Gold mining

(Redirected from Gold mine)

Gold mining is the extraction of gold by mining.

Super Pit gold mine at Kalgoorlie in Western Australia, 2005
Gold-bearing quartz veins in Alaska

Historically, mining gold from alluvial deposits used manual separation processes, such as gold panning. The expansion of gold mining to ores that are not on the surface has led to more complex extraction processes such as pit mining and gold cyanidation. In the 20th and 21st centuries, most volume of mining was done by large corporations. However, the value of gold has led to millions of small, artisanal miners in many parts of the Global South.

Like all mining, human rights and environmental issues are common in the gold mining industry, and can result in environmental conflict. In mines with less regulation, health and safety risks are much higher.


A miner underground at Pumsaint gold mine, Wales; c. 1938
Landscape of Las Médulas, Spain, the result of hydraulic mining on a vast scale by the Ancient Romans

The exact date that humans first began to mine gold is unknown, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria. The graves of the necropolis were built between 4700 and 4200 BC, indicating that gold mining could be at least 6,724 years old.[1] During a series of excavations carried out between 1878 and 1992, several graves were found with more than 6kg of gold.[2] A group of German and Georgian archaeologists claims the Sakdrisi site in southern Georgia, dating to the 3rd or 4th millennium BC, may be the world's oldest known gold mine.[3]

Ancient Times


Prehistoric Period


Gold has been prized by humans since prehistoric times. Archaeological evidence suggests that humans were mining gold as far back as 4000 BCE, with some the earliest known gold artifacts dating back to ancient Mesopotamia.[4] Particularly in the region of present-day Iraq, gold was mined extensively. The ancient Sumerians, around 2500 BCE, developed sophisticated techniques for extracting gold from alluvial deposits and underground mines.[5] These techniques included the use of sluice boxes.

Ancient Egypt

Evidence suggests that Nubia had sporadic access to gold nuggets during the Neolithic and Prehistoric Period.[6] Gold mining in Egypt involved both surface mining such as panning for gold in riverbeads and underground mining, where tunnels were dug to extrac gold-bearing quartz veins.[6] During the Bronze Age, sites in the Eastern Desert became a great source of gold-mining for nomadic Nubians, who used "two-hand-mallets" and "grinding ore extraction." By the Old Kingdom, the oval mallet was introduced for mining. By the Middle Kingdom, stone mortars to process ores and a new gold-washing technique were introduced. During the New Kingdom, Nubian mining expanded under Egyptian occupation with the invention of the grinding mill.[6][7] Additionally, gold was associated with the sun god Ra and was believed to be eternal and indestructible, symbolising the pharoah's divine power and afterlife.[8] Gold has also been found in the tombs of Tutankhamun and other pharoahs.[9]

Ancient Rome and Greece

During the Bronze Age, gold objects were also plentiful; especially in Ireland and Spain.[10] Romans employed slave labour and used hydraulic mining methods, such as hushing and ground sluicing on a large scale to extract gold from extensive alluvial (loose sediment) deposits, such as those at Las Medulas.[11][12] Mining was under the control of the state but the mines may have been leased to civilian contractors some time later. The gold served as the primary medium of exchange within the empire, and was an important motive in the Roman conquest of Britain by Claudius in the first century AD; although there is only one known Roman gold mine at Dolaucothi in west Wales. Gold was a prime motivation for the campaign in Dacia when the Romans invaded Transylvania in what is now modern Romania in the second century AD. The legions were led by the emperor Trajan, and their exploits are shown on Trajan's Column in Rome and the several reproductions of the column elsewhere (such as the Victoria and Albert Museum in London).[13] Under the Eastern Roman Empire Emperor Justinian's rule, gold was mined in the Balkans, Anatolia, Armenia, Egypt, and Nubia.

Ancient Asia

In the area of the Kolar Gold Fields in Bangarpet Taluk, Kolar district of Karnataka state, India; gold was first mined prior to the 2nd and 3rd century AD by digging small pits. Golden objects found in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro have been traced to Kolar through the analysis of impurities – the impurities include 11% silver concentration, found only in KGF ore.[citation needed]The Champion reef at the Kolar gold fields was mined to a depth of 50 metres (160 ft) during the Gupta period in the fifth century AD. During the Chola period in the 9th and 10th century AD, the scale of the operation grew.[citation needed] The metal continued to be mined by the eleventh century kings of South India, the Vijayanagara Empire from 1336 to 1560, and later by Tipu Sultan, the king of Mysore state and the British. It is estimated that the total gold production in Karnataka to date is 1000 tons.[14]

Late 15th and early 16th century mining techniques, De re metallica

The mining of the Hungarian deposit (present-day Slovakia) primarily around Kremnica was the largest of the Medieval period in Europe.[15]

Ancient South America

In South America, gold mining in the Andes dates back to thousands of years, with the Inca empire employing extensive gold mining operations in regions such as present-day Peru and Ecuador.[16][17] They used stone tools and simple mining techniques to extract gold from rivers, streams, and surface deposits.[16][17]

Middle Ages: European Gold Rushes


During the Middle Ages, Europe experience several gold rushes. Most notably in regions like Transylvania, Scotland, and Wales. These rushes were often small-scale and localised compared to later rushes in history.

The Transylvania gold rush took place in present-day Romania, primarily in the region of Transylvania during the medieval period. Transylvania was known for its rich mineral resources including gold, silver, and other metals.[18][19] Miners in Transylvania used both surface and underground mining techniques to extract gold from alluvial deposits and veins. These methods include panning, sluicing, and rudimentary shaft mining.[20]

The Scottish gold rush occurred in Scotland, primarily in the Highlands during the 16th and 17th century. Gold deposits were discovered in rivers and streams, leading to a surge in prospecting and mining activity.[21][22] The Scottish Crown took an interest in gold discoveries, in hopes of aiding the kingdom's economy and revenue. King James IV of Scotland established a royal mint to produce gold coins from Scottish gold. The Scottish gold rush eventually waned due to a combination of factors including the depletion of easily accessible gold deposits, harsh weather conditions, and the political instability at the time.[21]

The Welsh gold rush occurred in Wales, more so in the Dolgellau area of Gwynedd, during the 19th century.[23] Gold deposits were discovered in Welsh mountains, with reports of gold being found in rivers Mawddach and Tryweryn. By the mid-19th century, commercial mining operations had begun. Wales' gold gained popularity for its quality and rarity, leading to its use in royal jewelry for the British royal family.[23][24]

Modern Era


During the 19th century, numerous gold rushes in remote regions around the globe caused large migrations of miners, such as the California Gold Rush of 1849. This is one of the most famous gold rushes in history. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill in California sparked a massive migration of people from around the world to California in search of gold. The rush significantly accelerated westward expansion in the United States and had profound effects on the region's economy and society.

The gold rushes began in 1851 when Edward Hargraves, a prospector, discovered gold near Bathhurst, New South Wales.[25] The most well known gold rush in Australia was the Victorian Gold Rush. Thousands of people, known as 'diggers', came from around the world to Australia in search of gold, which ultimately contributed to the growth of cities like Melbourne and Sydney.[26]

South African Gold Rush


The discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand led to the Second Boer War and ultimately the founding of South Africa.[27] This transformed the region into one of the wealthiest gold-producing areas in the world. This rush played a crucial role in the development of South Africa's economy and lead to the establishment of Johannesburg, known as the 'city of gold'.[27][28] Gold-bearing reefs in the neighbouring Free State province were found shortly thereafter, driving significant development in the region with the establishment of the Free State goldfields.[27][28][29]

The Chilkoot Pass where Klondikers would establish themselves and their supplies.

