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António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, BTO, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ˈɔʃkaɾ fɾɐˈɡozu kaɾˈmonɐ]; 24 November 1869 – 18 April 1951) was a Portuguese Army officer and politician who served as the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal and 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951). Prior to those posts he served as Minister of War in 1923.
Carmona was a republican and a freemason, and was a quick adherent to the proclamation of the Portuguese First Republic on 5 October 1910. He was, however, never a sympathizer of the democratic form of government and – as he would later confess in an interview to António Ferro – he only voted for the first time at the National Plebiscite of 1933. During the First Republic, he briefly served as War Minister in the government of António Ginestal Machado in 1923. Unlike the popular marshal Gomes da Costa, Carmona had not seen action in World War I.
Carmona was very active in the 28th May coup d'état of 1926 that overthrew the First Republic. The first Council President, commandant José Mendes Cabeçadas, a democratic sympathizer supported by the last republican president, Bernardino Machado, was succeeded in June by Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa. Carmona, who had been the Minister for Foreign Affairs between 3 June and 6 July, was the leader of the most conservative and authoritarian wing of the military regime, which considered the more moderate Gomes da Costa a liability. On 9 July, he led a countercoup together with general João José Sinel de Cordes, named himself President, and immediately assumed dictatorial powers. He was formally elected to the office in 1928, as the only candidate.
In 1928 Carmona appointed António de Oliveira Salazar as Minister of Finance. Impressed by Salazar's charisma and qualities, Carmona nominated Salazar as Prime Minister in 1932, and largely turned over control of the government to him.
In 1933, a new constitution officially established the "Estado Novo". On paper, the new document codified the dictatorial powers Carmona had exercised since 1928. However, in practice he was now little more than a figurehead; Salazar held the real power. On paper, the president's power to dismiss Salazar was the only check on his power. However, Carmona mostly allowed Salazar a free hand. He was reelected without opposition in 1935 and 1942 for seven-year terms. In 1935, he reluctantly signed the law that forbade Freemasonary in Portugal, due to his Freemason past.
Although the democratic opposition was allowed to contest elections after World War II, Carmona was not on friendly terms with it. When the opposition demanded that the elections be delayed in order to give them more time to organize, Carmona turned them down.
However, there were widespread rumours that Carmona supported the failed military uprising in 1948, which was led by general José Marques Godinho, to overthrow Salazar, under the condition that he would remain as President of the Republic. Probably to end these rumours, Carmona finally accepted the title of Marshal.
In 1949, Carmona, 79 years old, sought his fourth term as president. For the first time, he actually faced an opponent in General José Norton de Matos. However, after the regime refused to allow Matos to actually run a campaign, he pulled out of the race on 12 February, handing Carmona another term.
In January 1914, Carmona married Maria do Carmo Ferreira da Silva (Chaves, 28 September 1878 – 13 March 1956), daughter of Germano da Silva and wife Engrácia de Jesus. With this marriage he legitimized their three children.
- Commander of the Order of Aviz, Portugal (15 February 1919)
- Commander of the Order of Saint James of the Sword, Portugal (28 February 1919)
- Commander of the Order of Christ, Portugal (28 June 1919)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of Aviz, Portugal (5 October 1925) 
- Grande Master of the Portuguese Honorific Orders, Portugal (29 November 1926)
- Grand-Cross of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Italy (25 April 1930)
- Grand-Collar of the Imperial Order of the Red Arrows, Spain (1939)
Carmona wrote a book of rules for the Cavalry School in 1913.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Óscar Carmona.|
- Augusto Tasso Fragoso
- "Cidadãos Nacionais Agraciados com Ordens". Página Oficial das Ordens Honoríficas Portuguesas. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
- Jefatura del Estado: "DECRETO nombrando Caballero de la Orden Imperial de las Flechas Rojas, otorgádole el Gran Collar, a S. E. el Presidente de la República Portuguesa, General Antonio Oscar de Fragoso Carmona" (PDF). Boletín Oficial del Estado núm. 139, de 19 de mayo de 1939. p. 2719. ISSN 0212-033X.
- on YouTube, a film of Carmona, Portuguese Angola (before 1975)
Manuel Gomes da Costa
| Prime Minister of Portugal
José Vicente de Freitas
Gomes da Costa
| President of Portugal
António de Oliveira Salazar (interim)
|Ancestors of António Óscar Fragoso Carmona|