1796 and 1797 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1796 and 1797 were elections for the United States Senate which, coinciding with John Adams's election as President, had the ruling Federalist Party gain one seat.

1796 and 1797 United States Senate elections

← 1794 & 1795 Dates vary by state 1798 & 1799 →

11 of the 32 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
17 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Federalist Democratic-Republican
Seats before 19 12
Seats after 20 10
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 2
Seats up 8 3
Races won 9 1

Majority Party before election


Federalist

Elected Majority Party


Federalist

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by state legislatures.

Results summaryEdit

Senate Party Division, 5th Congress (1797–1799)

  • Majority Party: Federalist (22)
  • Minority Party: Democratic-Republican (9)
  • Vacant: 1 (later filled by Democratic-Republican)
  • Total Seats: 32

Change in compositionEdit

Before the electionsEdit

After the August 2, 1796 admission of Tennessee.

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
N.Y.
Ran
DR10
Tenn.
Ran
DR11
Va.
Unknown
V2 V1 F19
Vt.
Resigned
F17
R.I.
Ran
F16
Pa.
Ran
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Conn.
Ran
F13
Del.
Ran
F14
Md.
Ran
F18
Mass.
Resigned
F15
N.J.
Ran
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1

Results of the regular electionsEdit

DR6 DR5 DR4 DR3 DR2 DR1
DR7 DR8 DR9
Va.
Re-elected
V2
Tenn.
DR Loss
V2 V1 F19
Vt.
Hold
F17
R.I.
Re-elected
F16
Pa.
Re-elected
F20
N.Y.
Gain
Majority →
F7 F8 F9 F10 F11 F12
Conn.
Re-elected
F13
Del.
Re-elected
F14
Md.
Re-elected
F18
Mass.
Hold
F15
N.J.
Re-elected
F6 F5 F4 F3 F2 F1
Key
DR# Democratic-Republican
F# Federalist
V# Vacant

Race summariesEdit

Except if/when noted, the number following candidates is the whole number vote(s), not a percentage.

Special elections during the 4th CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were seated before March 4, 1797; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Georgia
(Class 2)
George Walton Federalist 1795 (Appointed) Appointee retired when successor elected.
New senator elected February 20, 1796.
Democratic-Republican gain.
Connecticut
(Class 1)
Oliver Ellsworth Federalist 1788
1791
Incumbent resigned to become Chief Justice of the United States.
New senator elected May 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Massachusetts
(Class 1)
George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
Massachusetts
(Class 2)
Caleb Strong Federalist 1788
1793
Incumbent resigned June 1, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the second ballot.
Federalist hold.
Connecticut
(Class 3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Federalist 1794 or 1795 Incumbent resigned June 10, 1796 to become Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut.
New senator elected October 13, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Vermont
(Class 1)
Moses Robinson Democratic-Republican 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist gain.
Successor also elected the same day to the next term, see below.
New York
(Class 3)
Rufus King Federalist 1789
1795
Incumbent resigned May 23, 1796 to become U.S. Minister to Great Britain.
New senator elected November 9, 1796.
Federalist hold.
New Jersey
(Class 2)
Frederick Frelinghuysen Federalist 1792 or 1793 Incumbent resigned November 12, 1796.
New senator elected November 12, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 1)
Richard Potts Federalist 1793 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 24, 1796.
New senator elected November 28, 1796.
Federalist hold.
Successor also later elected to the next term, see below.
South Carolina
(Class 2)
Pierce Butler Democratic-Republican 1789
1793
Incumbent resigned October 25, 1796.
New senator elected December 8, 1796.
Democratic-Republican hold.

Races leading to the 5th CongressEdit

In these regular elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1797; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Connecticut James Hillhouse Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1797.
Delaware Henry Latimer Federalist 1795 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 6, 1797.
Maryland John Eager Howard Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 9, 1796.
Massachusetts George Cabot Federalist 1790 Incumbent resigned June 9, 1796.
New senator elected June 11, 1796 on the third ballot.
Federalist hold.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
New Jersey John Rutherfurd Federalist 1790 Incumbent re-elected in 1796.
New York Aaron Burr Democratic-Republican 1791 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 24, 1797.
Federalist gain.
Pennsylvania James Ross Federalist 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected February 16, 1797.
Rhode Island Theodore Foster Federalist 1790
1791
Incumbent re-elected in 1797.
Tennessee William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796 Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic-Republican loss.
Incumbent later appointed to continue term.[11]
None
Vermont Moses Robinson Democratic-Republican 1791 (New state) Incumbent resigned October 15, 1796.
New senator elected October 18, 1796.
Federalist gain.
Winner also elected to finish the current term, see above.
Virginia Stevens Mason Democratic-Republican 1794 (Special) Incumbent re-elected November 29, 1796.

