Open main menu

Vulkan is a low-overhead, cross-platform 3D graphics and computing API. Vulkan targets high-performance realtime 3D graphics applications such as video games and interactive media across all platforms. Compared to OpenGL and Direct3D 11, and like Direct3D 12 and Metal, Vulkan is intended to offer higher performance and more balanced CPU/GPU usage. Other major differences from Direct3D 11 (and prior) and OpenGL are Vulkan being a considerably lower level API and offering parallel tasking. Vulkan also has the ability to render 2D graphics applications.[10] In addition to its lower CPU usage, Vulkan is also able to better distribute work among multiple CPU cores.[11]

Vulkan
Vulkan API logo.svg
Developer(s)Khronos Group
Initial releaseFebruary 16, 2016; 3 years ago (2016-02-16)[1]
Stable release1.1.112 (June 24, 2019; 0 days ago (2019-06-24)[2]) [±]
Written inC[3]
Operating systemAndroid, Linux, Windows, Nintendo Switch,[4][5][6] Tizen[7][8]
PlatformCross-platform
Type3D graphics and compute API[9]
Websitewww.khronos.org/vulkan

Vulkan was first announced by the non-profit Khronos Group at GDC 2015.[9][12][13] The Vulkan API was initially referred to as the "next generation OpenGL initiative", or "OpenGL next"[14] by Khronos, but use of those names was discontinued when Vulkan was announced.[15] Vulkan is derived from and built upon components of AMD's Mantle API, which was donated by AMD to Khronos with the intent of giving Khronos a foundation on which to begin developing a low-level API that they could standardize across the industry.[16][9][17][18][19][20][21]

Contents

FeaturesEdit

 
OpenGL and Vulkan are both rendering APIs, in both cases the GPU executes shaders while the CPU executes everything else.

Vulkan is intended to provide a variety of advantages over other APIs as well as its predecessor, OpenGL. Vulkan offers lower overhead, more direct control over the GPU, and lower CPU usage.[13] The overall concept and feature set of Vulkan is similar to Direct3D 12, Metal and Mantle.

Intended advantages of Vulkan over previous-generation APIs include:

  • High-end graphics cards as well as for graphics hardware on mobile devices (OpenGL has a specific subset for mobile devices called OpenGL ES; it's still an alternative API in Vulkan supporting devices).
  • Availability on multiple modern operating systems in contrast to Direct3D 12; like OpenGL, the Vulkan API is not locked to a single OS or device form factor. As of release, Vulkan runs on Android, Linux, Tizen, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10 (freely licensed[22][23][24] third-party support for iOS and macOS[25] is also available)
  • Reduced driver overhead, reducing CPU workloads.[26]
  • Reduced load on CPUs through the use of batching,[definition needed] leaving the CPU free to do more computation or rendering than otherwise.[27]
  • Better scaling on multi-core CPUs. Direct3D 11 and OpenGL 4 were initially designed for use with single-core CPUs and only received augmentation to be executed on multi-cores. Even when application developers use the augmentations, the API regularly does not scale well on multi-cores.[28]
  • OpenGL uses the high-level language GLSL for writing shaders which forces each OpenGL driver to implement its own compiler for GLSL that executes at application runtime to translate the program's shaders into the GPU's machine code. Instead, Vulkan drivers are supposed to ingest shaders already translated into an intermediate binary format called SPIR-V (Standard Portable Intermediate Representation), analogous to the binary format that HLSL shaders are compiled into in Direct3D. By allowing shader pre-compilation, application initialization speed is improved and a larger variety of shaders can be used per scene. A Vulkan driver only needs to do GPU specific optimization and code generation, resulting in easier driver maintenance, and eventually smaller driver packages (currently GPU vendors still have to include OpenGL/CL).[29]
  • Unified management of compute kernels and graphical shaders, eliminating the need to use a separate compute API in conjunction with a graphics API.
OpenGL Vulkan[30]
One single global state machine Object-based with no global state
State is tied to a single context All state concepts are localized to a command buffer
Operations can only be executed sequentially Multi-threaded programming is possible
GPU memory and synchronization are usually hidden Explicit control over memory management and synchronization
Extensive error checking Vulkan drivers do no error checking at runtime;
there is a validation layer for developers