Also known as the Yukon Gold Rush, brought prospectors from around the world to the Klondike region of the Yukon territory in Canada.[30][31] The Klondike God Rush began in 1896, when gold was discovered in Bonanza Creek, a tributary of the Klondike River by George Carmack and his Indigenous companions, Skookum Jim Mason and Tagish Charlie.[32] As prospectors arrived in Klondike, makeshift towns and settlements sprang up along the rivers, including Dawson City, which because the largest town in Yukon at the height of the gold rush.[33] Prospectors employed various mining techniques to extract gold from the Klondike's streams and riverbeds, including placer mining, dredging, and hydraulic mining.[34]

The Carlin Trend


The Carlin Trend of Nevada, U.S., was discovered in 1961. Official estimates indicate that total world gold production since the beginning of civilization has been around 6,352,216,000 troy ounces (197,576.0 t) and total gold production in Nevada is 1.1% of that, ranking Nevada as one of the Earth's primary gold-producing regions.[35][36]



World gold production was 3,612 tonnes in 2022.[37] As of 2020, the world's largest gold producer was China with 368.3 tonnes of gold mined in that year. The second-largest producer of gold was Russia where 331.1 tonnes was mined in the same year, followed by Australia with 327.8 tonnes.[38] In 2023, the annual gold demand of 4,448 tonnes was 5% below that of 2022. The total gold demand in 2023 was the highest at 4,899 tonnes.[39]

Despite its decreasing content in ores, gold production is increasing. This increase can be achieved through ever larger-scale industrial installations as well as innovations, especially in hydrometallurgy.



Hard rock mining

Hard rock mining at the Associated Gold Mine, Kalgoorlie, Australia, 1951
A large open-pit gold mine in Kittilä, Finland, in 2017
Gold mining in Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand, in the 1890s

Hard rock mining extracts gold encased in rock, rather than fragments in loose sediment, and produces most of the world's gold. Sometimes open-pit mining is used, such as at the Fort Knox Mine in central Alaska. Barrick Gold Corporation has one of the largest open-pit gold mines in North America located on its Goldstrike mine property in north eastern Nevada. Other gold mines use underground mining, where the ore is extracted through tunnels or shafts. South Africa has the world's deepest hard rock gold mine up to 3,900 metres (12,800 ft) underground. At such depths, the heat is unbearable for humans, and air conditioning is required for the safety of the workers. The first such mine to receive air conditioning was Robinson Deep, at that time the deepest mine in the world for any mineral.[40]

By-product gold mining


Gold is also produced by mining in which it is not the principal product. Large copper mines, such as the Bingham Canyon mine in Utah, often recover considerable amounts of gold and other metals along with copper. Sand and gravel pits, like those in Denver (Colorado), may recover small amounts of gold in their wash operations. The largest producing gold mine in the world, the Grasberg mine in Papua, Indonesia, is primarily a copper mine.[41]

Niche, recreational, or historical methods

This 156-troy-ounce (4.9 kg) gold nugget, known as the Mojave Nugget, was found by an individual prospector in the Southern California desert using a metal detector.
Recreational gold mining and prospecting has become a popular outdoor recreation in a number of countries, including New Zealand (especially in Otago), Australia, South Africa, Wales (at Dolaucothi and in Gwynedd), in Canada and in the United States especially. Recreational mining is often small-scale placer mining but has been challenged for environmental reasons. The disruption of old gold placer deposits risks the reintroduction of post gold rush pollution, including mercury in old mining deposits and mine tailings.
Panning for gold in a creek bed
Gold in the pan, Alaska
Man gold panning in Fairplay, Colorado early 1900s with dog

Gold panning, or simply panning, is a form of placer mining and traditional mining that extracts gold from a placer deposit using a pan. The process is one of the simplest ways to extract gold, and is popular with geology enthusiasts especially because of its low cost and relative simplicity.

The first recorded instances of placer mining are from ancient Rome, where gold and other precious metals were extracted from streams and mountainsides using sluices and panning[42] (ruina montium).

However, the productivity rate is comparatively smaller compared to other methods such as the rocker box or large extractors, such as those used at the Super Pit gold mine, in Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, which has led to panning being largely replaced in the commercial market.

Placer mining


Placer mining is a method of extracting gold from alluvial deposits such as sand, gravel, and sediment.[43][44] These are known as placer deposits which are typically found in riverbeds, stream beds, and floodplains.[45] These deposits typically contain minerals that are resistant to weathering and eroision like gold, platinum, diamonds, and more. They are characterized by their relatively high concentration of valuable minerals compared to the surrounding rock or sediments.[43][45] Unlike hard-rock mining, which involves excavating solid rock formations, water or dredging is used to extract the gold.[43]

Gold sluicing at Dilban Town, New Zealand, 1880s
Taking gold out of a sluice box, western North America, 1900s

Using a sluice box to extract gold from placer deposits has long been a very common practice in prospecting and small-scale mining. Sluices work on the principle that heavier particles will sink to the bottom of a stream, while those that are lighter will be carried downstream and expelled.[46][47] A sluice box is essentially a man made channel with riffles set in the bottom. The riffles are designed to create dead zones in the current to allow gold to drop out of suspension.[46][47] The box is placed in the stream to channel water flow. Gold-bearing material is placed at the top of the box. The material is carried by the current through the volt where gold and other dense material settles out behind the riffles. Less dense material flows out of the box as tailings.[46][47]

Larger commercial placer mining operations employ screening plants, or trommels, to remove the larger alluvial materials such as boulders and gravel, before concentrating the remainder in a sluice box or jig plant.[48] After the gold is sorted through trommels, it is then placed through regular sluice boxes for further sorting.[48] These operations typically include diesel powered, earth moving equipment including excavators, bulldozers, wheel loaders, and rock trucks.


Although this method has largely been replaced by modern methods, some dredging is done by small-scale miners using suction dredges. These are small machines that float on the water and are usually operated by one or two people. A suction dredge consists of a sluice box supported by pontoons, attached to a suction hose which is controlled by a miner working beneath the water. This method is particularly popular in areas where gold is found at river bottoms or submerge deposits.[49][50]

The Yankee Fork gold dredge in Idaho. It was powered by two 350 horse Ingersoll-Rand, 7 cylinder diesel engines, burning 400 to 500 gallons of fuel a day.

Suction dredging can have environmental impacts, moreso on aquatic habitats and water quality.[51] Regulations and best practices are often in place to minimize these impacts.[51] State dredging permits in many of the United States gold dredging areas specify a seasonal time period and area closures to avoid conflicts between dredgers and the spawning time of fish populations. Some US states, such as Montana, require an extensive permitting procedure, including permits.

Some large suction dredges [100 horsepower (75 kW) & 250 mm (10 in)] are used in commercial production throughout the world. Small suction dredges are much more efficient at extracting smaller gold than the old bucket line. This has improved the chances of finding gold. Smaller dredges with 50-to-100-millimetre (2 to 4 in) suction tubes are used to sample areas behind boulders and along potential pay streaks, until "colour" (gold) appears.

Other larger scale dredging operations take place on exposed river gravel bars at seasonal low water. These operations typically use a land based excavator to feed a gravel screening plant and sluice box floating in a temporary pond. The pond is excavated in the gravel bar and filled from the natural water table.[46] "Pay" gravel is excavated from the front face of the pond and processed through the floating plant, with the gold trapped in the onboard sluice box and tailings stacked behind the plant, steadily filling in the back of the pond as the operation moves forward.[46] This type of gold mining is characterized by its low cost, as each rock is moved only once. It also has low environmental impact, as no stripping of vegetation or overburden is necessary, and all process water is fully recycled. Such operations are typical on New Zealand's South Island and in the Klondike region of Canada.[52]

Rocker box
Four men using rocker boxes to mine for gold on Nome beach, Alaska.

Also called a cradle, a rocker box uses riffles located in a high-walled box to trap gold in a similar manner to the sluice box. A rocker box uses less water than a sluice box and is well suited for areas where water is limited. A rocking motion provides the water movement needed for the gravity separation of gold in placer material.[46] Rocker boxes gained popularity during the California Gold Rush in the 19th century and remain in use today.[46][53] Although simple and inexpensive, it is not efficient as the previously discussed mining techniques.[54][55]

Gold ore processing


Cyanide process

Cyanide leaching "heap" at a gold mining operation near Elko, Nevada. On top of the large mounds of ore, are sprinklers dispensing a solution of cyanide.