Special elections during the 5th CongressEdit

In these special elections, the winners were elected after the March 4, 1797 beginning of the next Congress.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Tennessee
(Class 1)
William Cocke Democratic-Republican 1796
1797 (Appointed)
Interim appointee lost re-election.
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Tennessee
(Class 2)
William Blount Democratic-Republican 1796 Incumbent expelled July 8, 1797.[14]
New senator elected September 26, 1797.
Democratic-Republican hold.
Vermont
(Class 1)
Isaac Tichenor Federalist 1796 (Special) Incumbent resigned October 17, 1797 to become Governor of Vermont.
New senator elected October 17, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
William Bradford Federalist 1793 Incumbent resigned in October 1797.
New senator elected November 13, 1797.
Federalist hold.
Maryland
(Class 3)
John Henry Federalist 1788
1795
Incumbent resigned July 10, 1797 to become Governor of Maryland.
New senator elected December 8, 1797.
Federalist hold.

ConnecticutEdit

Connecticut (Regular)Edit

Connecticut (Special, Class 1)Edit

Connecticut (Special, Class 3)Edit

DelawareEdit

Georgia (Special)Edit

MarylandEdit

Maryland (Regular)Edit

Maryland (Special, 1796)Edit

Maryland (Special, 1797)Edit

MassachusettsEdit

Massachusetts (Regular)Edit

Massachusetts (Special, Class 1)Edit

Massachusetts (Special, Class 2)Edit

New JerseyEdit

New Jersey (Regular)Edit

New Jersey (Special)Edit

New YorkEdit

New York (Regular)Edit

New York (Special)Edit

PennsylvaniaEdit

Rhode IslandEdit

Rhode Island (Regular)Edit

Rhode Island (Special)Edit

South Carolina (Special)Edit

TennesseeEdit

Tennessee (Initial)Edit

Tennessee became a state June 1, 1796 and elected its new senators August 2, 1796.

Tennessee (Special, Class 1)Edit

The term of the initially-elected senator, Democratic-Republican William Cocke, ended March 3, 1797 and the Tennessee legislature failed to elect a senator for the new term. The Governor of Tennessee, therefore, appointed Cocke to begin the term, pending a special election. Cocke, however, lost that October 6, 1798 special election to Democratic-Republican Daniel Smith.

Tennessee (Special, Class 2)Edit

Democratic-Republican William Blount was expelled July 8, 1797 for conspiracy with the Kingdom of Great Britain. Democratic-Republican Joseph Anderson was elected September 26, 1797 to finish Blount's term.

VermontEdit

Incumbent Democratic-Republican Moses Robinson resigned October 15, 1796.

Federalist Isaac Tichenor was elected October 18, 1796 both to finish Robinson's term and to the new term that would begin March 4, 1797. However, Tichenor resigned just one year later, October 17, 1797, to become Governor of Vermont. Federalist Nathaniel Chipman was then elected October 17, 1797 to finish the term.

Vermont (Special, 1796)Edit

Vermont (Regular)Edit

Vermont (Special, 1797)Edit

VirginiaEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  2. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Special, Ballot 2". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Political Gazette (Newburyport, MA). June 16, 1796.
  3. ^ "New York 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1796. 18. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1796. 12.
  4. ^ "New Jersey 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Albany Gazette (Albany, NY). November 21, 1796.
  5. ^ "Maryland 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Charles Carroll to James McHenry. Nov. 28, 1796. Reel 2, Item 990. Charles Carroll Papers. Maryland Historical Society, Baltimore.
  6. ^ "South Carolina 1796 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 30, 1796.
  7. ^ "Delaware 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the Delaware State Senate, 1797. 18.
  8. ^ "Massachusetts 1796 U.S. Senate, Ballot 3". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Hampshire and Berkshire Chronicle (Springfield, MA). June 21, 1796.
  9. ^ "New York 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Journal of the New York Assembly, 1797. 68. Journal of the New York State Senate, 1797. 43-44.
  10. ^ "Pennsylvania 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The New World (Philadelphia, PA). February 17, 1797.
  11. ^ United States Congress. "William Cocke (id: C000572)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  12. ^ "Virginia 1796 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing The Virginia Argus (Richmond, VA). December 2, 1796.
  13. ^ a b "Tennessee 1797 U.S. Senate". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved January 30, 2018., citing Commercial Advertiser (New York, NY). November 11, 1797.
  14. ^ United States Congress. "William Blount (id: B000570)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  15. ^ "Maryland 1797 U.S. Senate, Special". Tufts Digital Collations and Archives. A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1787–1825. Tufts University. Retrieved February 4, 2018., citing Aurora. General Advertiser (Philadelphia, PA). December 13, 1797.