NVIDIA notes that OpenGL is still a great option for a lot of use cases, as it comes at a much lower complexity and maintenance burden than Vulkan, while in many cases still providing great overall performance.[31]

AMD says that Vulkan supports close-to-metal control, enabling faster performance and better image quality across Windows 7, Windows 8.1, Windows 10, and Linux. No other graphics API offers the same powerful combination of OS compatibility, rendering features, and hardware efficiency.[32]

Vulkan 1.1Edit

At SIGGRAPH 2016, Khronos announced that Vulkan would be getting support for automatic multi-GPU features, similar to what is offered by Direct3D 12.[33] Multi-GPU support included in-API removes the need for SLI or Crossfire which requires graphics cards to be of the same model. API multi-GPU instead allows the API to intelligently split the workload among two or more completely different GPUs.[34] For example, integrated GPUs included on the CPU can be used in conjunction with a high-end dedicated GPU for a slight performance boost.
On March 7, 2018, Vulkan 1.1 was released by the Khronos Group.[35] This first major update to the API standardized several extensions, such as multi-view, device groups, cross-process and cross-API sharing, advanced compute functionality, HLSL support, and YCbCr support.[36] At the same time, it also brought better compatibility with DirectX 12, explicit multi-GPU support, ray tracing support,[37][38] and laid the groundwork for the next generation of GPUs.[39] Alongside Vulkan 1.1, SPIR-V was updated to version 1.3.[36]

Planned featuresEdit

When releasing OpenCL version 2.2 the Khronos Group announced that OpenCL would be merging into Vulkan in the future.[40]

HistoryEdit

The Khronos Group began a project to create a next generation graphics API in July 2014 with a kickoff meeting at Valve Corporation.[41] At SIGGRAPH 2014, the project was publicly announced with a call for participants.[9]

According to the US Patent and Trademark Office, the trademark for Vulkan was filed on February 19, 2015.[42]

Vulkan was formally named and announced at Game Developers Conference 2015, although speculation and rumors centered around a new API existed beforehand and referred to it as "glNext".[43]

2015Edit

In early 2015, LunarG (funded by Valve) developed and showcased a Linux driver for Intel which enabled Vulkan compatibility on the HD 4000 series integrated graphics, despite the open-source Mesa drivers not being fully compatible with OpenGL 4.0 until later that year.[44][45] There is still the possibility[46] of Sandy Bridge support, since it supports compute through Direct3D11.

On August 10, 2015, Google announced that future versions of Android would support Vulkan.[47] Android 7.x "Nougat" launched support for Vulkan on August 22, 2016. Android 8.0 "Oreo" has full support, but there are no news on making Vulkan available on Android 6.0.1 "Marshmallow".

On December 18, 2015, the Khronos Group announced that the 1.0 version of the Vulkan specification was nearly complete and would be released when conforming drivers were available.[13]

2016Edit

The specification and the open-source Vulkan SDK were released on February 16, 2016.[1]

On December 15, 2016, Unity Technologies announced that version 5.6 of their game engine, Unity, would support the Vulkan API.[48]

2017Edit

On February 9, 2017, Croteam announced that it would be adopting the Vulkan API in its games and leveraging it to make their games more cross-platform friendly.[49]

On March 19, 2017, Cloud Imperium Games announced that Star Citizen would be using the Vulkan API instead of Direct3D.[50]

On July 25, 2017, Crytek released a preview of CryEngine 5.4 which added beta support for Vulkan.[51]