The dominant method for refining gold is a cyanide extraction method, or gold cyanidation, introduced in the late 1800s. This a metallurgical technique used to extract gold from lower grade ores by converting gold into a water-soluble coordination complex.[56][57] Finely ground rock is treated with a solution of sodium cyanide. The extract is absorbed onto carbon and then removed from the carbon with a solution of caustic soda and cyanide. Gold cyanide is then converted to relatively pure gold through gold parting.[56][57]

There are many environmental hazards associated with this extraction method, largely due to the high toxicity of the cyanide compounds. Furthermore, there are potentials for accidental spills or leaks to cause harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health.[58][59] For example, in 2000, the Baia Mare cyanide spill in northern Romania released approximately 100,000 cubic metres (3,500,000 cu ft) of waste water contaminated with heavy metal sludge and up to 120 long tons (122 t) of cyanide into the Tisza River.[60]

Mercury process


Historically, mercury was used extensively in placer gold mining in order to form mercury-gold amalgam with smaller gold particles, and thereby increase the gold recovery rates.[61] First, the gold ore is crushed and ground to a fine powder to expose the gold particles for amalgamation. Then, this finely ground ore is mixed with liquid mercury to amalgamate it.[62] Mercury forms an amalgam, an alloy, with gold particles to allow for the efficient capture of gold from the ore. The gold is concentrated by boiling away the mercury from the amalgam. This process is called retorting.[63] This is effective in extracting very small gold particles, but the process is hazardous due to the toxicity of mercury vapour.[61][64] Large-scale use of mercury stopped in the 1960s. However, mercury is still used in artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM).[61][65]



Small operations


Woman panning for gold in Guinea
Old hand bellows on abandoned gold mine in western New South Wales, Australia
Artisanal subsurface mining in Tanzania

While most gold is produced by major corporations, there are an estimated 10 to 15 million small-scale artisanal gold miners worldwide. Around 4.5 million of them are women, and an estimated 600,000 children work in illegal artisanal gold mines. Artisanal miners use rudimentary methods to extract and process gold. Many of these people are mining to escape extreme poverty, unemployment and landlessness.

In Ghana, galamsey miners are estimated to number 20,000 to 50,000.[66] In neighboring francophone countries, such workers are called orpailleurs. In Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, and French Guiana, workers are called garimpeiros.[67][68][69] These workers are not required to claim responsibility for their social and environmental impacts.[70][71]

Miners risk government persecution, mine shaft collapses, and toxic poisoning from unsafe chemicals used in processing, such as mercury. For example, in Ghana during 2009, the Dompoase mine collapse killed 18 workers. It was the worst mining disaster in Ghanaian history.[66]

Children in these mines suffer extremely harsh working conditions and various hazards such as collapsing tunnels, explosions, and chemical exposure. Children may be especially vulnerable to these hazards and many suffer from serious respiratory conditions, hearing, and vision problems.[72]

Large companies


Gold mining by large multi-national corporations produces about 80% of the gold supply. Most gold is mined in developing nations. Large mining companies play a key role in globalisation of the economy by linking rich and poor companies.[73] Newmont and Barrick Gold are the largest gold mining companies in the world, but there are many smaller corporations in the industry.[74]

Local communities are frequently vulnerable to environmental degradation caused by large mining companies and may lack government protection or industry regulation.[73] For example, thousands of people around Lega Dembi mine are exposed to mercury, arsenic, and other toxins resulting in widespread health problems and birth defects.[75] Vulnerable communities may also lose their land to the mine.[76] Some large companies have attempted to build local legitimacy through corporate responsibility initiatives and local development.[73][76]

Adverse effects and responses




Environmental impacts


Gold mining can significantly alter the natural environment. Gold mining activities in tropical forests are increasingly causing deforestation along rivers and in remote areas rich in biodiversity.[77][78] Mining has increased rainforest loss up to 70km beyond lease boundaries, causing nearly 11,670 km2 of deforestation between 2005 to 2015.[79] Up to 9% of gold mining occurs outside of these regulated lease boundaries.[79] Other gold mining impacts, particularly in aquatic systems with residual cyanide or mercury (used in the recovery of gold from ore), can be highly toxic to people and wildlife even at relatively low concentrations.[80] Illegal gold mining exacerbates the ecological vulnerability of the remaining forest ultimately leading to permanent forest loss.[81] Gold mining clears native forests for mineral extraction, but also indirectly facilitates access to more land and further clearing. Rainforest recovery rates are the lowest ever recorded for tropical forests, with there being little to no tree regeneration at abandoned mining camps, even after several years.[82] The Amazon rainforest is at risk for 'savannization', which is the gradual transformation of a tropical rainforest into a savannah.[83][84] This would ultimately lead to a collapse of biodiversity, ecosystems, and climate.[84][85]

Gold mining produces more waste than mining of other minerals, because it can be mined at a lower grade. Tailings can contain lead, mercury, cadmium, and arsenic. These toxins can pose health risks for local communities.[86] Arsenic is typically found in gold-containing ores, and gold processing may contaminate groundwater or the atmosphere. This pollution may persist for decades.[87] Furthemore, mining operations use large quantities of water for processing ore and can result in the contamination of water sources with heavy metals, such as mercury and cyanide, used in the extraction process.[88][89] This pollution can have detrimental effects on aquatic ecosystems and human heatlh. Soil degradation has also been found to be impacted by gold mining.[90][79][91] Mining activities can disturb soil structure, leading to erosion, sedimentation of waterways, and loss of fertile land for agriculture or vegetation regrowth.[79][91] More evidently, dust and emissions from mining machiner and processing facilities can contribute to air pollution, impacting air quality and potentially causings respiratory problems for nearby communities.[92][93]

Social and cultural impacts


Large-scale gold mining projects may require land acquisition and resettlement of local communities, leading to displacement, loss of livelihoods, and disruption of traditional ways of life.[94][95] In addition to the possible respiratory problems that could be acquired, individuals may be exposed to hazardous chemicals used in gold extraction such as mercury and cyanide. These chemicals pose risks to gold miners, communities, and wildlife; resulting in further medical problems involving neurological disorders and waterborne diseases.[96][97]

Gold mining in some regions has been associated with conflicts over land rights, labour rights violations, and exploitation of vulnerable populations, including Indigenous peoples and artisanal miners.[98][99] Mining activities can damage or destroy cultural heritage sites, artifacts, and sacred areas; further impacting cultural identities and heritages. In the Amazon rainforest, Indigenous peoples have been killed and had their rightfully owned land stolen from them.[100] As a consequence of this, some have left the rainforest to move to cities which further puts them at risk to disease, homelessness, and poverty.[100][101]

Artisanal gold mining is widespread across Africa, occurring in numerous countries including Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, and many others.[102] For many individuals and communities in rural Africa, artisanal gold mining represents a critical source of income and livelihood, providing employment opportunities and economic support in regions with limited alternative options.[103][104] Artisanal mining operations vary in scale, from individuals panning for gold in rivers and streams, to small groups working collectibely in informal mining camps, often referred to as 'galamsey' in West Africa.[105]

Economic impacts


Gold mining can create employment opportunities in mining operations and related sectors. Howevers, these jobs may be temporary. The sector's reliance on fluctuating global gold prices can lead to economic stability for communities dependent on mining. The discovery of significant gold deposits in a region often sees a flood of resources and development, which lasts as long as the mines are economic. When goldfields begin to decline in production, local economies find themselves destabilised and overly reliant upon an industry that will inevitably abandon the region when gold deposits are sufficiently depleted; [106][107] leaving the areas without proper rehabilitation.[107]

The some instances, the 'resource curse' phenomenon may occur, where countries rich in natural resources, like gold, may experience economic challenges, corruption, inequality, and governence issues instead of sustained development.[108] Despite the existence of several laws that regulate environmental crimes, illegal practices in mining tends to happen because of an absence of enforcement.[109] The rules for gold mining create ambiguities between the types of 'legal' mining; leaving loopholes for those to exploit.[109]

Global market impacts


Gold prices are subject to global market trands, economic uncertainties, and geopolitical factors. Fluctuation in gold prices can influence investment decisions, currency values, and trade balances in gold-producing and consuming countries.[110][111] Furthermore, the global gold supply chain involves complex networks of mining companies, refineries, traders, and retailers. Ensuring ethical and sustainable practices throughout this supply chain, including addressing issues such as child labour and environmental degradation, remains a challenge.



