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The 100s decade ran from January 1, 100, to December 31, 109.
- Emperor Trajan and Sextus Julius Frontinus become Roman Consuls.
- Bricks become the primary building material in the Roman Empire.
- Pliny the Younger advances to consulship, giving his panegyric on Trajan in the process.
- The Roman Army reaches 300,000 soldiers.
- Titus Avidius Quietus' rule as governor of Roman Britain ends.
- Timgad (Thamugas), a Roman colonial town in North Africa is founded by Trajan.
- Trajan creates a policy intended to restore the former economic supremacy of Italy.
- The future emperor, Hadrian, marries Vibia Sabina.
- Pakores (last king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom) takes the throne.
- Paper is used by the general populace in China, starting around this year.
- The Kingdom of Himyarite is conquered by the Hadramaut.
- The Hopewell tradition begins in what is now Ohio c. this date.
- Teotihuacan, at the center of Mexico, reaches a population of 50,000.
- The Moche civilization emerges, and starts building a society in present-day Peru.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- In China, the wheelbarrow makes its first appearance.
- Main hall, Markets of Trajan, Rome, is made (until AD 112).
- Appearance of the first Christian dogma and formulas regarding morality.
- The Gospel of John is widely believed to have been written around this date.
- The compilation of the Kama sutra begins in India.
- The Temple of the God of Medicine is built in Anguo, China.
- The Fourth Buddhist Council is convened c. this year.
- Emperor Trajan starts an expedition against Dacia, exceeding the limits of the Roman Empire set by Augustus.
- Second Battle of Tapae: Roman forces led by Trajan defeat the Dacian king Decebalus in Transylvania.
Art and ScienceEdit
- Plutarch writes his Parallel Lives of Famous Men (in Greek Βίοι Παράλληλοι) containing fifty biographies, of which 46 are presented as pairs comparing Greek and Roman celebrities—for example Theseus and Romulus, Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar, Demosthenes and Cicero.
- Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Lucius Licinius Sura become Roman consuls.
- Emperor Trajan returns to Rome after a successful campaign against Dacia, through which he reestablishes clear Roman sovereignty over King Decebalus.
- Trajan divides Pannonia into two provinces, sometime between this year and 107.
- The port of Portus is enlarged.
- Having organised the territories of the Tarim basin, Chinese General Ban Chao retires to Luoyang and dies shortly thereafter.
- Emperor Trajan and Manius Laberius Maximus become Roman consuls.
- Pliny the Younger becomes a member of the college of Augurs (103–104).
- Legio X Gemina moves to Vienna where it remains until the 5th century.
- Pliny the Younger continues as a member of the college of Augurs (103–104).
- Nijmegen is renamed Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum.
- A fire breaks out in Rome.
- Trajan gives the order to have the Alcántara Bridge, constructed by the architect Lacer, built over the Tagus River at Alcántara (Hispania).
- Apollodorus of Damascus builds a stone bridge over the Danube more than 1,000 meters (3,300 feet) long, almost 20 meters (66 feet) high and 15 meters (49 feet) wide. The bridge connects what is now Serbia with Romania (at the time known as Dacia).
- Emperor Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia, he leaves with the Imperial Roman fleet from Brundusium. Permanent castrum of Legio II Adiutrix at Aquincum (modern Budapest) in Pannonia.
- Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix and II Traiana Fortis are created by Trajan.
- The Romans conquer Kerak from the Nabateans.
- Pacorus II of Parthia dies after a 27-year reign in which he has reclaimed all of his empire. His successor Vologases III reigns until 147 AD, suppressing brief rebellions as he battles against the Kushan and Alani.
- Emperor He Di dies after a 17-year reign in which court eunuchs and the emperor's in-laws have regained influence. Empress Deng Sui places her son Shang Di (barely 3 months old) on the throne, as the fifth emperor of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
- Last year (17th) of yongyuan era and start of yuanxing era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
- A peace treaty is signed between Baekje and Silla in the Korean peninsula (the war started in AD 85).