2018Edit

MoltenVKEdit

On February 26, 2018, Khronos Group announced that the Vulkan API became available to all on macOS and iOS through the MoltenVK library, which enables Vulkan to run on top of Metal.[52] Other new developments were shown at SIGGRAPH 2018.[53] Previously MoltenVK was a proprietary and commercially licensed solution, but Valve made an arrangement with developer Brenwill Workshop Ltd to open-source MoltenVK under the Apache 2.0 license and as a result the library is now available on GitHub. Valve also announced that Dota 2 can as of 26 February 2018 run on macOS using the Vulkan API, which is based on MoltenVK.[54]

V-EZEdit

On March 26, 2018, Khronos Group and GPUOpen announced project V-EZ. Short for "Easy Mode", it aims to reduce the complexity of the IDE syntax within the Vulkan API by implementing an additional library within the base SDK.[55] In August 2018, AMD made the library open source.[56]

GLOVE: OpenGL ES over VulkanEdit

Another middleware that allows legacy OpenGL ES applications to run on top of Vulkan was open-sourced by Think Silicon in August 2018. This software allows thinner Vulkan drivers to be used in the system instead of multiple OpenGL ES and Vulkan drivers. In addition with MoltenVK, GLOVE allows to use OpenGL ES on macOS/iOS devices.[57]

Vulkan 1.1Edit

On March 7, 2018, Vulkan 1.1 was released by the Khronos Group.[58] This first major update to the API standardized several extensions, such as multi-view, device groups, cross-process and cross-API sharing, advanced compute functionality, HLSL support, and YCbCr support.[36] At the same time, it also brought better compatibility with DirectX 12, explicit multi-GPU support, ray tracing support,[59][60] and laid the groundwork for the next generation of GPUs.[61] Alongside Vulkan 1.1, SPIR-V was updated to version 1.3.[36]