Human Rights Watch produced a report in 2015 that outlined some of challenges faced globally. The report notes that

Thousands of children in the Philippines risk their lives every day mining gold. Children work in unstable 25-meter-deep pits that could collapse at any moment. They mine gold underwater, along the shore, or in rivers, with oxygen tubes in their mouths. They also process gold with mercury, a toxic metal, risking irreversible health damage from mercury poisoning.[112]

Fairtrade and Fairmined dual certification for gold was launched across the United Kingdom on 14 February 2011,[113] a joint scheme between The Fairtrade Foundation and The Association for Responsible Mining. The Fairmined mark ensures that the gold has been extracted in a fair and responsible manner.

Lone Tree gold mine taken from the California Zephyr train; showing the extent of deforestation.

A UN investigation reported human rights abuses such as sexual exploitation of women and children, mercury poisoning, and child labor affecting communities where illegal gold production occurs. The reports said global buyers such as Switzerland, through which roughly two-thirds of global trade transits, need to ensure that human rights are respected throughout supply chains.[114]

The "No Dirty Gold" campaign, working with a number of campaigning partners, was established in 2004 and aims "to ensure that gold mining operations respect human rights and the environment" through a call for changes in gold mining techniques and processes.[115][116] The impacts of mining on the environment are long-lasting, and active land management and restoration are needed to ensure recovery.[117] A barrier to the restoration of environments is cost. Limited funding is a major barrier in implementing commitments.[118] Restoration costs vary widely between difference approaches, such as passive and active restoration.[119][120] Additionally, governments have started to promote the formalization of gold mining.[121] This formalization puts the government in a better position to govern the sectors, manage environmental impacts, and direct mining away from ecologically sensitive areas.[121][122]

Trends in the top five gold-producing countries
World mined gold production, 1900–2014. Data from USGS

Peak gold


Peak gold is the date at which the maximum rate of global gold extraction is reached. According to Hubbert peak theory, after the peak, the rate of production declines until it approaches zero. Unlike petroleum, which is destroyed in use, gold can be reused and recycled.

Supply and demand


World gold demand (defined in terms of total consumption excluding central banks) in 2007 was 3,519 tonnes.[123] Gold demand is subdivided into central bank reserve increases, jewellery production, industrial consumption (including dental), and investment (bars, coins, exchange-traded funds, etc.)

The supply of gold is provided by mining, official sales (typically gold by central banks), de-hedging (physical delivery of metal sold months before by mining companies on terminal markets), and old gold scraps. The total world supply of gold in 2007 was 3,497 tonnes.[124] Gold production does not need to make up for gold demand because gold is a reusable resource. Currently, yearly gold mining produces 2% of the existing above-ground gold which is 158,000 tonnes (as of 2006).[125] In 2008, gold mining produced 2,400 tonnes of gold, official gold sales close to 300 tonnes, and dehedging (physical delivery of metal sold months before by mining companies on terminal markets) close to 500 tonnes.[126]

Timing of peak production


World mined gold production has peaked four times since 1900: in 1912, 1940, 1971, and 2001, which each peak being higher than previous peaks. The latest peak was in 2001, when production reached 2,600 metric tons, then declined for several years.[127] Production started to increase again in 2009, spurred by high gold prices, and achieved record new highs each year from 2011 through 2015, when production reached 3,100 tonnes. Early estimates of 2016 gold production indicate that it was flat to 2015 production, at 3,100 tonnes.[128]

In 2009, Barrick CEO Aaron Regent claimed that global production had peaked in 2000.[129] Barrick's production costs have been "trending down" despite this peak, reaching $465 per troy ounce ($15.0/g). In 2006, with gold at $650 per troy ounce ($21/g), Roland Watson claimed that gold production had peaked in 2001 due to falling exploration in the 1990s, when gold prices were low. He predicted that higher prices and new technologies would boost gold production to higher levels in the future.[130][unreliable source?]

In July 2012, Natural Resource Holdings CEO Roy Sebag wrote a report entitled "2012 World Gold Deposit Ranking"[131] claiming that gold production would peak between 2022 and 2025 due to the markedly lower grades and remote locations of the remaining known undeveloped deposits.

"Consequently, the guaranteed depletion in the existing production mix coupled with a more realistic introduction of new mines into the mix (as opposed to our theoretical tomorrow scenario) makes it clear that barring multiple high-grade, multi-million ounce discoveries each year, a significant increase in gold production is unlikely. Moreover our calculations point towards gold production peaking at some point between 2022 and 2025 assuming the 90 million troy ounces [2,800 tonnes] per year figure is maintained."

Charles Jeannes, the CEO of Goldcorp, the world's largest gold miner by market capitalization, stated in September 2014 that Peak Gold would be reached in either 2014 or 2015.[132] "Whether it is this year or next year, I don't think we will ever see the gold production reach these levels again," he claimed. "There are just not that many new mines being found and developed."

Economics of gold


The gold price compared to other valuable metals consistently holds its value and is less prone to price changes as other metals. Gold production tends to excel when there are turbulent market conditions with investors seeking a different investment opportunity outside the stock, bond or real estate markets.[133] Some of the factors affecting gold prices are:

Central bank gold reserves


Central banks diversify their reserves with gold to protect the value of the dollar during challenging economic times.[134] When banks are forced to print more money to prevent economic turmoil they are simultaneously devaluing the currency. Gold, unlike money, is a finite valuable material which can be used as a hedge against the inflation cause by increasing the money supply.[134] Gold has this inverse relationship with the US dollar which is used as a reserve asset by many central banks thus protecting the central banks reserves when there is a dip in the US dollar or the money supply increases.[134]

Value of the U.S. dollar


As mentioned above the value of the U.S. dollar is normally inversely related to the value of gold, this is because gold is dollar-denominated.[133] When the U.S. dollar is stronger it tends to keep the price of gold lower and controlled and when there is a weaker U.S. dollar the price of gold is likely to increase as well as the demand for it.[135]

See also


Gold mining by country:

Gold rushes:


