Île-de-France tramway Lines 3a and 3b

Île-de-France tramway Lines 3a and 3b (French: Lignes 3a et 3b du tramway d'Île-de-France) are the first modern tramway in Paris proper since the 1937 closure of the previous comparable system. They are operated by the RATP (Régie autonome des transports parisiens) and divided into two sections called T3a and T3b. The line is also known as the Tramway des Maréchaux because it follows the Boulevards of the Marshals, a series of boulevards that encircle Paris along the route of the former Thiers Wall (built from 1841 to 1844). The boulevards are, with three exceptions, named for Napoleon's First Empire marshals (maréchaux); they were transformed by redevelopment works carried out during the two and a half year construction of the line, which opened on 16 December 2006 under the designation T3.

Map of the tramway Lines 3a (shown in orange) and 3b (shown in green) with the proposed extension to Porte Dauphine

The line initially ran in its own section of these boulevards' roadway between the 15th and 13th arrondissements, allowing it to connect Pont de Garigliano and Porte d'Ivry in an average of 26 minutes. It carried 25 million passengers in its first year of operation, averaging 100,000 on weekdays and 70,000 on weekends; numbers have steadily increased ever since. In 2009, further work began to extend the line to the east and north, with the extension fully opening on 15 December 2012. Two separate lines were constructed to ensure the service's reliability: the existing line was extended to Porte de Vincennes and renamed T3a; a second line (T3b) initially connected Porte de Vincennes to Porte de la Chapelle. An extension of the latter to Porte d'Asnières opened on 24 November 2018.[1]

T3aEdit

Tramway T3a
   
 
Overview
StatusOpen
OwnerRATP
Stations25
Service
TypeTram
SystemTramways in Île-de-France
Operator(s)RATP
Rolling stock63 Alstom Citadis 402 (shared with T3b)
History
Opened
Technical
Line length12.4 km (7.7 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Stations

 
proposed extension toward Porte Dauphine
 
Porte d'Asnières — Marguerite Long
 
Porte de Clichy
     future  
 
Honoré de Balzac
 
Épinette Pouchet
 
Porte de Saint-Ouen
 
Angélique Compoint
 
Porte de Clignancourt
 
Diane Arbus
 
Porte de la Chapelle
 
Fillettes / Colette Besson
 
Porte d'Aubervilliers
 
Rosa Parks
 
Canal Saint-Denis
 
Canal Saint-Denis
 
Porte de la Villette
 
Ella Fitzgerald / Grands Moulins
Gare de Pantin
 
Canal de l'Ourcq
 
Delphine Seyrig /
Pantin Ladoumègue
 
 
Shops
 
 
 
Porte de Pantin
 
Butte du Chapeau Rouge /
Porte Brunet – Porte Chaumont
 
Porte de Pré-Saint-Gervais
/ Hôpital Robert Debré
 
Porte des Lilas
 
Saint-Fargeau / Adrienne Bolland
 
Séverine / Capitaine Ferber
 
Porte de Bagnolet
 
Saint-Blaise / Marie de Miribel
 
Porte de Montreuil
 
 
 
 
Porte de Vincennes
T3b T3a
 
  
 
Porte de Saint-Mandé /
Alexandra David-Néel
 
Porte de Montempoivre
 
Porte Dorée
 
Porte de Charenton
 
Baron Le Roy
 
Seine
 
Porte de France –
Bibliothèque François Mitterrand
 
Porte de Vitry / Maryse Bastié
 
Porte d'Ivry
 
Porte de Choisy
 
Porte d'Italie
 
Poterne des Peupliers
 
Stade Charléty
 
Cité Universitaire
 
Montsouris
 
Porte d'Orléans
 
Jean Moulin
 
Didot
 
Porte de Vanves
 
Brancion
 
Georges Brassens
 
Porte de Versailles
 
Desnouettes
 
 
 
 
Balard
 
 
Lucotte Shops
 
Pont du Garigliano

T3a connects Pont du Garigliano–Hôpital européen Georges-Pompidou RER station in the western part of the 15th arrondissement with Porte de Vincennes Métro station in the 12th arrondissement. The line carries 112,000 people per day.[2]

The first section, between Pont du Garigliano and Porte d'Ivry, opened as T3 on 16 December 2006. Work began in early 2009 on a 14.5 kilometres (9.0 mi) extension from Porte d'Ivry to Porte de la Chapelle, via Porte de Charenton. The extension project was then split into a smaller extension to Porte de Vincennes and a separate tramway line for the remainder of the route, which became T3b. The opening of the extension and renaming to T3a occurred on 15 December 2012.