VersionsEdit

Version Date
1.0.111[62] 10 June 2019
1.1.111[63] 10 June 2019

Software that supports VulkanEdit

GamesEdit

Title Original release date Vulkan support since Developer(s) Publisher(s) Platform Notes
Windows Linux Android Other
Aerofly FS 2[64] November 20, 2017 June 6, 2018 IPACS IPACS  Y Support added in an update
Quake June 22, 1996 July 20, 2016 id Software GT Interactive  Y  Y Support added via vkQuake port.[65] Support for Windows added in vkQuake 0.20 on July 30, 2016[66]
Quake 2 December 9, 1997 December 20, 2018 id Software Activision  Y  Y MacOS Support added via vkQuake2 port.[67] Support for Windows added in the initial release. Support for Linux added on January 19, 2019.[68] Support for MacOS added on February 9, 2019.[69]
Quake III Arena December 2, 1999 May 30, 2017[70] id Software Activision  Y  Y Support added in Kenny Edition project.[71]
Roblox 2006 March 15, 2017[72] Roblox Corporation Roblox Corporation  Y  Y Support added in an update
Dota 2 July 9, 2013 May 23, 2016[73][74] Valve Corporation Valve Corporation  Y  Y MacOS Support added in an update; macOS support added in 2018
GRID Autosport June 24, 2014 TBA[75] Codemasters, Feral Interactive Feral Interactive  Y A Vulkan-only Android version of the game has been announced by Feral Interactive.[76]
The Talos Principle September 11, 2014 February 17, 2016[77] Croteam Devolver Digital  Y  Y  Y The first game with Vulkan rendering support.[78] Support added in an update.
Vainglory November 16, 2014 August 20, 2016[79] Super Evil Megacorp Super Evil Megacorp  Y
Score! Hero August 6, 2015[80] September 16, 2016[81] First Touch Games First Touch Games  Y
Need for Speed: No Limits September 30, 2015 August 20, 2016[79] Firemonkeys Studios Electronic Arts  Y
Heroes of Incredible Tales November 18, 2015 August 20, 2016[79] NAT Games Nexon  Y
Dream League Soccer February 26, 2016 October 14, 2016[82] First Touch Games First Touch Games  Y
Ashes of the Singularity March 31, 2016 August 31, 2017[83] Oxide Games, Stardock Entertainment Stardock Entertainment  Y Support added in an update
Olympus Rising May 3, 2016 August 20, 2016[79] Flaregames Flaregames  Y
Doom3 BFG October 2012 August 12, 2017[84] id Software Bethesda Softworks  Y Support added via vkDOOM3 port.[85]
Doom May 13, 2016 July 11, 2016[86] id Software Bethesda Softworks  Y Support added in an update
Mad Max October 20, 2016 March 30, 2017[87][88] Avalanche Studios, Feral Interactive Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment, Feral Interactive  Y Support added in a public beta version of the game for Linux
Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore December 8, 2016[89] May 18, 2017[90] Deep Silver Deep Silver  Y Support added on Android release
War Thunder December 21, 2016 TBA Gaijin Entertainment Gaijin Entertainment  Y  Y Support might replace OpenGL in the Linux and Windows versions in the near future, and possibly Direct X 9.0[91][92]
Ballistic Overkill March 28, 2017 May 16, 2017[93] Aquiris Game Studio Aquiris Game Studio  Y  Y Support added in an update
Serious Sam VR: The First Encounter March 30, 2017 February 8, 2017[94] Croteam VR Devolver Digital, Croteam  Y  Y Support since early access
Serious Sam VR: The Second Encounter April 4, 2017 February 8, 2017[94] Croteam VR Devolver Digital, Croteam  Y  Y Support since early access
ESSENCE April 18, 2017 TBA ONEVISION GAMES ONEVISION GAMES  Y  Y Support planned[95][96]
Warhammer 40,000: Dawn of War III June 8, 2017 June 8, 2017[97] Relic Entertainment, Feral Interactive Sega  Y
X Rebirth VR Edition July 27, 2017 July 27, 2017 Egosoft GmbH Egosoft GmbH  Y Support since release
nGlide compatible games[98] November 7, 2009 December 14, 2017[99] Zeus Software Zeus Software  Y 3Dfx Voodoo Glide wrapper
F1 2017 November 2, 2017 November 2, 2017 Codemasters, Feral Interactive Codemasters  Y Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive[100][101]
Serious Sam VR: The Last Hope September 20, 2017 May 17, 2017[102] Croteam VR Devolver Digital, Croteam  Y  Y Support since early access
Total War: Warhammer II September 28, 2017 November 20, 2018 Creative Assembly Sega  Y Support since release, Vulkan exclusive[103]
Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus October 27, 2017[104] October 27, 2017 MachineGames Bethesda Softworks  Y Vulkan exclusive[105][106]
Apocalypse: The Game November 1, 2017 TBA Harley Game Studios Harley GW Dolton  Y  Y Support planned[107]
Breaking Point TBA TBA ALDERON GAMES ALDERON GAMES  Y  Y Support planned[107]
Serious Sam Fusion 2017 2017 March 21, 2017[108][109] Croteam Devolver Digital  Y  Y Support since beta launch
Rise of the Tomb Raider February 9, 2016 April 19, 2018[110] Crystal Dynamics, Feral Interactive Square Enix, Feral Interactive  Y Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive[111]
Total War Saga: Thrones of Britannia May 3, 2018 June 7, 2018[112] Creative Assembly, Feral Interactive Sega, Feral Interactive  Y Vulkan-only Linux version by Feral Interactive[112]
Escape from Tarkov TBA TBA Battlestate Games Battlestate Games  Y Support planned[113][114] Undocumented support could be enabled with -force-vulkan in alpha patch 0.2.40.168, but was later removed.
Geocore TBA June 1, 2017[115][116] Anarchy Interactive Anarchy Interactive  Y  Y Support added in an update
Star Citizen TBA TBA Cloud Imperium Games Cloud Imperium Games  Y  Y Support to replace DirectX 12[117][118]
DCS World October 17, 2008 TBA Eagle Dynamics The Fighter Collection  Y Work on adding Vulkan support began in 2017 [119]
Doom Eternal November 22, 2019 November 22, 2019 id Software Bethesda Softworks  Y [120]
Strange Brigade[121] August 28, 2018 August 28, 2018 Rebellion Developments Rebellion Developments  Y
X4: Foundations November 30, 2018 November 30, 2018 Egosoft GmbH Egosoft GmbH  Y Exclusively supports Vulkan[122]
Artifact November 28, 2018 November 28, 2018[123] Valve Corporation Valve Corporation  Y MacOS Vulkan exclusive on Linux, Vulkan through MoltenVK on macOS
X-Plane 11 March 30, 2017 TBA Laminar Research Laminar Research  Y  Y  Y MacOS,