  1. ^ Ivanov, Ivan Simeonov; Avramova, Mai︠a︡ (2000). Varna Necropolis: The Dawn of European Civilization. Treasures of Bulgaria 1. Sofia: Agatʹo Publ.
  2. ^ Kuleff, Ivelin (2005). "ARCHEOMETRIC INVESTIGATION OF THE GOLD IN THE CHALCOLITHIC NECROPOLIS OF VARNA (5 TH MILLENNIUM BC)". Advances in Bulgarian Science. 16: 16–22. ISSN 1312-6164.
  3. ^ Hauptmann, Andreas; Klein, Sabine (2009). "Bronze Age gold in Southern Georgia". ArcheoSciences. 33 (33): 75–82. doi:10.4000/archeosciences.2037. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  4. ^ "Sourcing Mesopotamian Gold | Research - Penn Museum". Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  5. ^ "The Sumerian Roots of the History of Gold | U.S. Gold Bureau". Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  6. ^ a b c Klemm, Dietrich; Klemm, Rosemarie; Murr, Andreas (2001). "Gold of the Pharaohs – 6000 years of gold mining in Egypt and Nubia". Journal of African Earth Sciences. 33 (3–4): 643–659. Bibcode:2001JAfES..33..643K. doi:10.1016/S0899-5362(01)00094-X.
  7. ^ Klemm, Rosemarie; Klemm, Dietrich (13 December 2012). Gold and Gold Mining in Ancient Egypt and Nubia: Geoarchaeology of the Ancient Gold Mining Sites in the Egyptian and Sudanese Eastern Deserts. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 3–9. ISBN 978-3-642-22508-6.
  8. ^ Botros, N.S. (2015). "Gold in Egypt: Does the future get worse or better?". Ore Geology Reviews. 67: 189–207. Bibcode:2015OGRv...67..189B. doi:10.1016/j.oregeorev.2014.11.018.
  9. ^ Arnold, Dorothea; Oppenheim, Adela; Goelet, Ogden, eds. (2015). The art and culture of ancient Egypt: studies in honor of Dorothea Arnold. Bulletin of the Egyptological Seminar. New York, NY: The Egyptological Seminar of New York. ISBN 978-0-9816120-2-7.
  10. ^ "Gold of Roman Empire - History of Roman Gold Jewellery | My Gold Guide". Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  11. ^ Bernstein, Peter L. (2012). The power of gold: the history of an obsession. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-25210-8.
  12. ^ Butcher, Kevin, ed. (2020). Debasement: manipulation of coin standards in pre-modern monetary systems. Oxford ; Philadelphia: Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-78925-398-6. OCLC 1157153560.
  13. ^ Dan Oancea, A Tale of Gold Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ "The Golden Heritage of Karnataka". Archived from the original on 18 November 2019. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  15. ^ M M Postan; E Miller (1987) [1967], The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521087090
  16. ^ a b Alconini Mujica, Sonia; Covey, Alan, eds. (2018). The Oxford Handbook of the Incas. Oxford handbooks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-021935-2.
  17. ^ a b Cuadra, W. A.; Dunkerley, P. M. (1 October 1991). "A history of gold in Chile". Economic Geology. 86 (6): 1155–1173. Bibcode:1991EcGeo..86.1155C. doi:10.2113/gsecongeo.86.6.1155. ISSN 1554-0774.
  18. ^ Jameson, John H.; Baugher, Sherene (2022). Creating participatory dialogue in archaeological and cultural heritage interpretation: multinational perspectives (1st ed. 2022 ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing. ISBN 978-3-030-81957-6.
  19. ^ "Romania Backtracks on Bid to Protect Roman Gold Mine in Transylvania". Environment. 12 July 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  20. ^ Delfino, Davide; Piccardo, Paolo; Baptista, João Carlos, eds. (2016). Networks of trade in raw materials and technological innovations in prehistory and protohistory, Volume 12/session B34: an archaeometry approach. Proceedings of the XVII UISPP World Congress. Oxford: Archaeopress Archaeology. ISBN 978-1-78491-424-0.
  21. ^ a b Callender, R. M.; Reeson, Patrick F. (2008). The Scottish gold rush of 1869. British mining. Sheffield, Yorkshire: The Northern Mine Research Society. ISBN 978-0-901450-63-0.
  22. ^ Laurenson, Sarah (3 May 2016). "Material landscapes: the production and consumption of men's jewellery during the Scottish gold rush of 1869". History of Retailing and Consumption. 2 (2): 129–142. doi:10.1080/2373518X.2016.1204865. ISSN 2373-518X.
  23. ^ a b Lo, Chris (23 July 2018). "Dragon's hoard: the allure of Welsh gold". Mining Technology. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  24. ^ "Welsh gold wedding ring continues royal tradition". BBC News. 27 April 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  25. ^ "Australian Gold Rush Begins". Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  26. ^ Vamplew, Wray, ed. (1987). Australians, historical statistics. Australians, a historical library. Broadway, N.S.W., Australia: Fairfax, Syme & Weldon Associates. ISBN 978-0-949288-29-5.
  27. ^ a b c Richardson, Peter; van Helten, Jean-Jacques (1984). "The Development of the South African Gold-Mining Industry, 1895-1918". The Economic History Review. 37 (3): 319. doi:10.2307/2597284. JSTOR 2597284.
  28. ^ a b Fetherling, George (1997). The gold crusades: a social history of gold rushes, 1849-1929. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-8046-2.
  29. ^ Mountford, Benjamin; Tuffnell, Stephen, eds. (2018). A global history of gold rushes. California world history library. Oakland, California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-29454-7.
  30. ^ Morrison, W.R. (1974). "The North-West Mounted Police and the Klondike Gold Rush". Journal of Contemporary History. 9 (2): 93–105. doi:10.1177/002200947400900204. ISSN 0022-0094.
  31. ^ Spude, Catherine Holder; Society for Historical Archaeology, eds. (2011). Eldorado! the archaeology of gold mining in the far North. Historical archaeology of the American West. Lincoln : [Rockville, Md.]: University of Nebraska Press ; Society for Historical Archaeology. ISBN 978-0-8032-1099-8. OCLC 712115576.
  32. ^ Wilkie, Rab (1992). Skookum Jim: Native and Non-Native Stories and Views About His Life and Times and the Klondike Gold Rush. Heritage Branch, Department of Tourism, Government of the Yukon.
  33. ^ Skagway, Mailing Address: Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park P. O. Box 517; Us, AK 99840 Phone: 907 983-9200 Contact. "What Was the Klondike Gold Rush? - Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  34. ^ Skagway, Mailing Address: Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park P. O. Box 517; Us, AK 99840 Phone: 907 983-9200 Contact. "What Was the Klondike Gold Rush? - Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved 11 April 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  35. ^ "How Much Gold Has Been Mined?". Archived from the original on 29 September 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  36. ^ "Dan Oancea – Carlin: Where the Train Stops and the Gold Rush Begins" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 May 2013.
  37. ^ "Supply". World Gold Council. Archived from the original on 13 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  38. ^ "Gold Production by Country – Gold Production – Goldhub". Archived from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2021.
  39. ^ "Gold Demand Trends Full Year 2023". World Gold Council. 2024.
  40. ^ "Deepest Mine To Be Air Conditioned" Popular Science, October 1934
  41. ^ Calderon, Justin (27 May 2013). "World's largest gold mine reopens". Inside Investor. Archived from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  42. ^ Lynn Cohen Duncan (9 December 1999), Roman Deep-vein Mining, retrieved 14 December 2009
  43. ^ a b c Hines, Elizabeth; Smith, Michael (1 January 2002). "Gold is Where You Find It: Placer Mining in North Carolina, 1799-1849". Earth Sciences History. 21 (2): 119–149. Bibcode:2002ESHis..21..119H. doi:10.17704/eshi.21.2.65765421785w7460. ISSN 0736-623X.
  44. ^ LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Reynolds, James B. (1997), Milner, Alexander M.; Oswood, Mark W. (eds.), "Gold Placer Mining and Stream Ecosystems of Interior Alaska", Freshwaters of Alaska, vol. 119, New York, NY: Springer New York, pp. 265–280, doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-0677-4_10, ISBN 978-1-4612-6866-6, retrieved 17 February 2024
  45. ^ a b Garnett, R. H. T.; Bassett, N. C. (2005), "Placer Deposits", One Hundredth Anniversary Volume, Society of Economic Geologists, doi:10.5382/av100.25, ISBN 978-1-887483-01-8, retrieved 17 February 2024
  46. ^ a b c d e f g Mathioudakis, Spyridon; Xiroudakis, George; Petrakis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil (2023). "Evolution of Alluvial Gold Mining Technologies". Materials Proceedings. 15 (1): 70. doi:10.3390/materproc2023015070.
  47. ^ a b c Mitchell, C.J; Evans, E.J; Styles, M.T (1997). "A Review of Gold-Particle-Size and Recovery Methods". British Geological Survey: 10–14.
  48. ^ a b LaPerriere, Jacqueline D.; Reynolds, James B. (1997), Milner, Alexander M.; Oswood, Mark W. (eds.), "Gold Placer Mining and Stream Ecosystems of Interior Alaska", Freshwaters of Alaska, vol. 119, New York, NY: Springer New York, pp. 265–280, doi:10.1007/978-1-4612-0677-4_10, ISBN 978-1-4612-6866-6, retrieved 17 February 2024
  49. ^ Spence, Clark C. (1980). "The Golden Age of Dredging: The Development of an Industry and Its Environmental Impact". The Western Historical Quarterly. 11 (4): 401–414. doi:10.2307/968288. JSTOR 968288.
  50. ^ Vieira, Rickford (2006). "Mercury-free gold mining technologies: possibilities for adoption in the Guianas". Journal of Cleaner Production. 14 (3–4): 448–454. Bibcode:2006JCPro..14..448V. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.09.007. ISSN 0959-6526.
  51. ^ a b Harvey, Bret C.; Lisle, Thomas E. (1998). "Effects of Suction Dredging on Streams: A Review and an Evaluation Strategy". Fisheries. 23 (8): 8–17. Bibcode:1998Fish...23g...8H. doi:10.1577/1548-8446(1998)023<0008:EOSDOS>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0363-2415.
  52. ^ Spence, Clark C. (1980). "The Golden Age of Dredging: The Development of an Industry and Its Environmental Impact". The Western Historical Quarterly. 11 (4): 401–414. doi:10.2307/968288. JSTOR 968288.
  53. ^ Clay, Karen; Jones, Randall (2008). "Migrating to Riches? Evidence from the California Gold Rush". The Journal of Economic History. 68 (4): 997–1027. doi:10.1017/S002205070800079X. ISSN 0022-0507.
