Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky (Russian: Я́ков Миха́йлович Юро́вский; 19 June [O.S. 7 June] 1878[n 1] – 2 August 1938) was a Russian Old Bolshevik, revolutionary, and Soviet Chekist (secret policeman). He was best known as the chief executioner of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family, and four retainers on the night of 17 July 1918.
Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky
Яков Михайлович Юровский
|Died||2 August 1938 (aged 60)|
Yakov Mikhailovich Yurovsky was the eighth of ten children born to Mikhail Yurovsky, a glazier, and his wife Ester Moiseevna (1848–1919), a seamstress. He was born on 19 June [O.S. 7 June] 1878 in the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia. The Yurovsky family were Jewish. The historian Helen Rappaport writes that the young Yurovsky studied the Talmud in his early youth, while the family seems to have later attempted to distance themselves from their Jewish roots; this may have been prompted by the prejudice toward Jews frequently exhibited in Russia at the time. Shortly before fully devoting himself to the cause of revolution, in the early twentieth century, Yurovsky converted to Lutheranism.
After returning to Russia during the Russian Revolution of 1905, he joined the Bolsheviks. He received the party ticket no.1500 in the Krasnopresnenskaya organization. Arrested several times over the years, he became a devoted Marxist.
He was a Chekist for a short period of time in 1917.
Execution of the imperial familyEdit
On the night of 16/17 July 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police (Cheka), led by Yurovsky, executed Russia's last emperor, Nicholas II, along with his wife Alexandra, their four daughters–Olga, Tatiana, Maria, and Anastasia–and son Alexei. Along with the family, four members of the imperial household (court physician Eugene Botkin, chambermaid Anna Demidova, cook Ivan Kharitonov and footman Alexei Trupp) were also killed. All were shot in a half-cellar room (measured to be 8.5 metres (28 ft) x 7 metres (23 ft)) of the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg, a city in the Ural Mountains region, where they were being held prisoner. The firing squad comprised three local Bolsheviks and seven soldiers. It has been documented that the order to assassinate the imperial family came from Yakov Sverdlov in Moscow.
According to Leon Trotsky's diaries, Lenin supported and decided upon the killing of the Tsar and his family. After Trotsky returned from the front (of the Russian Civil War) he had the following dialogue with Sverdlov:
My next visit to Moscow took place after the [temporary] fall of Ekaterinburg [to anti-Communist forces]. Speaking with Sverdlov, I asked in passing: "Oh yes, and where is the Tsar?"
"Finished," he replied. "He has been shot."
"And where is the family?"
"The family along with him."
"All of them?," I asked, apparently with a trace of surprise.
"All of them," replied Sverdlov. "What about it?" He was waiting to see my reaction. I made no reply.
"And who made the decision?," I asked.
"We decided it here. Ilyich believed that we shouldn't leave the Whites a live banner to rally around, especially under the present difficult circumstances."
I asked no further questions and considered the matter closed.
To prevent the development of a personality cult of the former imperial family, the corpses were stripped and dismembered; then taken to the countryside, where they were initially thrown into an abandoned mineshaft. The following morning, when rumours spread in Yekaterinburg regarding the disposal site, Yurovsky removed the bodies. When the vehicle carrying the bodies broke down on the way to the next chosen site, he made new arrangements and threw the bodies into a pit on Koptyaki Road, a since-abandoned cart track 19 kilometres (12 mi) north of Yekaterinburg, and doused the dismembered remains with sulfuric acid then burned them with gasoline before finally sealing the pit with concrete.
During and after the Russian Civil War, Yurovsky worked as a head of local Cheka in Moscow, then a member of Vyatka Cheka, head of Yekaterinburg Cheka (1919). In 1921, he worked in the Rabkrin and became Chief of the Gold Department of the Soviet State Treasury. Yurovsky achieved a solid reputation by combating corruption and theft. He also worked in management at the Polytechnical Museum starting in 1928 and became its director in 1930. He died in 1938 of a peptic ulcer.
Yurovsky was survived by a wife, two sons, and a daughter.
In 1920, a British officer who met Yurovsky alleged he was remorseful over his role in the execution of the Romanovs.
- Rappaport, Helen. The Last Days of the Romanovs: Tragedy at Ekaterinburg. ISBN 0-312-37976-5, ISBN 978-0-312-37976-6. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2009. p. 32.
- Radzinsky 2011, p. 373. sfn error: no target: CITEREFRadzinsky2011 (help)
- Urbański, Andrzej (1 January 2007). Wojna, o której nie chcieliśmy wiedzieć (in Polish). Iskry. ISBN 9788324400430.
- Лев Троцкий, "Дневники и письма", Эрмитаж, 1986, pp. 100-101
- Yakov Yurovsky, a biographical sketch adapted from King, Greg; Wilson, Penny (2005). The Fate of the Romanovs. Wiley. ISBN 978-0471727972.