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|Ab urbe condita||1812|
|Balinese saka calendar||980–981|
|English Regnal year||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||戊戌年 (Earth Dog)|
3755 or 3695
— to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
3756 or 3696
|- Vikram Samvat||1115–1116|
|- Shaka Samvat||980–981|
|- Kali Yuga||4159–4160|
|Japanese calendar||Kōhei 2|
|Minguo calendar||853 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||1370/1371 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1601–1602|
1185 or 804 or 32
— to —
1186 or 805 or 33
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1059.|
- November 22 – Emperor Isaac I Komnenos falls ill on a hunt and retires to a monastery after a 2-year reign. He abdicates the Byzantine throne and appoints Constantine X, a Paphlagonian nobleman, as his successor.
- Fall – The Magyars cross the Danube River, together with several Pecheneg tribes, but are halted by Byzantine forces (approximate date).
- Peter Krešimir IV (the Great) is crowned king of Croatia and Dalmatia. His coronation is recognised by the Byzantine Empire who confirm him as the supreme ruler of the Dalmatian cites, i.e. over the Theme of Dalmatia – excluding the theme of Ragusa and the Duchy of Durazzo.
- August 23 – Robert Guiscard, count of Apulia and Calabria, signs the Treaty of Melfi with Pope Nicholas II. Nicholas recognises the Norman conquest of southern Italy and accepts the titles of Guiscard as duke of Sicily.
- Alp Arslan succeeds his father Chaghri Beg as governor of Khorasan. He crosses with a Seljuk expeditionary force the upper Halys River and plunders the Theme of Sebasteia (modern Turkey).
- January 24 – Pope Nicholas II succeeds Stephen IX as the 155th pope of the Catholic Church. He is installed in Rome in opposition to Antipope Benedict X – the brother of the late Pope Benedict IX (deposed in 1048).
- April 13 – Nicholas II, with the agreement of the Lateran Council, issues the papal bull In nomine Domini, making the College of Cardinals the sole voters in the papal conclave for the election of popes.
- At-Turtushi, Andalusian political philosopher (d. 1126)
- Fujiwara no Akinaka, Japanese nobleman (d. 1129)
- Fulcher of Chartres, French priest and chronicler
- Henry I, count of Limburg and Arlon (approximate date)
- Ngok Loden Sherab, Tibetan Buddhist monk (d. 1109)
- Raynald I, French nobleman and abbot (d. 1090)
- Robert of Burgundy, bishop of Langres (d. 1111)
- April 4 – Farrukh-Zad, Ghaznavid sultan (b. 1025)
- June 29 – Bernard II, German nobleman
- July 7 – Abdallah ibn Yasin, Almoravid ruler
- August 14 – Giselbert, count of Luxembourg
- Cathal mac Tigernán, king of Iar Connacht
- Eilika of Schweinfurt, German noblewoman
- Michael I (Cerularius), Byzantine patriarch
- Michael VI (Bringas), Byzantine emperor
- Peter Orseolo (the Venetian), king of Hungary
- Vyacheslav Yaroslavich, prince of Smolensk
- John Julius Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee – The choice of a Successor, p. 336. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
- Fine, John V. A. Jr. (1991) . The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 279. ISBN 0-472-08149-7.
- The Normans in Europe, Ed. & Trans. Elisabeth van Houts (Manchester & New York: Manchester University Press, 2000), pp. 236–37.
- Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 127. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.