  54. ^ Mathioudakis, Spyridon; Xiroudakis, George; Petrakis, Evangelos; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil (2023). "Evolution of Alluvial Gold Mining Technologies". Materials Proceedings. 15 (1): 70. doi:10.3390/materproc2023015070.
  55. ^ Nelson, Andrew David (2017). "Gold in the Documents: Estimating Placer Mining Excavation Volumes in the Fraser Basin, British Columbia Using Historical Sources". BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly (196): 89–113. doi:10.14288/bcs.v0i196.189312. ISSN 0005-2949.
  56. ^ a b Karimi, P.; Abdollahi, H.; Amini, A.; Noaparast, M.; Shafaei, S.Z.; Habashi, F. (2010). "Cyanidation of gold ores containing copper, silver, lead, arsenic and antimony". International Journal of Mineral Processing. 95 (1–4): 68–77. Bibcode:2010IJMP...95...68K. doi:10.1016/j.minpro.2010.03.002.
  57. ^ a b Deschênes, G. (2016), "Advances in the Cyanidation of Gold", Gold Ore Processing, Elsevier, pp. 429–445, doi:10.1016/b978-0-444-63658-4.00026-8, ISBN 978-0-444-63658-4, retrieved 8 March 2024
  58. ^ González-Valoys, Ana Cristina; Arrocha, Jonatha; Monteza-Destro, Tisla; Vargas-Lombardo, Miguel; Esbrí, José María; Garcia-Ordiales, Efrén; Jiménez-Ballesta, Raimundo; García-Navarro, Francisco Jesús; Higueras, Pablo (2022). "Environmental challenges related to cyanidation in Central American gold mining; the Remance mine (Panama)". Journal of Environmental Management. 302 (Pt A): 113979. Bibcode:2022JEnvM.30213979G. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113979. PMID 34715613.
  59. ^ Akcil, A (2002). "First application of cyanidation process in Turkish gold mining and its environmental impacts". Minerals Engineering. 15 (9): 695–699. Bibcode:2002MiEng..15..695A. doi:10.1016/S0892-6875(02)00165-6.
  60. ^ Cyanide spill at Baia Mare Romania: UNEP/OCHA Assessment Mission (PDF), archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2012, retrieved 7 July 2011
  61. ^ a b c Aghaei, Elham; Alorro, Richard Diaz; Tadesse, Bogale; Browner, Richard (2019). "A review on current practices and emerging technologies for sustainable management, sequestration and stabilization of mercury from gold processing streams". Journal of Environmental Management. 249: 109367. Bibcode:2019JEnvM.24909367A. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2019.109367. PMID 31419668.
  62. ^ Veiga, Marcello M.; Maxson, Peter A.; Hylander, Lars D. (2006). "Origin and consumption of mercury in small-scale gold mining". Journal of Cleaner Production. 14 (3–4): 436–447. Bibcode:2006JCPro..14..436V. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.08.010. ISSN 0959-6526.
  63. ^ Bosse Jønsson, Jesper; Charles, Elias; Kalvig, Per (2013). "Toxic mercury versus appropriate technology: Artisanal gold miners' retort aversion". Resources Policy. 38 (1): 60–67. Bibcode:2013RePol..38...60B. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2012.09.001. ISSN 0301-4207.
  64. ^ Chemicals and Waste Branch UNEP: ASGM: Eliminating the worst practices Archived 5 December 2017 at the Wayback Machine, YouTube, September 2017.
  65. ^ Feijoo, M. D. A., Walker, T. R. (2018). Correspondence to the Editor Re: Artisanal and small-scale gold mining impacts in Madre de Dios, Peru: Management and mitigation strategies. Environment International, 111, 133-134. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2017.11.029
  66. ^ a b "Women die in Ghana mine collapse". BBC News. 12 November 2009. Archived from the original on 14 November 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009.
  67. ^ "Lourenço já contabiliza 20 garimpeiros mortos. Condições de trabalho são precárias". Seles Nafes (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 14 August 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  68. ^ "Brazilianen in Suriname". Waterkant (in Dutch). Archived from the original on 25 March 2023. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  69. ^ "En Guyane, la lutte sans fin contre les " garimpeiros ", ces orpailleurs clandestins". Le Monde (in French). Archived from the original on 29 March 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  70. ^ Sousa, Rodolfo; Veiga, Marcello; Van Zyl, Dirk; Telmer, Kevin; Spiegel, Sam; Selder, Jeff (2011). "Policies and regulations for Brazil's artisanal gold mining sector: analysis and recommendations". Journal of Cleaner Production. 19 (6–7): 742–750. Bibcode:2011JCPro..19..742S. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.12.001.
  71. ^ Veiga, Marcello M.; Hinton, Jennifer J. (2002). "Abandoned artisanal gold mines in the Brazilian Amazon: A legacy of mercury pollution". Natural Resources Forum. 26 (1): 15–26. Bibcode:2002NRF....26...15V. doi:10.1111/1477-8947.00003. ISSN 0165-0203.
  72. ^ International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) ISSN: 2643-640X Vol. 4 Issue 10, October - 2020, Pages: 12-16 12 Small-Scale Gold Mining Progress in Prospects in Improving Countries Umirzoqov Azamat Abdurashidovich, Bekmuratov Ajiniyaz Omirbek ogli Archived 13 April 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  73. ^ a b c Gifford, Blair; Kestler, Andrew; Anand, Sharmila (1 July 2010). "Building local legitimacy into corporate social responsibility: Gold mining firms in developing nations". Journal of World Business. 45 (3): 304–311. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2009.09.007. ISSN 1090-9516.
  74. ^ Dougherty, Michael L. (2013). "The Global Gold Mining Industry: Materiality, Rent-Seeking, Junior Firms and Canadian Corporate Citizenship". Competition & Change. 17 (4): 339–354. doi:10.1179/1024529413Z.00000000042. ISSN 1024-5294. S2CID 153829134. Archived from the original on 16 April 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  75. ^ Boyd, David R (2022). Sacrifice zones 50 of the Most Polluted Places on Earth (PDF). Special Rapporteur on Human Rights and the Environment. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 June 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2023.
  76. ^ a b Yankson, Paul W. K. (1 May 2010). "Gold mining and corporate social responsibility in the Wassa West district, Ghana". Development in Practice. 20 (3): 354–366. doi:10.1080/09614521003709965. ISSN 0961-4524. S2CID 153570328.
  77. ^ Asner, G. P.; Llactayo, W.; Tupayachi, R.; Luna, E. R. (2015). "Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (46): 18454–18459. doi:10.1073/pnas.1318271110. PMC 3832012. PMID 24167281.
  78. ^ Alvarez, N.L; T. M. Aide (2015). "Global demand for gold is another threat for tropical forests". Environmental Research Letters. 10 (1): 014006. Bibcode:2015ERL....10a4006A. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/10/1/014006.
  79. ^ a b c d Sonter, Laura J.; Herrera, Diego; Barrett, Damian J.; Galford, Gillian L.; Moran, Chris J.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S. (2017). "Mining drives extensive deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon". Nature Communications. 8 (1): 1013. Bibcode:2017NatCo...8.1013S. doi:10.1038/s41467-017-00557-w. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5647322. PMID 29044104.
  80. ^ Environmental and Health Effects Archived 30 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 26 October 2010.
  81. ^ Zemp, D. C.; Schleussner, C.-F.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Rammig, A. (28 June 2017). "Deforestation effects on Amazon forest resilience". Geophysical Research Letters. 44 (12): 6182–6190. Bibcode:2017GeoRL..44.6182Z. doi:10.1002/2017GL072955. ISSN 0094-8276.
  82. ^ Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Johnson, Isaac; Agard, Shenelle; Katow, Martin; Vanbrooke, Ashmore; Ashley, David; Batterman, Sarah A.; Ziv, Guy; Holder-Collins, Kaslyn; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brondizio, Eduardo S.; Vieira, Ima; Galbraith, David (2020). Magrach, Ainhoa (ed.). "Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests". Journal of Applied Ecology. 57 (9): 1730–1740. Bibcode:2020JApEc..57.1730K. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13669. ISSN 0021-8901.
  83. ^ Asner, Gregory P.; Tupayachi, Raul (2017). "Accelerated losses of protected forests from gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon". Environmental Research Letters. 12 (9): 094004. Bibcode:2017ERL....12i4004A. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa7dab. ISSN 1748-9326.
  84. ^ a b Nobre, Carlos A.; Sampaio, Gilvan; Borma, Laura S.; Castilla-Rubio, Juan Carlos; Silva, José S.; Cardoso, Manoel (27 September 2016). "Land-use and climate change risks in the Amazon and the need of a novel sustainable development paradigm". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 113 (39): 10759–10768. Bibcode:2016PNAS..11310759N. doi:10.1073/pnas.1605516113. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5047175. PMID 27638214.
  85. ^ Piauí, F. (2021). "In Brazilian Amazon, savannization and climate change will expose 12 million to lethal heat stress".
  86. ^ Gifford, Blair; Kestler, Andrew; Anand, Sharmila (1 July 2010). "Building local legitimacy into corporate social responsibility: Gold mining firms in developing nations". Journal of World Business. 45 (3): 304–311. doi:10.1016/j.jwb.2009.09.007. ISSN 1090-9516.
  87. ^ Eisler, Ronald (2004), "Arsenic Hazards to Humans, Plants, and Animals from Gold Mining", Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 180, New York, NY: Springer, pp. 133–165, doi:10.1007/0-387-21729-0_3, ISBN 978-0-387-21729-1, PMID 14561078, retrieved 12 June 2023
  88. ^ Eisler, Ronald; Wiemeyer, Stanley N. (2004), Ware, George W. (ed.), "Cyanide Hazards to Plants and Animals from Gold Mining and Related Water Issues", Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 183, New York, NY: Springer: 21–54, doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-9100-3_2, ISBN 978-1-4419-9100-3, PMID 15369321, retrieved 22 March 2024
  89. ^ Kazapoe, Raymond Webrah; Amuah, Ebenezer Ebo Yahans; Abdiwali, Saad Ahmed; Dankwa, Paul; Nang, Douti Biyogue; Kazapoe, Jesse Pwayivi; Kpiebaya, Prosper (1 August 2023). "Relationship between small-scale gold mining activities and water use in Ghana: A review of policy documents aimed at protecting water bodies in mining communities". Environmental Challenges. 12: 100727. doi:10.1016/j.envc.2023.100727. ISSN 2667-0100.
