Yevgeny Sergeyevich Botkin (Russian: Евге́ний Серге́евич Бо́ткин; 27 March 1865 – 17 July 1918), commonly known as Eugene Botkin, was the court physician for Tsar Nicholas II and Tsarina Alexandra and, while in exile with the family, sometimes treated the haemophilia-related complications of the Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich of Russia.
Dr. Eugene Botkin
Dr. Eugene Botkin
Yevgeny Sergeyevich Botkin
27 March 1865
|Died||17 July 1918 (aged 53)|
|Cause of death||Execution by firing squad|
|Spouse(s)||Olga Botkina (divorced 1910)|
Botkin went into exile with the Romanovs following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and was murdered with the family at Ekaterinburg on 17 July 1918. Like them, he was canonised as a passion-bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia in 1981.
On 3 February 2016, the Bishop's Council of the Russian Orthodox Church church-wide canonised Botkin as Righteous Passion-Bearer Yevgeny the Physician.Dr. Botkin’s oldest son Dimitri was killed in World War I. His son Yuri became seriously ill from dysentery while fighting at the front but recovered.
Early life and careerEdit
Botkin was born in St. Petersburg, Russian Empire, the son of Anastasia Alexandrovna (Krylova) and Sergey Botkin, who had been a court physician under Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III. Botkin himself studied medicine at the University of St. Petersburg and at the universities of Berlin and Heidelberg. He was later appointed chief physician at St. Georgievsky Hospital in St. Petersburg. He served with distinction aboard the St. Georgievsky Hospital Train during the Russo-Japanese War.
He was appointed court physician in 1908. Botkin married and had four children, Dimitri, Yuri, Gleb and Tatiana. His marriage broke up under the strain caused by Botkin's dedication to the Romanovs and his long hours at court. His wife, Olga, started an affair with the children's German tutor and asked for, and was granted, a divorce.
Botkin was later devastated when his oldest sons, Dimitri and Yuri, were killed in action during the First World War. Botkin became increasingly religious and "developed an increasing abhorrence for the flesh," according to his son Gleb.
"From a very tender age, his beautiful and noble nature was complete," his brother Peter recalled later. "He was never like other children. Always sensitive, of a delicate, inner sweetness of extraordinary soul, he had a horror of any kind of struggle or fight. We other boys would fight with a fury. He would not take part in our combats, but when our pugilism took on a dangerous character he would stop the combatants at risk of injuring himself. He was very studious and conscientious in his studies. For a profession he chose medicine: to help, to succour, to soothe, to heal without end."
Exile and deathEdit
Botkin felt it was his duty to accompany the Romanovs into exile, not only because of his responsibility to his patients, the Romanov family, but also to his country. Botkin was considered a friend by Tsar Nicholas II, and the doctor also often spoke with Tsarina Alexandra in her native German and acted as a translator for her when she received a Russian delegation.
White Russian Army investigators found this unfinished letter, written in his quarters on the night of 16 July 1918:
|“||I am making a last attempt at writing a real letter -- at least from here -- although that qualification, I believe, is utterly superfluous. I do not think that I was fated at any time to write to anyone from anywhere. My voluntary confinement here is restricted less by time than by my earthly existence. In essence I am dead -- dead for my children -- dead for my work ... I am dead but not yet buried, or buried alive -- whichever, the consequences are nearly identical ... The day before yesterday, as I was calmly reading ... I saw a reduced vision of my son Yuri's face, but dead, in a horizontal position, his eyes closed. Yesterday, at the same reading, I suddenly heard a word that sounded like Papulya. I nearly burst into sobs. Again -- this is not a hallucination because the word was pronounced, the voice was similar, and I did not doubt for an instant that my daughter, who was supposed to be in Tobolsk, was talking to me ... I will probably never hear that voice so dear or feel that touch so dear with which my little children so spoiled me ... If faith without works is dead, then deeds can live without faith; and if some of us have deeds and faith together, that is only by the special grace of God. I became one of these lucky ones through a heavy burden-the loss of my first born, six-month old Serzhi... This vindicates my last decision ... when I unhesitatingly orphaned my own children in order to carry out my physician's duty to the end, as Abraham did not hesitate at God's demand to sacrifice his only son.||”|
The letter was interrupted when Commander Yakov Yurovsky, the head of the command at the Ipatiev House, knocked on Botkin's door. He ordered the entire Romanov party to dress and come downstairs, on the premise that there was gunfire in the town, and they were to be evacuated. In fact, the entire family and their servants (including Botkin) were murdered a short time later.
In the early 1990s, when his remains were examined, Botkin had bullet wounds on his pelvis, vertebrae and forehead.
Honours and awardsEdit
In Literature and DramaEdit
- King, Greg; Wilson, Penny (2003). The Fate of the Romanovs. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-20768-3.
- Kurth, Peter; Christopher, Peter; Radzinsky, Edvard (1995). Tsar: The Lost World of Nicholas and Alexandra. Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-50787-3.
- Wegner, Armin T. (1930). Fünf Finger über dir. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart. Berlin und Leipzig.
- "Определение Освященного Архиерейского Собора Русской Православной Церкви об общецерковном прославлении ряда местночтимых святых".
- King; Wilson (2003), p. 61
- King; Wilson (2003), p. 62
- Kurth; Christopher; Radzinsky (1995), p. 194
- Acović, Dragomir (2012). Slava i čast: Odlikovanja među Srbima, Srbi među odlikovanjima. Belgrade: Službeni Glasnik. p. 634.
- Logan, D., Ekaterinburg (2013) ISBN 978-0-9873296-9-1