Bernardino Machado

Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL (Portuguese pronunciation: [bɨɾnaɾˈdinu mɐˈʃadu]; 28 March 1851 – 29 April 1944), was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26).

Bernardino Machado
BernardinoMachado.png
President of Portugal
In office
11 December 1925 – 31 May 1926
Prime MinisterDomingos Pereira
António Maria da Silva
National Salvation Junta
Preceded byManuel Teixeira Gomes
Succeeded byJosé Mendes Cabeçadas
In office
5 October 1915 – 12 December 1917
Prime MinisterJosé de Castro
Afonso Costa
António José de Almeida
José Norton de Matos
Revolutionary Junta
Preceded byTeófilo Braga
Succeeded bySidónio Pais
Prime Minister of Portugal
In office
2 March 1921 – 24 May 1921
PresidentAntónio José de Almeida
Preceded byLiberato Pinto
Succeeded byTomé de Barros Queirós
In office
9 February 1914 – 12 December 1914
PresidentManuel de Arriaga
Preceded byAfonso Costa
Succeeded byAzevedo Coutinho
Minister of Agriculture
In office
19 May 1921 – 23 May 1921
Preceded byAlbano Portugal Durão
Succeeded byTomé Barros Queirós
In office
2 March 1921 – 4 May 1921
Preceded byJoão Gonçalves
Succeeded byAlbano Portugal Durão
Minister of the Interior
In office
2 March 1921 – 23 May 1921
Preceded byLiberato Pinto
Succeeded byAbel Hipólito
In office
9 February 1914 – 12 December 1914
Preceded byRodrigo Rodrigues
Succeeded byAlexandre Braga
Minister of Justice
In office
23 June 1914 – 22 July 1914
Preceded byManuel Monteiro
Succeeded byEduardo de Sousa Monteiro
In office
14 March 1911 – June 1911
Preceded byAfonso Costa
Succeeded byAfonso Costa
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
9 February 1914 – 23 May 1914
Preceded byAntónio Macieira
Succeeded byFreire de Andrade
In office
5 October 1910 – 3 September 1911
Preceded byJosé Castelo Branco
Succeeded byJoão Chagas
Minister and Secretary of State for Public Works, Trade and Industry Affairs
In office
22 February 1893 – 20 December 1893
Preceded byPedro Vítor da Costa Sequeira
Succeeded byCarlos Lobo de Ávila
Personal details
Born(1851-03-28)28 March 1851
Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil
Died29 April 1944(1944-04-29) (aged 93)
Porto, Portugal
Political partyPortuguese Republican
(later Democratic)
Spouse(s)
(m. 1882; died 1942)
Children8 daughters and 8 sons
EducationLiceu Nacional do Porto
Alma materUniversity of Coimbra
Signature

In 1917, Sidónio Pais, who was at the head of a military junta, dissolved Congress and removed Machado, forcing him to leave the country. Later, in 1925, he returned to the presidency of the Republic and, a year later, he was again overthrown by the military revolution of 28 May 1926, which instituted the military dictatorship and paved the way for the establishment of the Estado Novo.

Early lifeEdit

Bernardino Machado was born in Rio de Janeiro, Empire of Brazil, the son of António Luís Machado Guimarães (1820–1882), 1st Baron of Joane and a nobleman of the royal household, a rich merchant raised to the nobility, and his second wife Praxedes de Sousa Guimarães. Bernardino came to Portugal in 1860, enrolled at Coimbra University in 1866, studied mathematics for three years, and graduated in philosophy in 1873. In 1872, he chose to obtain Portuguese nationality. Machado continued his studies, obtaining a doctorate in philosophy in 1876 and graduated in general agriculture and rural economy in 1883. He lectured at that institution beginning in 1877.

In Porto in January 1882 he married Elzira Dantas Gonçalves Pereira (Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 15 December 1865 – 21 April 1942), by whom he had nineteen children. One of his sons-in-law was the writer Aquilino Ribeiro, whose own son was Aquilino Ribeiro Machado, the first mayor of Lisbon after the Carnation Revolution.[1]

Political sceneEdit

Bernardino Machado began in politics from a young age, by the leader of the Regenerator Party, Fontes Pereira de Melo. It was the members of the Regenerator Party who elected him as a deputy for the first time to the Portuguese parliament for Lamego, in the supplementary elections of 1882. In the following legislature (1884-1887) he was reelected, this time by the Coimbra circle.[2]

In 1890 and 1894 was also elected Peer of the Realm by Coimbra University. During this period he was briefly Minister for Public Works on the Hintze Ribeiro cabinet in 1893, and created the first labour court in Portugal. Taking a special interest in public education, he was made part of the Superior Council of Public Education in 1892, and published several books on the subject.[2]