T3bEdit

Tramway T3b
   
 
Overview
StatusOpen
OwnerRATP
Stations26
Service
TypeTram
SystemTramways in Île-de-France
Operator(s)RATP
Rolling stock63 Alstom Citadis 402 (shared with T3a)
History
Opened
Technical
Line length14.3 km (8.9 mi)
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Stations

 
proposed extension toward Porte Dauphine
 
Porte d'Asnières — Marguerite Long
 
Porte de Clichy
     future  
 
Honoré de Balzac
 
Épinette Pouchet
 
Porte de Saint-Ouen
 
Angélique Compoint
 
Porte de Clignancourt
 
Diane Arbus
 
Porte de la Chapelle
 
Fillettes / Colette Besson
 
Porte d'Aubervilliers
 
Rosa Parks
 
Canal Saint-Denis
 
Canal Saint-Denis
 
Porte de la Villette
 
Ella Fitzgerald / Grands Moulins
Gare de Pantin
 
Canal de l'Ourcq
 
Delphine Seyrig /
Pantin Ladoumègue
 
 
Shops
 
 
 
Porte de Pantin
 
Butte du Chapeau Rouge /
Porte Brunet – Porte Chaumont
 
Porte de Pré-Saint-Gervais
/ Hôpital Robert Debré
 
Porte des Lilas
 
Saint-Fargeau / Adrienne Bolland
 
Séverine / Capitaine Ferber
 
Porte de Bagnolet
 
Saint-Blaise / Marie de Miribel
 
Porte de Montreuil
 
 
 
 
Porte de Vincennes
T3b T3a
 
  
 
Porte de Saint-Mandé /
Alexandra David-Néel
 
Porte de Montempoivre
 
Porte Dorée
 
Porte de Charenton
 
Baron Le Roy
 
Seine
 
Porte de France –
Bibliothèque François Mitterrand
 
Porte de Vitry / Maryse Bastié
 
Porte d'Ivry
 
Porte de Choisy
 
Porte d'Italie
 
Poterne des Peupliers
 
Stade Charléty
 
Cité Universitaire
 
Montsouris
 
Porte d'Orléans
 
Jean Moulin
 
Didot
 
Porte de Vanves
 
Brancion
 
Georges Brassens
 
Porte de Versailles
 
Desnouettes
 
 
 
 
Balard
 
 
Lucotte Shops
 
Pont du Garigliano

T3b initially connected Porte de Vincennes with Porte de la Chapelle in the 18th arrondissement. It opened concurrently with the extension of T3a to Porte de Vincennes on 15 December 2012. The line was extended to Porte d'Asnières—Marguerite Long in the 17th arrondissement on 24 November 2018.[1]

A further extension with seven stops towards Porte Dauphine in the 16th arrondissement just east of the Bois de Boulogne is scheduled to enter service in 2023. It will connect with Métro Line 3 at Porte de Champerret, Métro Line 1, RER A and RER E (extension to Mantes-la-Jolie currently under construction) at Porte Maillot and Métro Line 2 at its future terminus.[3]

HistoryEdit

TimelineEdit

  • 16 December 2006: enters service between Pont du Garigliano and Porte d'Ivry under the designation T3.
  • 18 June 2008: speed increased from 16 km/h to 18 km/h.
  • 15 December 2012: extension from Porte d'Ivry to Porte de Vincennes enters service as Line T3a.

Little Ring LineEdit

The Little Ring Line (Ligne de la Petite Ceinture) was constructed in order to link the major rail supply routes within the Thiers Fortifications that surrounded Paris. The line was opened in sections between 1852 and 1869, reaching a total length of 32 km (20 mi) and encircling Paris within the boulevards des Maréchaux.

Initially, the line was for the exclusive use of freight traffic, before subsequently opening to passenger traffic. The Ligne d'Auteuil, in contrast, opened to passengers only immediately in 1854, and only opened to freight in 1867. The railway saw a rapid growth in passenger numbers towards the end of the 19th century, especially during the Universal Expositions. However, the inappropriateness of the equipment, consisting of steam locomotives that made the cars hot and uncomfortable, made the line less and less attractive, and it was unable to resist competition from the Métro.

After 1900, passenger numbers saw a constant and relentless fall until, in April 1934, despite several failed attempts to improve the situation, the line permanently closed to passengers, except the Ligne d'Auteuil, which remained open until January 1985. Some months later, in July 1934, the PC Bus Line was created, and was an immediate success.

Freight traffic also disappeared at the start of the 1990s, and most of the line has since been abandoned and split by modern development. The section of the Ligne d'Auteuil between Pereire-Levallois and Avenue Henri-Martin, however, was integrated with RER C of the commuter rail network (Réseau Express Régional).

Rolling stockEdit

The design selected for line T3 was the Alstom Citadis 402.

The trains were ordered in December 2003 and manufactured in factories at Le Creusot (bogies), Tarbes (electrical and electronic traction), Villeurbanne (electronics), Ornans (motors), with final assembly performed at Aytré, near La Rochelle.

Their design aesthetic was the subject of extensive research by several designers: Régine Charvet-Pello (and designers of his company RCP Design Global) for the general concept, the colorist for Vonnik Hertig upholstery and indoor environment, Emmanuel Fedon and Luc Maillet for exterior trains. The livery of trains is personalised, combining the RATP's traditional jade green with various visual symbols of the city.[4]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit