1431 papal conclave
The 1431 papal conclave (March 2–3) convened after the death of Pope Martin V and elected as his successor cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name Eugene IV. It was the first papal conclave held after the end of the Great Western Schism.
|Dates and location|
|2–3 March 1431|
Santa Maria sopra Minerva, Papal States
|Protodeacon||Alfonso Carrillo de Albornoz|
Name taken: Eugene IV
List of participantsEdit
Pope Martin V died on February 20, 1431. At the time of his death, there were 20 publicly known members of the College of Cardinals, but only 18 were considered to be valid electors. Fourteen of them participated in the conclave:
|Giordano Orsini||Roman||Bishop of Albano||1405, June 12||Pope Innocent VII||Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Grand penitentiary|
|Antonio Correr, O.C.R.S.A.||Venetian||Bishop of Porto e Santa Rufina||1408, May 9||Pope Gregory XII (Cardinal-nephew)||Archpriest of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica|
|Antonio Panciera||Friuli||Priest of S. Susanna||1411, June 6||Antipope John XXIII||Protopriest of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Administrator of the suburbicarian see of Frascati|
|Gabriel Condulmer, O.C.R.S.A. (elected Pope Eugene IV)||Venetian||Priest of S. Clemente||1408, May 9||Pope Gregory XII (Cardinal-nephew)|
|Branda da Castiglione||Duchy of Milan||Priest of S. Clemente||1411, June 6||Antipope John XXIII|
|Jean de La Rochetaillée||French||Priest of S. Lorenzo in Lucina||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Rouen and of Besançon; Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica|
|Louis Aleman, O.C.R.S.J.||French||Priest of S. Cecilia||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Arles|
|fr:Antonio Casini||Siena||Priest of S. Marcello||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Grosseto|
|Juan de Cervantes||Castilian||Priest of S. Pietro in Vincoli||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Tui|
|Alfonso Carrillo de Albornoz||Castilian||Deacon of S. Eustachio||1408, September 22||Antipope Benedict XIII||Protodeacon of the Sacred College of Cardinals; Archpriest of the patriarchal Lateran Basilica; Administrator of Osma and of Sigüenza|
|Lucido Conti||Roman||Deacon of S. Maria in Cosmedin||1411, June 6||Antipope John XXIII||Cardinal-protector of the Teutonic Order; Camerlengo of the Sacred College of Cardinals|
|Hugues Lancelot de Lusignan||Kingdom of Cyprus||Deacon of S. Adriano||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Nicosia|
|Ardicino della Porta||Duchy of Milan||Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V|
|Prospero Colonna||Roman||Deacon of S. Giorgio in Velabro||1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430||Pope Martin V (Cardinal-nephew)|
The Council of Constance confirmed the cardinals created by all three obediences of the time of the Schism. Seven participants were named cardinal by Pope Martin V, three by "Pisan" Antipope John XXIII, two by "Roman" Pope Gregory XII, one by "Roman" Pope Innocent VII and one by Antipope Benedict XIII of Avignon.
Four electors did not participate in this conclave:
|Pierre de Foix, O.F.M.||French||Cardinal-Priest of S. Stefano al Monte Celio||September, 1414||Antipope John XXIII||Legate in Avignon; administrator of Comminges|
|Niccolo Albergati, O.Carth.||Bolognese||Priest of S. Croce in Gerusalemme||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Bologna; Papal legate in France|
|Henry Beaufort||English||Priest of S. Eusebio||1426, May 24||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Winchester; legate a latere in England|
|Giuliano Cesarini||Roman||Deacon of S. Angelo in Pescheria||1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430||Pope Martin V||Papal legate in Germany|
All the absentee electors were created by Martin V, except Pierre de Foix, who was elevated by Pisan Antipope John XXIII.
Pope Martin V initiated the custom of creating cardinals without publishing their names at the time (similar to in pectore). At the time of his death the names of two of his secret nominees remained unpublished and, therefore, they were not regarded as members of the Sacred College. They were Juan Casanova, administrator of Elne, and Guillaume Ragenel de Montfort, bishop of Saint-Malo, and they both were later created again by Eugene IV. However, two cardinals also created initially in pectore but later published were not allowed to participate in this conclave, because some necessary rites had not been accomplished at the death of Martin V:
|Domingo Ram, O.C.R.S.A.||Catalan||Priest of SS. Giovanni e Paolo||1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430, but without finishing the rite of his investiture as cardinal||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Lerida|
|Domenico Capranica||Capranica Prenestina, Papal States||Deacon of S. Maria in Via Lata||1426, May 24, published on November 8, 1430, but without finishing the rite of his investiture as cardinal||Pope Martin V||Administrator of Fermo; Governor of Perugia and of the Duchy of Spoleto|
The election of Pope Eugene IVEdit
The Mass of the Holy Spirit was sung on Thursday March 1, 1431 by Cardinal Giordano Orsini, the Bishop of Albano, prior Cardinalium. On March 2 all cardinals present in Rome entered the conclave in Santa Maria sopra Minerva[why?]. On 2 March, the electors prepared and subscribed the conclave capitulation. The terms of the Capitulation, which contained at least eight clauses, included:
- Half of papal revenue was to be shared with the College of Cardinals
- No major issues were to be decided without the consent of the College
The first scrutiny took place on the following day, 3 March, and ended with unanimous election of Cardinal Gabriele Condulmer, who took the name of Eugene IV. On Sunday 11 March he was solemnly crowned on the steps of the patriarchal Vatican Basilica by Cardinal Alfonso Carrillo de Albornoz of S. Eustachio, the Cardinal Protodeacon.
- The list of participants is reconstructed according to the subscriptions on conclave capitulation, published in Annales Ecclesiastici, vol. 28, p. 90
- A. Theiner (ed.), Caesaris S.R.E. Cardinalis Baronii Annales Ecclesiastici Tomus 28 (Bar-le-Duc 1874), under the year 1431, no. 7, p. 84.
- Gregorovius believed that the document as quoted was incomplete, History of Rome in the Middle Ages Volume VII. 1, p. 26.
- Francis Burkle-Young “Papal elections in the Fifteenth Century: the election of Eugenius IV
- Sede Vacante 1431
- Annales ecclesiastici
- Konrad Eubel: Hierarchia Catholica, Vol. I-II, Monasterium 1913-1914
- F. Petruccelli della Gattina, Histoire diplomatique des conclaves Volume I (Paris: 1864), 236-252.
- William Cornwallis Cartwright, On the Constitution of Papal Conclaves (Edinburgh 1878) 125-129.
- Ferdinand Gregorovius, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages (translated from the fourth German edition by A. Hamilton) Volume 7 part 1 [Book XIII, Chapter 1] (London 1900) 22-26.
- Ludwig Pastor, History of the Popes (tr. R.F. Kerr) Volume I (St. Louis 1906).
- Peter Partner, The Papal State under Martin V (London 1958).