Recreational gold mining
Recreational gold mining and prospecting has become a popular outdoor recreation in a number of countries, including New Zealand (especially in Otago), Australia, South Africa, Wales (at Dolaucothi and in Gwynedd), in Canada and in the United States especially. Recreational mining is often small-scale placer mining but has been challenged for environmental reasons. The disruption of old gold placer deposits risks the reintroduction of post gold rush pollution, including mercury in old mining deposits and mine tailings.
Australia does not prevent the private ownership of any minerals found in the land. At one time if individuals were to discover gold (or any other minerals) in their property, it would belong to the Crown, being the Australian Government and not to private entitlement. Today this is not so, and individuals can search and retrieve minerals with the acquisition of a miners permit that can be bought from the relevant Mining Department.
Today, recreational gold mining can be carried out in several areas such as Warrego near the town of Tennant Creek in the Northern Territory, Clermont in Queensland and Echunga Goldfield in Southern Australia. Each state has its own set of rules and regulations.
The largest nugget ever found was the Welcome Stranger of 2316 troy oz (74 kg).
Within Japan recreational gold fossicking can be carried out in Hokkaido, Yamanashi and Michinoku. The traditional gold pan used in Japan is a rectangular concave shaped pan called the Yuri-ita (揺り板).
With permission granted from the Indonesian Department of Tourism and the local village chiefs, fossicking for gold can be carried out in several regions that are accessible to international tourists. However, fossicking equipment is restricted to gold pans, shovels, and metal detectors. The use of sluices, dredges, or other machinery is forbidden.
Seventeen areas in the South Island have been declared to be gold fossicking areas, allowing miners to fossick for gold without a permit. These areas are located in Nelson-Marlborough and the West Coast, Central Otago and South Otago. Alluvial gold can be found in low concentrations in all the fossicking areas.
Gold has been mined commercially in Wales (see Welsh gold) and Scotland. In the UK, gold prospecting can only take place with the explicit permission of the riparian owner, and any activities that cause or permit pollution of a watercourse, even re-suspended silt, could result in a criminal prosecution by the Environment Agency. There are locations where gold panning is a popular activity.
Although gold deposits are popularly associated with the western US, gold has widespread occurrence across the country.
In the eastern US, a zone of lode and placer gold deposits extends in the Piedmont region from Alabama to Maryland. North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Virginia and Alabama have many former gold mines and current prospecting sites. These states were the main source of US gold before the California gold discovery (see Gold mining in the United States). Recreational gold miners have also had success in the northeastern US.
Small amounts of gold have been found in streams draining glacial deposits in the Midwest.
Gold prospecting and mining activities allowed on public lands vary with the agency and the location. Gold pans and shovels are commonly allowed, but sluice boxes and suction dredges may be prohibited in some areas. There are public mining areas in many states, and prospecting may allow one to stake a gold placer claim or other type of mining claim in certain areas. Some public lands have been set aside for recreational gold panning. Some private land owners also give permission for small-scale gold mining.
The largest true California gold nugget, known as the "Dogtown nugget," weighed 54 troy pounds (20 kg), and was found in Magalia, California. A 195-pound troy (73 kg) mass of gold mixed with quartz was also found. Alaska has many sites for the prospector, both public and private.
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- "Central gold district". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Fossicking in South Australia". Archived from the original on 26 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- "Golden Times" (PDF). Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "How to use a Yuri-ita (ゆり板を使う)". Retrieved 27 August 2014.
- "Gold Prospecting and Treasure". Retrieved 28 August 2014.
- "Gold Fossicking in New Zealand". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Helmsdale (Scotland): Gold panning, retrieved 21 January 2009.
- J.T. Pardee and others (1948) Gold deposits of the southern Piedmont, US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 213.
- C. J. Stevens, The Next Bend in the River: Gold Mining in Maine.
- US Army Corps of Engineers: Gold panning policy, Altoona Lake (Georgia), retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Chattahoochie-Oconee National Forests (Georgia): Gold panning, retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Arizona Department of Mines and Mineral Resources: Gold panning, retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Kootenai National Forest (Idaho and Montana): Gold panning, retrieved 20 January 2009.
- Boston Mineral Club: Swift River gold panning area (Maine), PDF file, retrieved 20 January 2009.
- TeacherTube: Panning for gold, Instructional video, retrieved 20 January 2009.
- World Goldpanning Association, retrieved 9 January 2009
- ClickForAustralia.com: Fossicking and gold panning in the Northern Territory, retrieved 7 January 2009.
- New Zealand
- FindGoldNZ.com: Where to find gold in New Zealand, retrieved 7 January 2009
- Ministry of Economic Development, Crown Minerals: Gold fossicking (recreational gold panning), retrieved 9 January 2009
- PayDirt.co.nz: Map of public gold fossicking areas in New Zealand, retrieved 23 April 2009
- Swiss Goldprospector's Association: Recreational Goldprospecting in Switzerland, retrieved 7 January 2009
- United States
- US Bureau of Land Management: Recreational gold prospecting on public land
- US Geological Survey: Prospecting for gold in the United States, retrieved 20 January 2009
- Encyclopedia of Alabama: Gold production in Alabama, retrieved 3 January 2009.
- Digital Alabama: Gold in Alabama,
- Illinois Geological Survey: Gold: its occurrence in Illinois, panning and prospecting, retrieved 3 January 2009.
- Indiana Geological Survey: Where can gold be found in Indiana?, retrieved 3 January 2009.
- Iowa Geological Survey: Gold in Iowa, by Raymond R. Anderson, PDF file, retrieved 9 January 2009
- Maine Geological Survey: Gold in Maine, retrieved 9 January 2009.
- North Carolina Geological Survey: Gold in North Carolina, retrieved 3 January 2009.
- Washington (state) Department of Fish and Wildlife: Mineral prospecting, retrieved 3 January 2009.