1822 and 1823 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1822 and 1823 were elections for the United States Senate that had the Democratic-Republican Party continue almost complete control of the Senate.

1822 and 1823 United States Senate elections

← 1820 & 1821 Dates vary by state 1824 & 1825 →

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic-Republican Federalist
Last election 39 seats 4 seats
Seats before 44 4
Seats won 14 1
Seats after 44 3
Seat change Steady Decrease 1
Seats up 14 2

Majority Party before election


Democratic-Republican

Elected Majority Party


Democratic-Republican

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

FactionsEdit

At the very end of the next Congress, the 1824 United States presidential election led to a contingency election, decided by the Congress. In that election, Senators split into factions in support of William H. Crawford, Andrew Jackson, or John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay. Even though that election wasn't held until more than two years after the Senate elections in this article, those factions are noted below as "Crawford," "Jackson," or "Adams-Clay."

Results summaryEdit

Senate Party Division, 18th Congress (1823–1825)

  • Majority Party: Democratic-Republican (32–33)
  • Minority Parties: National Republican & Federalist (4–5)
  • Total seats: 48

Change in compositionEdit

Before the electionsEdit

Composition after the January 24, 1822 Delaware special election.

DR1
Del.
Gain
DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34
Ky.
Ran
DR33
Ill.
Ran
DR32
Ga.
Ran
DR31
Ala.
Ran
DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35
La.
Ran
DR36
Me.
Ran
DR37
Miss.
Ran
DR38
N.J.
Ran
DR39
N.C.
Ran
DR40
R.I.
Ran
DR41
S.C.
Ran
DR42
Tenn.
Ran
DR43
Va.
Ran
DR44
N.H.
Retired
F1 F2 F3
Mass.
Ran
F4
Del.

Result of the regular electionsEdit

DR1 DR2 DR3 DR4
DR14 DR13 DR12 DR11 DR10 DR9 DR8 DR7 DR6 DR5
DR15 DR16 DR17 DR18 DR19 DR20 DR21 DR22 DR23 DR24
Majority → DR25
DR34
Ky.
Re-elected
DR33
Ill.
Re-elected
DR32
Ga.
Re-elected
DR31
Ala.
Re-elected
DR30 DR29 DR28 DR27 DR26
DR35
La.
Re-elected
DR36
Me.
Re-elected
DR37
Miss.
Re-elected
DR38
N.J.
Re-elected
DR39
R.I.
Re-elected
DR40
Va.
Re-elected
DR41
N.H.
Hold
DR42
N.C.
Hold
DR43
S.C.
Hold
DR44
Tenn.
Hold
F1 F2 F3
Mass.
Re-elected
V1
Del.
F Loss
Key:
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the preceding CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1822 or before March 4, 1823; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Delaware
(Class 1)
Vacant Outerbridge Horsey (F) had resigned March 3, 1821.
New senator elected January 24, 1822.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Ohio
(Class 3)
William A. Trimble Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent died December 13, 1821.
New senator elected January 29, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Harrison Gray Otis Federalist 1816 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1822 to run for Mayor of Boston.
New senator elected June 5, 1822.
Successor was also elected to the next term, see below.
Federalist hold.
Alabama
(Class 3)
John W. Walker Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent resigned December 12, 1822 due to failing health.
New senator elected December 12, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
William Pinkney Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special)
1821
Incumbent died February 25, 1822.
New senator elected December 17, 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia
(Class 2)
James Pleasants Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 15, 1822 to become Governor of Virginia.
New senator elected December 18, 1822.
Successor was later re-elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the next CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1823; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 2 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama William R. King Democratic-Republican 1819 Incumbent re-elected December 12, 1822.
Delaware Nicholas Van Dyke Federalist 1817 Legislature failed to elect.
Federalist loss.
Incumbent would later be re-elected late in 1824.
[data unknown/missing]
Georgia Nicholas Ware Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1822 or 1823.
Illinois Jesse B. Thomas Democratic-Republican 1818 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Kentucky Richard Mentor Johnson Democratic-Republican 1819 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Louisiana Henry Johnson Democratic-Republican 1818 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Maine John Chandler Democratic-Republican 1820 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Massachusetts James Lloyd Federalist 1808 (Special)
1808
1813 (Resigned)
1822 (Special)
Incumbent re-elected as an Adams-Clay Federalist in 1822.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Mississippi Thomas Hill Williams Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
New Hampshire David L. Morril Democratic-Republican 1816 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected in 1823.
Democratic-Republican hold.
New Jersey Mahlon Dickerson Democratic-Republican 1817 Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
North Carolina Montfort Stokes Democratic-Republican 1816 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Rhode Island Nehemiah R. Knight Democratic-Republican 1821 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
South Carolina William Smith Democratic-Republican 1810 (Special)
1816
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1822.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Tennessee John Williams Democratic-Republican 1815 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected October 28, 1823.[4]
Democratic-Republican hold.
Virginia John Taylor of Caroline Democratic-Republican 1822 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1823.
Winner was also elected to finish the current term, see above.

Special elections during the next CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were elected in 1823 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
New Jersey
(Class 1)
Samuel L. Southard Democratic-Republican 1821 (Appointed)
1820
Incumbent resigned March 4, 1823 to become U.S. Secretary of the Navy.
New senator elected November 12, 1823.
Democratic Republican hold.

AlabamaEdit

Alabama (Regular)Edit

Incumbent William R. King was first elected in 1819. He was reelected with the votes of over 41% of the legislators, defeating William Crawford, former agent to the Choctaw nation John McKee, and another candidate named William King.