iOS,

WebOS

Vulkan support for desktop versions currently in development as of February 2019[124]
Detroit: Become Human May 25, 2018 TBA Quantic Dream Sony Interactive Entertainment  Y Vulkan support for desktop versions currently in development as of March 2019[125]
Rage 2 May 14, 2019 May 14, 2019 id Software, Avalanche Studios Bethesda Softworks  Y Exclusively supports Vulkan

Game console emulatorsEdit

Game enginesEdit

  • Source 2 – In March 2015, Valve Corporation announced the Source 2 engine, the successor engine to the original Source engine, would support Vulkan.[129][130]
  • Serious Engine 4 – In February 2016, Croteam announced that they were supporting Vulkan in their Serious Engine.[131]
  • Unreal Engine 4 – In February 2016, Epic Games announced Unreal Engine 4 support for Vulkan at Samsung's Galaxy S7 Unpacked event.[132][133]
  • Torque 3D – In April 2016, the developers community announced they will include Vulkan support.[134][135]
  • id Tech 3 – unofficial Vulkan support was added in May 2017.[136]
  • id Tech 4 – unofficial Vulkan support was added in August 2017.[137]
  • id Tech 6 – Vulkan support was added in July, 2016.[138]
  • id Tech 7 – uses Vulkan on PC exclusively.
  • Xenko – Vulkan support was added in July 2016.[139]
  • Unity – The engine has support for Vulkan since version 5.6.[140]
  • CryEngine – Support for Vulkan was added in the 5.4 release.[141]
  • Intrinsic – A free and open-source cross-platform game engine that supports Vulkan.[142]
  • Unigine – In April 2017, Unigine Corp announced that Vulkan support for Unigine is in the roadmap for 2017.[143]
  • Abyss Engine – In May 2017, Deep Silver FISHLABS released Galaxy on Fire 3 on Android with Vulkan support.[144]
  • Banshee 3D – A free and open-source cross-platform game engine that supports Vulkan.[145]
  • Godot – a 2D and 3D, cross-platform, free and open-source game engine. In late February 2018, the developers announced that they will shift their focus from solely using OpenGL ES 3 to target all platforms, to instead using a combination of OpenGL ES 2 and Vulkan.[146]
  • Flax Engine – Vulkan support was added in April 2019.[147]
  • Apex Game Engine(from Avalanche Studios) which was used in Rage 2 uses Vulkan for rendering [148]

Rendering enginesEdit

  • UX3D Engine – Vulkan support was added in September 2017.

Development toolsEdit

Wrapper librariesEdit

OS componentsEdit

The Vulkan Window System Integration (WSI) does for Vulkan what EGL does for OpenGL and OpenGL ES.[160] EGL is used by OpenGL and OpenGL ES programs to interface with the native platform windowing system. EGL handles context management, surface binding and rendering synchronization.

CompatibilityEdit

Initial specifications stated that Vulkan will work on hardware that currently supports OpenGL ES 3.1 or OpenGL 4.x and up.[161] As Vulkan support requires new graphics drivers, this does not necessarily imply that every existing device that supports OpenGL ES 3.1 or OpenGL 4.x will have Vulkan drivers available.

Vulkan 1.1 with higher efforts is supported by the newer lines in Hardware like Intel Skylake and higher, AMD GCN 3rd and higher, Nvidia Kepler and higher. AMD, Arm, Imagination Technologies, Intel, Nvidia and Qualcomm supports actual hardware since second half of 2018 Vulkan 1.1 with own drivers. Mesa 18.1 supports with RADV and ANVIL driver AMD and Intel hardware.