Art and ScienceEdit
- Papermaking is refined by the Chinese eunuch Cai Lun, who receives official praise from the emperor for his methods of making paper from tree bark, hemp, remnant rags and fish nets. Paper had been made in China from the 2nd century BC, but Cai Lun's paper provides a writing surface far superior to pure silk and is much less costly to produce. Bamboo and wooden slips will remain the usual materials for books and scrolls in most of the world for another 200 years, and paper will remain a Chinese secret for 500 years.
- The Trajan Bridge is finished. For more than a thousand years, it is the longest arch bridge in the world to have been built, in terms of both total and span length.
- Pope Alexander I succeeds Pope Evaristus as the sixth pope (approximate date).
- Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Plutarch to Patriarch Sedecion.
- Ignatius writes a letter to Christians in Smyrna (around this year) where the term Catholic Church is used. This is the earliest surviving witness to the use of the term "Catholic Church".
- Emperor Trajan conquers the Dacian Fortresses of the Orăştie Mountains and surrounds the capital, Sarmizegetusa. The Dacians are defeated in the Battle of Sarmizegetusa and the city is encircled with a circumvallation line. When the Romans destroy the water pipes, king Decebalus flees and commits suicide.
- August 11 – The south-eastern part of Dacia (modern Romania) becomes a Roman province: Roman Dacia. The veterans of the legions are given land in the new province for their service in the Roman army.
- Trajan annexes the Nabataean Kingdom (with its capital Petra) as the Roman province of Arabia Petraea. The epoch of the calendar of the province of Arabia begins on March 22.
- February 13 – Emperor He of Han dies after a 18-year reign. Empress Dowager Deng places her infant son Han Shangdi on the Chinese throne. First and the only year of yanping era.
- September 21 – Han Shangdi dies after a 7-month reign and is succeeded by his 12-year-old cousin Han Andi as ruler of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty (until 125).
- Aelianus Tacticus (or Aelian) writes his Taktike Theoria (approximate date).
- Lucius Licinius Sura and Quintus Sosius Senecio become consuls of Rome.
- An Indian ambassador is received by Emperor Trajan.
- First year of the yongchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty.
- Han Andi (An-ti) becomes emperor of China.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- Tacitus writes Histories, which covers the period from AD 69 to AD 96.
- The Hypogeum of Yarhai, an underground tomb from the Syrian city of Palmyra dedicated to the family of Yarhai is built.
- June 24 – The Aqua Traiana is inaugurated by Emperor Trajan; the aqueduct channels water from Lake Bracciano, 40 kilometers (25 mi) north-west of Rome.
- The Via Traiana is constructed at the Emperor Trajan's personal expense; the road connects Benevento with Brundisium (Brindisi).
- The Baths of Trajan, built by the architect Apollodorus of Damascus, are dedicated during the Calends.[when?] The thermae are constructed on the platform of the Palace of Nero (Domus Aurea) in Rome.
- Osroes I of Parthia succeeds his brother Pacorus II, and rules over the western Parthian Empire.
- Pliny the Younger is legate to Bithynia.