1822 United States Senate election in Alabama
← 1819 December 12, 1822 1828 →
   
Candidate William R. King William Crawford
Party Democratic-Republican Independent
Percentage 41.76% 38.46%

   
Candidate John McKee William King
Party Democratic-Republican Democratic-Republican
Percentage 13.19% 6.59%

Alabama (Special)Edit

Incumbent John Williams Walker resigned on December 12, 1822 due to failing health. He would die in April of the following year. William Kelly was elected in his place with 56.65%

1822 United States Senate special election in Alabama
← 1819 December 12, 1822 1824 →
   
Candidate William Kelly John McKinley
Party Democratic-Republican Democratic-Republican
Percentage 56.65% 49.35%

of the votes of state legislators, defeating state representative John McKinley.

DelawareEdit

Delaware (Regular)Edit

The Delaware General Assembly did not elect a candidate to the United States Senate.

Delaware (Special)Edit

Federalist incumbent Outerbridge Horsey retired in the 1820/1821 Senate elections. The Delaware General Assembly failed to elect a successor. Caesar Augustus Rodney, the U.S. Representative for Delaware's at-large congressional district and a nephew of founding father Caesar Rodney, was elected late.

GeorgiaEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Nicholas Ware was reelected in 1823.

IllinoisEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Jesse B. Thomas was reelected in 1823.

KentuckyEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Richard Mentor Johnson was reelected in 1823.

LouisianaEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Henry S. Johnson was reelected in 1823

MaineEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican John Chandler was reelected in 1823.

Maryland (Special)Edit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican William Pinkney died on February 25, 1822. Congressman Samuel Smith, a Democratic-Republican, was elected to the seat on December 17, 1822.

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Regular)Edit

Incumbent Federalist James Lloyd was reelected in 1822 after being first elected in a special election (see below).

Massachusetts (Special)Edit

Incumbent Senator Harrison Gray Otis resigned on May 30, 1822 to run for Mayor of Boston. Former senator James Lloyd, a Federalist was elected on June 5, 1822.

MississippiEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Thomas Hill Williams was reelected in 1823.

New HampshireEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican David L. Morril retired. Governor of New Hampshire Samuel Bell was elected as a Democratic-Republican.

New JerseyEdit

New Jersey (Regular)Edit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Mahlon Dickerson was reelected in 1823.

New Jersey (Special)Edit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Samuel L. Southard resigned on March 3, 1823 to become the U.S. Secretary of the Navy. Democratic-Republican Joseph McIlvaine was elected to finish his term on November 12, 1823.

North CarolinaEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Montfort Stokes was defeated for reelection by John Branch, a fellow Democratic-Republican, in 1822.

Ohio (Special)Edit

Incumbent Jeffersonian Republican William A. Trimble died on December 13, 1821 at the age of 35. Governor of Ohio, Ethan Allen Brown, was elected to finish Trimble's term.

Rhode IslandEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Nehemiah R. Knight was reelected in 1823.

South CarolinaEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican William Smith lost reelection to Democratic-Republican Robert Y. Hayne.

TennesseeEdit

Former senator and general Andrew Jackson defeated incumbent John Williams in the election for Senate. Jackson was put up as the Jacksonian candidate after Williams decided to support William H. Crawford in the 1824 Presidential Election.[5] Williams was endorsed by Davy Crockett.[6] Jackson's return to the senate after nearly 25 years out of office marks the second longest gap in service in U.S. Senate history. Jackson would resign two years later in 1825, and eventually be elected president in 1828.

1823 United States Senate election in Tennessee
← 1816/1817 November 28, 1823 1824/1825 (special) →

60 legislators
31 votes needed to win
     
Candidate Andrew Jackson John Williams
Party Democratic-Republican Democratic-Republican
Alliance Jacksonian Old Republican
Legislative vote 35 25
Percentage 58.33% 41.67%

VirginiaEdit

Virginia (Regular)Edit

After being elected in the special election (see below), incumbent John Taylor was reelected in 1823.

Virginia (Special)Edit

Incumbent James Pleasants resigned on December 15, 1822 to become Governor of Virginia. Former senator John Taylor, a Democratic-Republican, was elected with 51.8% of the votes of legislators over former congressmen Henry St. George Tucker and John Tyler, both Democratic-Republicans.

1822 United States Senate special election in Virginia
← 1819 (special) December 18, 1822 1823 →
       
Candidate John Taylor of Caroline Henry St. George Tucker Sr. John Tyler, Jr.
Party Democratic-Republican Democratic-Republican Democratic-Republican
Percentage 51.8% 37.9% 10.3%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL US Senate Race - Dec 12, 1822". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 31, 2019., citing 1822 House Journal, Dec 12.
  2. ^ "Virginia 1822 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  3. ^ "Our Campaigns - AL Senate Race - Dec 12, 1822".
  4. ^ "Tennessee 1823 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
  5. ^ Higgins, Ruth L.; Driver, Leota S. (December 1933). "Fanny Kemble". The Mississippi Valley Historical Review. 20 (3): 416. doi:10.2307/1886861. ISSN 0161-391X.
  6. ^ "<sc>John R. Finger</sc>. <italic>Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition</italic>. (A History of the Trans-Appalachian Frontier.) Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 2001. Pp. xxiii, 382. $39.95". The American Historical Review. February 2003. doi:10.1086/ahr/108.1.185-a. ISSN 1937-5239.