In February 1893, Machado joined the first ministry of Hintze Ribeiro, as Minister of Public Works, Commerce and Industry, presenting his resignation in December of that same year.[2]

Machado had an important career as leader of Freemasonry (in the Lodge of Perseverance of the Grand Orient of Portugal, with the symbolic name of "Littré").[2] From 1892 to 1895 he was the 7th President of the Order of the Grand Orient of Portugal, from 1895 to 1899 he was the 18th Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council attached to the Grande Oriente Lusitano and 7th Grand Master of the Grande Oriente Lusitano United and from 1929 until his His death in 1944 was the 23rd Sovereign Grand Commander of the Supreme Council attached to the Lusitanian Grand Orient.[3]

In 1903, due to his growing disbelief in monarchical values, he joined the Portuguese Republican Party. On 31 October 1903 he professed his republican faith in a conference given at the Ateneu Comercial in Lisbon, thus marking his formal adherence to the Party. Since then, he contributed much to the remodeling and organization of the Party as a political force; participated in vigorous propaganda campaigns of republican ideals and participated actively in numerous rallies. In 1904, 1905 and 1906 he was a candidate for deputy on the republican lists, always for the Lisbon constituency, however, he was not elected.[2]

Machado was also briefly President of the Directory of the Democratic Party in 1902, and after switching to the Republican Party, was this party's President of the Directory from 1906 to 1909. He was one of the few monarchists-turned-republican who switched during the monarchy.

In the legislative elections of August 1910, he was one of the five deputies elected by Eastern Lisbon, along with António José de Almeida, Afonso Costa, Alfredo de Magalhães and Miguel Bombarda.[2]

Once the Republic was proclaimed in 1910 he was made Minister for Foreign Affairs, and ran an unsuccessful campaign for the Presidential elections of 1911. Afterwards, on 20 January 1912, he was appointed Minister of Portugal in Rio de Janeiro, assuming office in July that year. The diplomatic mission was promoted to embassy in November 1913, with Bernardino Machado being the first Portuguese ambassador to that country.[2]

When he returned to Portugal in February 1914, the country was in a ministerial crisis with the resignation of Afonso Costa as head of government. Bernardino Machado was called to set up an extrapartisan ministry, in order to appease the heated political sentiments, foreseeing in his program a truce proposal to monarchists, trade unionists and Catholics, to whom he promised a revision of the religious segregation law. In June of that year, Bernardino Machado requested the resignation of the executive who presided, but was again called to form a government: the 7th Republican government was once again "extra-partisan", with all the ministers, except for the president, who was independent.[2]

Machado ran again for the Presidency in 1915 and was this time elected President of Portugal. In the course of his term, he received Germany's declaration of war (March 1916), and visited the Portuguese forces placed in France in the battlefields.

In 1917 the government was deposed by a military coup headed by Sidónio Pais, and Machado went into exile.

Upon Machado's return in 1919 he was elected Senator. He served as Prime Minister from 10 February to 23 May 1921. Once again, in 1925, he achieved the presidential office after President Teixeira Gomes resigned, only to be overthrown a year later (1926) by Gomes da Costa (See: 28 May 1926 coup d'état and Ditadura Nacional). The country remained under a military, then a civilian, dictatorship until 1974.

For a second time he went into exile in France, where he continued to be very critical of the Portuguese regime. The German occupation of France in 1940 forced him to seek protection in Portugal, which the government granted him with the condition that he was to be confined to his personal retreat in the northern part of Portugal. It was there in Porto that he died, aged 93, in 1944, making him the longest lived Portuguese president ever.

Personal lifeEdit

He was the father-in-law of the noted writer Aquilino Ribeiro, grandfather of the politician Aquilino Ribeiro Machado and the great-grandfather of the psychologist and sexologist Júlio Machado Vaz. In 1906, Machado was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society.[4]

BooksEdit

  • Introdução à Pedagogia, 1902
  • O Ensino, 1898
  • O Ensino Primário e Secundário, 1899
  • O Ensino Superior, 1900

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Aquilino Ribeiro Machado morreu aos 82 anos" [Aquilino Ribeiro Machado died aged 82]. Diário de Notícias (in Portuguese). 8 October 2012. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Presidentes da Primeira República - Bernardino Machado" (Biografia)".
  3. ^ "Dirigentes das Maçonarias Portuguesas". members.tripod.com. Retrieved 8 September 2021.
  4. ^ American Antiquarian Society Members Directory

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by Prime Minister of Portugal
1914
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Portugal
1915–1917
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Portugal
1921
Succeeded by
Preceded by President of Portugal
1925–1926
Succeeded by