Zaganos or Zagan Pasha (Turkish: Zağanos Paşa, Albanian: Zognush Pasha; fl. 1446 – 1462 or 1469) was an Ottoman Albanian military commander, with the titles and ranks of kapudan pasha and the highest military rank, grand vizier, during the reign of Sultan Mehmed II "the Conqueror". Originally a Christian who was conscripted and converted through the devşirme system, he became a Muslim and rose through the ranks of the janissaries. He became one of the prominent military commanders of Mehmed II and a lala – the sultan's advisor, mentor, tutor, councillor, protector, all at once. He removed his rival, the previous Grand Vizier Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger, amid the fall of Constantinople. He later served as the governor of Thessaly of Macedonia.
|12th Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire|
1 June 1453 – 1456
|Preceded by||Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger|
|Succeeded by||Mahmud Pasha Angelovic|
|Preceded by||Yakup Bey|
|Succeeded by||Mahmud Pasha Angelovic|
|Died||1462 or 1469|
Balıkesir, Turkey, Ottoman Empire
|Spouse(s)||Sitti Nefise Hatun|
|Ethnicity||Unknown; thought to be Albanian|
|Branch/service|| Ottoman Navy|
|Rank||Kapudan Pasha (grand admiral; 1463–1466)|
|Battles/wars||Fall of Constantinople|
Origin and early lifeEdit
Zaganos was conscripted through the Devşirme system and rose through the ranks of the janissaries. He is thought to have been originally Christian of Albanian descent. Some sources mention him as of Albanian noble descent like Skanderbeg or Hamza Kastrioti. Some sources mention him as Albanian and some do not mention his descent. E. Goldberg, R. Kasaba and J. S. Migdal say that he was either Albanian or Serb. Jorga says that he was Albanian. D. Nicolle, J. F. Haldon and S. R. Turnbull believes that he was of Albanian or South Slavic origin. M. Philippides believes that he was of either Albanian or Greek origin. He became a committed Muslim after conversion.
In a vakfiye (foundation) his name appears as "Zağanos bin Abdullah", which indicates that he was of devshirme origin.
When Mehmed II was exiled in 1446, Zagan accompanied him.
Young Mehmed II had after his return and accession (18 February 1451) confirmed Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger as his first Vizier (even though he seems to have disliked him), and raised Zaganos Pasha from third to second Vizier. Halil Pasha had been appointed first Vizier in 1439, after the demotion of Ishak Pasha. Zaganos, who was younger, was jealous of the position of Halil Pasha.
Conquest of ConstantinopleEdit
During the Siege of Constantinople, the bulk of the Ottoman army were encamped south of the Golden Horn. The regular European troops, stretched out along the entire length of the walls, were commanded by Karadja Pasha. The regular troops from Anatolia under Ishak Pasha were stationed south of the Lycus down to the Sea of Marmara. Mehmed himself erected his red-and-gold tent near the Mesoteichion, where the guns and the elite regiments, the Janissaries, were positioned. The Bashi-bazouks were spread out behind the front lines. Other troops under Zaganos were employed north of the Golden Horn. Communication was maintained by a road that had been constructed over the marshy head of the Horn. After the inconclusive frontal offensives, the Ottomans sought to break through the walls by constructing tunnels in an effort to mine them from mid-May to 25 May. Many of the sappers were miners of German origin sent from Novo Brdo by the Serbian Despot. They were placed under the command of Zaganos Pasha. However, the Byzantines employed an engineer named Johannes Grant (who was said to be German but was probably Scottish), who had counter-mines dug, allowing Byzantine troops to enter the mines and kill the Turkish workers. The Byzantines intercepted the first Serbian tunnel on the night of 16 May. Subsequent tunneling efforts were interrupted on 21, 23, and 25 May, destroying them with Greek fire and vigorous combat. On 23 May, the Byzantines captured and tortured two Turkish officers, who revealed the location of all the Turkish tunnels, which were then destroyed. On 21 May, Mehmed sent an ambassador to Constantinople and offered to lift the siege if they gave him the city. Constantine XI accepted to pay higher tributes to the sultan and recognized the status of all the conquered castles and lands in the hands of the Turks as Ottoman possession. Around this time, Mehmed had a final council with his senior officers. Here he encountered some resistance; one of his Viziers, the veteran Halil Pasha, who had always disapproved of Mehmed's plans to conquer the city, now admonished him to abandon the siege in the face of recent adversity. Halil was overruled by Zaganos, who insisted on an immediate attack. Having been accused of bribery, Halil Pasha was put to death later that year. Mehmed planned to overpower the walls by sheer force, expecting that the weakened Byzantine defense by the prolonged siege would now be worn out before he ran out of troops and started preparations for a final all-out offensive.
