1800 and 1801 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1800 and 1801 were elections for the United States Senate that, coinciding with their takeover of the White House, led to the Democratic-Republican Party taking control of the United States Senate. Although the Federalists began the next (7th) Congress with a slim majority, they lost their majority shortly thereafter due to mid-year special elections.

1800 and 1801 United States Senate elections

← 1798 & 1799 Dates vary by state 1802 & 1803 →

10 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 21 (65.6%) 11 (34.4%)
Seats after 17 (54.8%) 14 (45.2%)
Seat change Decrease 4 Increase 3
Seats up 7 3
Races won 3 6

Majority Party before election


Federalist

Elected Majority Party


Federalist

By the time the first proper session of the 7th Congress met in December 1801, three seats had been gained by the Democratic-Republicans, leaving them with an overall majority of 17 seats and a Government trifecta.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Change in compositionEdit

Before the November electionsEdit

After the November 6, 1800 special election in New York.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
N.H.
Ran
DR10
N.Y.
Ran
DR11
N.C.
Retired
F21
Vt.
Ran
F20
S.C.
Ran
F19
Pa.
Retired
F18
Md.
Unknown
F17
Ky.
Ran
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Conn.
Ran
F16
Ga.
Retired
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Result of the November electionsEdit

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Ga.
Gain
DR10
Ky.
Gain
DR11
N.Y.
Re-elected
DR12
N.C.
Hold
DR13
Pa.
Gain
DR14
S.C.
Gain
V1
Md.
F loss
F17
Vt.
Re-elected
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
Conn.
Re-elected
F16
N.H.
Gain
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Beginning of the 7th Congress, March 4, 1801Edit

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13 DR14 F18
Md.
Appointed
F17
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15 F16
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

End of 1801Edit

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9 DR10 DR11 DR12 DR13
Md.
Gain
DR14
Pa.
Hold
DR15
R.I.
Gain
DR16
S.C.
Hold
Majority → DR17
Vt.
Gain
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12 F13 F14 F15
N.H.
Hold
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the preceding CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winner was seated before March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
New York
(Class 1)
James Watson Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 19, 1800, to become Naval Officer of the Port of New York.
New senator elected April 3, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Samuel Dexter Federalist 1798 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1800 to become U.S. Secretary of War.
New senator elected June 6, 1800.
Federalist hold.
New York
(Class 3)
John Laurance Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned August 1800.
New senator elected November 6, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
Benjamin Goodhue Federalist 1796 (Special)
1796
Incumbent resigned November 8, 1800.
New senator elected November 14, 1800.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 3)
James Lloyd Federalist 1797 (Special) Incumbent resigned December 1, 1800.
New senator elected December 12, 1800.
Federalist hold.
New Jersey
(Class 1)
James Schureman Federalist 1799 (Special) Incumbent resigned February 16, 1801.
New senator elected February 28, 1801.
Federalist hold.

Races leading to the next CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1801; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Connecticut Uriah Tracy Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in May 1801.
Georgia James Gunn Federalist 1789
1794
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected November 19, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Kentucky Humphrey Marshall Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected November 20, 1800.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Maryland William Hindman Federalist 1797 (Special) Legislature failed to elect.
Incumbent was later appointed to begin the next term.
None.
New Hampshire John Langdon Democratic-
Republican
1788
1794 or 1795
Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected June 21, 1800.
Federalist gain.
New York John Armstrong Democratic-
Republican
1800 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1801.
North Carolina Timothy Bloodworth Democratic-
Republican
1795 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected November 27, 1800.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania William Bingham Federalist 1795 Incumbent retired.
New senator elected February 18, 1801.[11]
Democratic-Republican gain.
South Carolina Jacob Read Federalist 1794 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected in 1800 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Vermont Elijah Paine Federalist 1794 Incumbent re-elected October 21, 1800.

Special elections during the next CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winner was seated after March 4, 1801; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Ray Greene Federalist 1797 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned March 5, 1801.
New senator elected May 6, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
New Hampshire
(Class 2)
Samuel Livermore Federalist 1798 (Special) Incumbent resigned June 12, 1801.
New senator elected June 17, 1801.
Federalist hold.
Vermont
(Class 3)
Elijah Paine Federalist 1794
1800
Incumbent resigned September 1, 1801.
New senator elected October 14, 1801.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Maryland
(Class 3)
William Hindman Federalist 1800 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee did not run to finish the term
New senator elected November 12, 1801 on the second ballot.
Democratic-Republican gain.
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Charles Pinckney Democratic-
Republican
1798 (Special)
1798
Incumbent resigned June 6, 1801.
New senator elected December 3, 1801.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Pennsylvania
(Class 3)
Peter Muhlenberg Democratic-
Republican
1801 Incumbent resigned June 30, 1801.
New senator elected December 17, 1801.[18]
Democratic-Republican hold.

ConnecticutEdit

 
Senator Uriah Tracy

Federalist Uriah Tracy was easily re-elected.

GeorgiaEdit

KentuckyEdit

MarylandEdit

Maryland (Special, 1800)Edit

Maryland (Regular)Edit

The Maryland legislature failed to elect a senator before the March 4, 1801 beginning of the term.

Maryland (Special, 1801)Edit

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Special, Class 2)Edit

Massachusetts (Special, Class 1)Edit

New HampshireEdit

New Hampshire (Regular)Edit

New Hampshire (Special)Edit

New Jersey (Special)Edit

New YorkEdit

New York (Regular)Edit

New York (Special, Class 1)Edit

New York (Special, Class 3)Edit

North CarolinaEdit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Pennsylvania (Regular)Edit

Pennsylvania (Special)Edit

Rhode Island (Special)Edit

South CarolinaEdit

South Carolina (Regular)Edit

South Carolina (Special)Edit

VermontEdit

Vermont (Regular)Edit

Vermont (Special)Edit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "New York 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 265. The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). April 4, 1800. Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). April 10, 1800. The Centinel of Liberty, or George-town and Washington Advertiser (Georgetown, DC). April 15, 1800.
  2. ^ "Massachusetts 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Hampshire Gazette (Northhampton). June 11, 1800. The Kentucky Gazette (Lexington, KY). July 3, 1800.
  3. ^ "New York 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 10, 11. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1800. 8. American Citizen and General Advertiser (New York, NY). November 10, 1800. The Centinel of Freedom (Newark, NJ). November 11, 1800. Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser (Savannah, GA). November 19, 1800. Universal Gazette (Washington, DC). November 20, 1800.
  4. ^ "Maryland 1800 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 25, 2018., citing Votes and Proceedings of the Maryland State Senate, 1800. 26. Connecticut Gazette, and the Commercial Intelligencer (New London, CT). December 24, 1800. Mattern, David B., J. C. A. Stagg, Jeanne K. Cross and Susan Holbrook Perdue, ed. The Papers of James Madison, Congressional Series. Vol. 17. Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 1991. 435-436.
  5. ^ "Connecticut 1801 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Connecticut Gazette, and the Commercial Intelligencer (New London, CT). May 17, 1801. Impartial Journal (Stonington, CT). June 2, 1801. The Bee (New London, CT). June 3, 1801. The Bee (Hudson, NY). November 16, 1802.
  6. ^ "Georgia 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Columbian Museum and Savannah Advertiser (Savannah, GA). November 25, 1800.
  7. ^ "Kentucky 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Palladium: A Literary and Political Weekly Repository (Frankfort, KY). November 25, 1800.
  8. ^ "New Hampshire 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Ninth State: New Hampshire's Formative Years. 182.
  9. ^ "New York 1801 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). January 30, 1801.
  10. ^ "North Carolina 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Legislative Papers for 1800. Box 176. State Archives of North Carolina, Raleigh. Raleigh Register, and North-Carolina Weekly Advertiser (Raleigh, NC). December 2, 1800.
  11. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=345434
  12. ^ "South Carolina 1800 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing National Intelligencer and Washington Advertiser (Washington, DC). December 15, 1800.
  13. ^ "Vermont 1800 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1800. 265. The Albany Centinel (Albany, NY). April 4, 1800. Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). April 10, 1800. The Centinel of Liberty, or George-town and Washington Advertiser (Georgetown, DC). April 15, 1800.
  14. ^ "New Hampshire 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Courier of New Hampshire (Concord, NH). June 18, 1801.
  15. ^ "New Hampshire 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing Spooner's Vermont Journal (Windsor, VT). October 20, 1801.
  16. ^ "Maryland 1801 U.S. Senate, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Albany Gazette (Albany, NY). November 21, 1796.
  17. ^ "South Carolina 1801 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 5, 2018., citing The Augusta Chronicle and Gazette of the State (Augusta, GA). December 12, 1801.
  18. ^ http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=345554