  90. ^ Batterman, Sarah A.; Hedin, Lars O.; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J.; Hall, Jefferson S. (2013). "Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession". Nature. 502 (7470): 224–227. Bibcode:2013Natur.502..224B. doi:10.1038/nature12525. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 24037375.
  91. ^ a b Román-Dañobeytia, Francisco; Cabanillas, France; Lefebvre, David; Farfan, Jhon; Alferez, Jesús; Polo-Villanueva, Fredy; Llacsahuanga, Juana; Vega, Claudia M.; Velasquez, Manuel; Corvera, Ronald; Condori, Edith; Ascorra, Cesar; Fernandez, Luis E.; Silman, Miles R. (2021). "Survival and early growth of 51 tropical tree species in areas degraded by artisanal gold mining in the Peruvian Amazon". Ecological Engineering. 159: 106097. Bibcode:2021EcEng.15906097R. doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2020.106097. ISSN 0925-8574.
  92. ^ Ames, R.G (1985). "Respiratory disease and suicide among US coal miners: is there a relationship?". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 1 (6): 58–60. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(18)31379-5. PMID 3870926.
  93. ^ Avery, A.J; Betts, D.S; Whittington, A; Heron, T.B; Wilson, S.H; Reeves, J.P (1998). "The mental and physical health of miners following the 1992 national pit closure programme: a cross sectional survey using General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12 and Short Form SF-36". Public Health. 112 (3): 169–173. PMID 9629024.
  94. ^ Nguyen, Nhi; Boruff, Bryan; Tonts, Matthew (2018). "Fool's Gold: Understanding Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts from Gold Mining in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam". Sustainability. 10 (5): 1355. doi:10.3390/su10051355. ISSN 2071-1050.
  95. ^ Betancur-Corredor, Bibiana; Loaiza-Usuga, Juan Carlos; Denich, Manfred; Borgemeister, Christian (20 October 2018). "Gold mining as a potential driver of development in Colombia: Challenges and opportunities". Journal of Cleaner Production. 199: 538–553. Bibcode:2018JCPro.199..538B. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.142. ISSN 0959-6526.
  96. ^ Eisler, Ronald (1 September 2003). "Health Risks of Gold Miners: A Synoptic Review". Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 25 (3): 325–345. doi:10.1023/A:1024573701073. ISSN 1573-2983. PMID 12971253.
  97. ^ Avery, A.J; Betts, D.S; Whittington, A; Heron, T.B; Wilson, S.H; Reeves, J.P (1998). "The mental and physical health of miners following the 1992 national pit closure programme: a cross sectional survey using General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12 and Short Form SF-36". Public Health. 112 (3): 169–173. PMID 9629024.
  98. ^ Harington, J.S; McGlashan, ND; Chelkowska, E (2004). "A century of migrant labour in the gold mines of South Africa". Journal of the Southern African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy. 104 (2): 65–71.
  99. ^ Gibson, Ginger; Klinck, Jason (2005). "Canada's resilient north: the impact of mining on aboriginal communities". Pimatisiwin. 3 (1): 116–139.
  100. ^ a b Wilson, E.; Peter, F. (1988). "15". Deforestation and Indians in Brazilian Amazonia. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  101. ^ Bachega, Hugo (2021). "Illegal gold miners stalk Amazon as authorities look away". BBC.
  102. ^ "Gold mining, climate change, and Africa's transition". Brookings. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  103. ^ Monga, Célestin; Lin, Justin Yifu, eds. (2015). The Oxford handbook of Africa and economics. Oxford handbooks (1st ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-968711-4. OCLC 907131520.
  104. ^ Miller, Duncan; Desai, Nirdev; Lee-Thorp, Julia (2000). "Indigenous Gold Mining in Southern Africa: A Review". Goodwin Series. 8: 91–99. doi:10.2307/3858050. JSTOR 3858050.
  105. ^ Greef, Kimon de (20 February 2023). "The Dystopian Underworld of South Africa's Illegal Gold Mines". The New Yorker. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 11 April 2024.
  106. ^ Growth and development in South Africa's heartland: silence, exit, and voice in the Free State : abridged. Johannesburg: Centre for Development and Enterprise. 2005. OCLC 68913299.
  107. ^ a b Siqueira-Gay, Juliana; Sonter, Laura J.; Sánchez, Luis E. (1 August 2020). "Exploring potential impacts of mining on forest loss and fragmentation within a biodiverse region of Brazil's northeastern Amazon". Resources Policy. 67: 101662. Bibcode:2020RePol..6701662S. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2020.101662. ISSN 0301-4207. S2CID 216493246.
  108. ^ Davis, Graham A.; Tilton, John E. (2005). "The resource curse". Natural Resources Forum. 29 (3): 233–242. Bibcode:2005NRF....29..233D. doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2005.00133.x. ISSN 0165-0203.
  109. ^ a b Espin, Johanna; Perz, Stephen (2021). "Environmental crimes in extractive activities: Explanations for low enforcement effectiveness in the case of illegal gold mining in Madre de Dios, Peru". The Extractive Industries and Society. 8 (1): 331–339. Bibcode:2021ExIS....8..331E. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2020.12.009.
  110. ^ Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan (1 September 2010). "An overview of global gold market and gold price forecasting". Resources Policy. 35 (3): 178–189. Bibcode:2010RePol..35..178S. doi:10.1016/j.resourpol.2010.05.004. ISSN 0301-4207.
  111. ^ Baur, Dirk G. (2014). "Gold mining companies and the price of gold". Review of Financial Economics. 23 (4): 174–181. doi:10.1016/j.rfe.2014.07.001. ISSN 1058-3300.
  112. ^ "What ... if Something Went Wrong? Hazardous Child Labor in Small-Scale Gold Mining in the Philippines". Human Rights Watch. 29 September 2015. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  113. ^ Kate Carter (14 February 2011). "Fairtrade hallmark sets the gold standard". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 12 March 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2012.
  114. ^ "Gold sourcing and Switzerland in focus at the Human Rights Council". Swissinfo. 26 September 2022. Archived from the original on 26 September 2022. Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  115. ^ Earthworks, No Dirty Gold, accessed 30 October 2023
  116. ^ Bland, A., The Environmental Disaster That is the Gold Industry, Smithsonian Magazine, published 14 February 2014, accessed 30 October 2023
  117. ^ Kalamandeen, Michelle; Gloor, Emanuel; Johnson, Isaac; Agard, Shenelle; Katow, Martin; Vanbrooke, Ashmore; Ashley, David; Batterman, Sarah A.; Ziv, Guy; Holder-Collins, Kaslyn; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brondizio, Eduardo S.; Vieira, Ima; Galbraith, David (2020). Magrach, Ainhoa (ed.). "Limited biomass recovery from gold mining in Amazonian forests". Journal of Applied Ecology. 57 (9): 1730–1740. Bibcode:2020JApEc..57.1730K. doi:10.1111/1365-2664.13669. ISSN 0021-8901.
  118. ^ Chazdon, Robin L. (13 June 2008). "Beyond Deforestation: Restoring Forests and Ecosystem Services on Degraded Lands". Science. 320 (5882): 1458–1460. Bibcode:2008Sci...320.1458C. doi:10.1126/science.1155365. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18556551. S2CID 206511664.
  119. ^ Holl, K.D.; Aide, T.M. (2011). "When and where to actively restore ecosystems?". Forest Ecology and Management. 261 (10): 1558–1563. Bibcode:2011ForEM.261.1558H. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2010.07.004.
  120. ^ Brancalion, Pedro H. S.; Schweizer, Daniella; Gaudare, Ulysse; Mangueira, Julia R.; Lamonato, Fernando; Farah, Fabiano T.; Nave, André G.; Rodrigues, Ricardo R. (2016). "Balancing economic costs and ecological outcomes of passive and active restoration in agricultural landscapes: the case of Brazil". Biotropica. 48 (6): 856–867. Bibcode:2016Biotr..48..856B. doi:10.1111/btp.12383. ISSN 0006-3606. S2CID 89600560.
  121. ^ a b Salo, Matti; Hiedanpää, Juha; Karlsson, Teemu; Cárcamo Ávila, Luciano; Kotilainen, Juha; Jounela, Pekka; Rumrrill García, Róger (2016). "Local perspectives on the formalization of artisanal and small-scale mining in the Madre de Dios gold fields, Peru". The Extractive Industries and Society. 3 (4): 1058–1066. Bibcode:2016ExIS....3.1058S. doi:10.1016/j.exis.2016.10.001.
  122. ^ Fritz, Morgane M.C; Mcquilken, James; Collins, Nina; Weldegiorgis, Fitsum (2017). Global Trends in Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM): A review of key numbers and issues. Winnipeg: International Institute for Sustainable Development.
  123. ^ "Supply and Demand Statistics". World Gold Council. November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  124. ^ "Gold Demand Trends" (PDF). World Gold Council. November 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 September 2010. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  125. ^ "Gold Survey 2007" (PDF). GFMS Ltd. April 2007. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  126. ^ "Gold Survey 2008 - Update 2" (PDF). GFMS Ltd. January 2009. Retrieved 11 February 2009.
  127. ^ Thomas Chaise, World gold production 2010, 13 May 2010.
  128. ^ US Geological Survey, Gold, Mineral commodity summaries, Jan. 2017.
  129. ^ Barrick shuts hedge book as world gold supply runs out; Telegraph Media Group, November 11, 2009
  130. ^ In Defense of Peak Gold: Evidence Gold Production Peaked in 2001; Seeking Alpha, September 10, 2006
  131. ^ 2012 World Gold Deposit Ranking Archived April 29, 2013, at the Wayback Machine; NRH Research, July 26, 2012
  132. ^ Goldcorp: We have hit PEAK gold;, September 8, 2014
  133. ^ a b "What Drives the Price of Gold?". Investopedia. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  134. ^ a b c "Why Central Banks Buy Gold". Reuters. 2023. Archived from the original on 3 August 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  135. ^ "What Is the Real Relationship Between Gold and the US Dollar?". The Balance. Archived from the original on 18 June 2023. Retrieved 12 February 2024.
  136. ^ See German Wikipedia > Goldmine Gondo