The stories of Halil Pasha's collaboration with the Byzantines were most likely spread by the faction of Zaganos. Zaganos succeeded Halil Pasha as Grand Vizier. In 1456, however, Zaganos was made scapegoat after a failed expedition against Hungarian-held Belgrade. Zaganos' daughter was expelled from the Sultan's harem, and the two were expelled to Balıkesir, where he probably had property. In 1459, Zaganos returned and became kapudan pasha of the fast-growing Ottoman navy, and the next year he was the governor of Thessaly and Macedonia.
Personality and appearanceEdit
Zaganos was said to be a tall and intelligent man. He has been called the most cruel Ottoman captain of his time, and was said to be an enemy of Christians. He was in absolute loyalty to Mehmed II, even when he was just a prince, knowing that his prospects depended on his master's success. Zaganos was a soldier who believed that the Ottoman Empire must always expand in order to keep the enemies off-balance. He was known for his warlike beliefs and played an important role in the 1453 Fall of Constantinople.
During the final siege of Constantinople, Zagan Pasha's troops were the first to reach the towers. Ulubatlı Hasan was the first soldier who reached the tower. During the siege many of the sappers were placed under the command of Zagan Pasha. Mehmet took Zaganos' advice almost exclusively.
Mehmet II honored him for his loyalty and honesty, along with the Sultan's two other Viziers, Halil Pasha and Sarica Pasha, by naming the three great towers of Rumeli Hisari after them. The tower to the south is named after Zaganos Pasha.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2016)
He married three times:
- Sitti Nefise Hatun, daughter of Timurtaşoğlu Oruç Pasha, governor-general of Anatolia under Murad II;
- Fatma Hatun (m. 1444), daughter of Sultan Murad II and sister of Mehmed the Conqueror;
- Anna Hatun (m. 1481 - div.), daughter of Emperor David of Trebizond and Helena Kantakouzene, daughter of Demetrios I Kantakouzenos.
- Stavrides, p. 63
- Jones 1973, p. 7
- Goldberg-Kasaba-Migdal 1993, p. 153
- Nicolle 2007, p. 189
- Philippides 2007, p. 95
- Feridun Emecen (2013). "ZAĞANOS PAŞA". TDV Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. 44 (Yusuf – Zwemer) (in Turkish). Istanbul: Turkiye Diyanet Foundation, Centre for Islamic Studies. ISBN 9789753897853.
- Philippides 2007, p. 171
- Jones 1973, p. 32
- Runciman 1965, pp. 94–95.
- Crowley, Roger. 1453: the holy war for Constantinople and the clash of Islam and the West. New York: Hyperion, 2005. pp. 168–171. ISBN 1-4013-0850-3
- Runciman 1965, pp. 126–128, 169–170
- Jones 1973, p. 53
- Philippides 2007, pp. 177–179
- Babinger 1992, p. 173.
- Nicol, Donald M. (1994). The Byzantine Lady: Ten Portraits, 1250–1500. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 124. ISBN 0-521-45531-6.
- Babinger 1992, p. 230.
- Babinger, Franz (1992). Mehmed the Conqueror and His Time. Bollingen Series 96. Translated from the German by Ralph Manheim. Edited, with a preface, by William C. Hickman. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09900-6. OCLC 716361786.
- J. R. Melville Jones, The Siege of Constantinople 1453: Seven Contemporary Accounts, Hakkert, 1973, p. 7: "Zagan Pasha"
- Ellis Goldberg, Reşat Kasaba, Joel S. Migdal, "Rules and rights in the Middle East" (1993), p. 153
- Kinross, Patrick Balfour (1977). The Ottoman centuries: the rise and fall of the Turkish Empire. Cape. ISBN 978-0-224-01379-6. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Nicolle, David; Haldon, John F.; Turnbull, Stephen R. (2007). The fall of Constantinople: the Ottoman conquest of Byzantium. Osprey Publishing. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-1-84603-200-4. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Philippides, Marios (2007). Mehmed II the Conqueror and the fall of the Franco-Byzantine Levant to the Ottoman Turks: some western views and testimonies. ACMRS/Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. ISBN 978-0-86698-346-4. Retrieved 5 October 2010.
- Stavrides, Théoharis (2001). The Sultan of Vezirs: The Life and Times of the Ottoman Grand Vezir Mahmud Pasha Angelovic (1453–1474). Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-12106-5.
Çandarlı Halil Pasha the Younger
| Grand Vizier of the Ottoman Empire
1 June 1453 – 1456
Mahmud Pasha Angelovic
| Kapudan Pasha
Mahmud Pasha Angelovic