare, culture, and sports
- Equality for the Arab population in Israel
- Eradicating ethnic discrimination in all fields; defending the concerns of residents of disadvantaged neighborhoods and development towns
- Protecting democratic freedoms
- Equality between the sexes in all fields
- Protecting the environment; environmental justice
- Eradicating weapons of mass destruction
On 1 November 2009, then party leader Mohammad Barakeh was indicted on four counts for events that occurred between April 2005 and July 2007; assault and interfering with a policeman in the line of duty, assault on a photographer, insulting a public servant, and for attacking an official who was discharging his legal duty. The charges related to his role in a protest against Israeli government policy, and was considered controversial mainly by those who were opposed to such protests.
In December 2015, the Hadash party published a Facebook post condemning the assassination of Hezbollah militant Samir Kuntar and comparing Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria.
- Sharon Weinblum (2015). Security and Defensive Democracy in Israel: A Critical Approach to Political Discourse. Routledge. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-317-58450-6.
- Carol Migdalovitz (18 May 2006). "Israel: Background and Relations with the United States]" (PDF). CRS Issue Brief for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Sunil K. Choudhary (2017). The Changing Face of Parties and Party Systems: A Study of Israel and India. Springer. p. 240.
- Ilan Lior, MK Dov Khenin: Netanyahu government is dangerous for Israel, Haaretz (Jan. 16, 2013). "It has also spearheaded Knesset legislation on environmental issues (it describes itself as red-green)."
- Shmuel Sandler; Manfred Gerstenfeld; Jonathan Rynhold (18 October 2013). Israel at the Polls 2006. Routledge. p. 281. ISBN 9781317969921. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Raphael Ahren (13 January 2013). "Who would Maimonides vote for?". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Gregory Moore (2008). Spencer C. Tucker) (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. ABC-CLIO. p. 276. ISBN 978-1851098415.
In the Knesset elections held on March 28, 2006, Hadash, a far-left coalition made up of the Israeli Communist Party and other leftist groups, garnered three Knesset seats (out of 120).
- "Hadash-Balad". Knesset. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Hadash-Ta'al]". Knesset. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- "Former Knesset speaker Burg joins far-left Jewish-Arab party Hadash". The Jerusalem Post. 3 January 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Deborah Sontag (19 May 1999). "The Israeli Vote: The Politics; Israeli Is Weighing a Broad Coalition to Further Peace". The New York Times. p. A12. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Matti Friedman (16 January 2013). "Coexistence, despite everything". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Judy Maltz (12 March 2015). "Meet the Israeli Jews who will vote for the Arab ticket". Haaretz.
- "Hadash". Zionism and Israel – Encyclopedic Dictionary. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
- Sharon Udasin (6 March 2015). "It's tough to be green: Parties outline their platforms". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
- Zafrir Rinat (20 December 2012). "It's the environment, stupid". Haaretz. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
Hadash is adhering to its socialist origins and asking to nationalize the gas, mineral and oil reserves.
- "Hadash Election Manifesto 2006" (in Hebrew). Hadash. Archived from the original on 24 January 2007. Retrieved 16 March 2007.
- Danny Rabinowitz (22 July 2004). "Whither Arab Israeli parties?". Haaretz. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Avirama Golan (11 December 2007). "They've given up on Israelis". Haaretz. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Jack Khoury (9 June 2015). "Arab-Jewish party declares support for boycotting firms in settlements". Haaretz. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Hadash program for Israel" (in Hebrew). Hadash. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2009.
- Gil Ronen (1 November 2009). "Criminal Charges Against Arab MK Barakeh". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 1 November 2009.
- Dan Izenberg (1 November 2009). "Hadash MK indicted for assault while demonstrating against state". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- Beck, Jonathan (22 December 2015). "Arab party's Facebook post compares PM to Islamic State". The Times of Israel.
- Jonathan Lis; Jack Khoury (13 March 2011). "Last member of Israel's first Knesset dies at 89". Haaretz. Retrieved 3 January 2015.