Further reading

  • Ali, Saleem H. (2006), "Gold Mining and the Golden Rule: A Challenge for Developed and Developing Countries", Journal of Cleaner Production, 14 (3–4): 455–462, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2004.05.009
  • Gudde, Erwin G. California Gold Camps: A Geographical and Historical Dictionary of Camps, Towns, and Localities Where Gold Was Found and Mined; Wayside Stations and Trading Centers (Univ of California Press, 1975).
  • Hess, Frank L., C. W. Hayes, and W. Lindgren. "Gold mining in the Randsburg quadrangle, California." Contributions to Economic Geology: US Geological Survey Bulletin (1910): 23–47. Online
  • Kelley, Robert L. "Forgotten Giant: The Hydraulic Gold Mining Industry In California." Pacific Historical Review 23.4 (1954): 343–356. Online
  • Paul, Rodman Wilson, ed. The California Gold Discovery: Sources, Documents, Accounts, and Memoirs Relating to the Discovery of Gold at Sutter's Mill (Talisman Press, 1967), Primary sources.
  • Rohe, Randall E. "Hydraulicking in the American West: The development and diffusion of a mining technique." Montana: The Magazine of Western History (1985) 35#2 to: 18–35. Online
  • Rohe, Randall. "Origins & Diffusion of Traditional Placer Mining in the West" Material Culture 18#3 (1986), pp. 127–166 Online
  • White F. Miner with a Heart of Gold: biography of a mineral science and engineering educator. Friesen Press, Victoria. 2020. ISBN 978-1-5255-7765-9 (Hardcover), 978-1-5255-7766-6 (Paperback), 978-1-5255-7767-3 (eBook).