- Fa Zhen (or Gaoqing), Chinese scholar (d. 188)
- Faustina the Elder, Roman empress
- Justin Martyr, Christian apologist and saint (approximate date)
- Marcus Cornelius Fronto, Roman grammarian, rhetorician and advocate (d. 170)
- Ptolemy, Greek astrologer, astronomer, geographer and mathematician (d. 170)
- Quintus Junius Rusticus, Roman teacher and politician (approximate date)
- Quintus Tineius Sacerdos Clemens, Roman politician (approximate date)
- January 13 – Lucius Aelius Caesar, Roman politician (d. 138)
- Felicitas of Rome, Christian female martyr (d. 165)
- Herodes Atticus, Greek rhetoritician (d. 177)
- Alexander of Abonoteichus, Greek mystic and oracle (d. 170)
- Han Shangdi, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (d. 106)
- Marcus Sedatius Severianus, Roman politician (d. 161)
- Agrippa II, Jewish king of Judea (b. AD 27)
- Apollonius of Tyana, Greek philosopher (b. AD 15)
- Josephus, Jewish historian and writer (b. AD 37)
- John the Apostle of Jesus Christ (b. AD 6)
- Wang Chong, Chinese philosopher (b. AD 27)
- Clement I, bishop of Rome (epistle to the Corinthians)
- Gan Ying, Chinese ambassador of the Han Dynasty
- Jia Kui, Chinese scholar and philosopher (b. AD 30)
- John the Apostle, one of the Twelve Apostles (b. c. AD 6)
- Silius Italicus, Roman politician and author of the Punica (annals of Hannibal during the Second Punic War) (b. c. AD 28)
- Ban Chao, Chinese general of the Han Dynasty (b. AD 32)
- Clement I, bishop of Rome (approximate date)
- Yin, Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty
- Kanishka I, ruler of the Kushan Empire (approximate date)
- Sextus Julius Frontinus, Roman author (b. c. AD 40)
- Silius Italicus, Roman politician and author (b. c. AD 28)
- Yin, Chinese empress of the Han Dynasty (b. AD 80)
- June 24 – Gnaeus Afranius Dexter, Roman politician
- Gnaeus Pompeius Longinus, Roman politician
- Marcus Valerius Probus, Roman grammarian
- Pacorus II, king of the Parthian Empire
- Plutarch, bishop of Byzantium
- February 13 – He of Han, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. AD 79)
- September 21 – Han Shangdi, Chinese emperor of the Han Dynasty (b. 105)
- Decebalus, king of Dacia (suicide, being pursued by the Romans) (b. AD 87)
- Liu Qing, Chinese prince of the Han Dynasty (b. AD 78)
- Rabbel II Soter, ruler of the Nabataean Kingdom
- Asimov's Guide to the Bible, page 954.
- Gordon, Richard L.; Petridou, Georgia; Rüpke, Jörg (2017). Beyond Priesthood: Religious Entrepreneurs and Innovators in the Roman Empire. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. p. 34. ISBN 978-3-11-044818-4.
- Dando-Collins, Stephen (2010). The Great Fire of Rome: The Fall of the Emperor Nero and His City. Hachette Books. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-306-81933-9.
- In terms of overall length, the bridge seems to have been surpassed by another Roman bridge across the Danube, Constantine's Bridge, a little-known structure whose length is given with 2437 m (Tudor 1974, p. 139; Galliazzo 1994, p. 319).
- "Licinius Sura, Lucius - Oxford Reference". www.oxfordreference.com. doi:10.1093/oi/authority.20110803100104504. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Shelton, Jo-Ann (2013). The Women of Pliny's Letters. Routledge. p. 211. ISBN 978-0-415-37428-6.
- Banerjee, Gauranganath. India As Known to the Ancient World. Prabhat Prakashan. p. 22.
- Xu, Zhenoao; Pankenier, W.; Jiang, Yaotiao (2000). East-Asian Archaeoastronomy: Historical Records of Astronomical Observations of China, Japan and Korea. CRC Press. p. 131. ISBN 978-90-5699-302-3.
- Li, Xiaobing (2012). China at War: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 549. ISBN 978-1-59884-415-3.
- Kvint, Vladimir (2015). Strategy for the Global Market: Theory and Practical Applications. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317485575.
- Rafe de Crespigny (28 December 2006). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD). BRILL. pp. 531–. ISBN 978-90-474-1184-0.
- Tan Koon San (15 August 2014). Dynastic China: An Elementary History. The Other Press. pp. 111–. ISBN 978-983-9541-88-5.
- A Companion to Latin Studies. CUP Archive. pp. 140–. GGKEY:2AE1DU53Z2Y.
- Michael Loewe (2 June 2016). Problems of Han Administration: Ancestral Rites, Weights and Measures, and the Means of Protest. BRILL. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-90-04-31490-0.
- Biographischer Index der Antike (in German). Walter de Gruyter. 2012. p. 156. ISBN 978-3-11-095441-8.
- Tudor, D. (1974), "Le pont de Constantin le Grand à Celei", Les ponts romains du Bas-Danube, Bibliotheca Historica Romaniae Études, 51, Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România, pp. 135–166
- Galliazzo, Vittorio (1994), I ponti romani. Catalogo generale, Vol. 2, Treviso: Edizioni Canova, pp. 320–324 (No. 646), ISBN 88-85066-66-6