Android 7.0 Nougat supports Vulkan 1.0.[162] The software was released in August 2016.[163] Vulkan 1.1 will be supported in Android 9.0 (Android P).[164]

Vulkan support for iOS and macOS has not been announced by Apple, but an open-source library exists which provides a Vulkan implementation that runs on top of Metal on iOS and macOS devices.[25]

Company Hardware Software support: Vulkan 1.0
Microarchitecture Available since GPUs (chips) Graphic cards / SoCs Android[a] Linux Microsoft Windows[b]
AMD
GCN 5th August 2017 Vega 10 Radeon Rx Vega series N/A 1.0 and 1.1: AMDGPU PRO (Ubuntu & RHEL)[166][167]
& RADV in Mesa[168]
1.0 (1.1 GCN 2nd and higher) Radeon Software[169]
GCN 4th June 2016 Polaris 10, Polaris 11, Polaris 12 Radeon Rx 400 series, Radeon Rx 500 series
GCN 3rd August 2014 Tonga, Fiji, Carrizo Radeon R9 Series
GCN 2nd March 2013 Bonaire, Hawaii, Kaveri, Kabini, Temash, Mullins, Beema, Carrizo-L Radeon HD 7790, PlayStation 4, Xbox One Experimental 1.0 and 1.1 with RADV in Mesa [170]
GCN 1st January 2012 Oland, Cape Verde, Pitcairn, Tahiti Radeon HD 77xx–7900 Series
TeraScale 3 December 2010 Cayman, Trinity/Richland Radeon HD 69xx Series, Radeon HD 7xxx–76xx Series not supported
TeraScale 2 September 2009 Cedar, Cypress, Juniper, Redwood, Palm, Sumo Radeon HD 5000 Series, Radeon HD 6350, Radeon HD 64xx–68xx Series
TeraScale 1 May 2007 R600, RV630, RV610, RV790, RV770, … Radeon HD 2000 Series, HD 3000, HD 4000
Nvidia
Turing September 2018 TU10x, TU11x GeForce 20 series, GeForce 16 series 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver
Volta December 2017 GV10x Nvidia Titan V 1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver 1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver
Pascal May 2016 GP10x GeForce 10 series, Tegra X2 Yes 1.0 and 1.1 Nvidia GeForce driver[171][172] 1.0 and 1.1: Nvidia GeForce driver[172]
Maxwell February 2014 GM10x, GM20x GeForce GTX 750 Ti, GTX 750, GTX 860M, GeForce 900 series, Tegra X1
Kepler March 2012 GK10x, GK110, GK208 GeForce 600 series, GeForce 700 series, Tegra K1
Fermi March 2010 GF10x, GF11x GeForce 400 series, GeForce 500 series not supported
Tesla November 2006 G8x, G9x, GT20x, GT21x GeForce 8 series, GeForce 9 series, GeForce 100 series, GeForce 200 series, GeForce 300 series
Intel Coffee Lake October 2017 Core i3-/i5-/i7-8000, Yes 1.0 and 1.1: Anvil in Mesa 18.1 Yes
Kaby Lake September 2016 Core i3-/i5-/i7-7000, Pentium xyz, Celeron xyz 1.0 Anvil in Mesa 17.1, 1.1 in Mesa 18.1[173] 1.0: Anvil in Mesa[174][175], 1.1 in Mesa 18.1 Intel Graphics driver[176]
Skylake August 2015 Core i3-/i5-/i7-6000, Core m3-/m5-/m7-6Yxx, Pentium G4xxx, Celeron G39xx
Broadwell September 2014 Core i3-/i5-/i7-5000, Core M-5Yxx 1.0 Anvil in Mesa 17.1[173] 1.0: Anvil in Mesa[174][175] not supported
Haswell June 2013 Core i3-/i5-/i7-4000, Pentium G3xxx, Celeron G18xx
Ivy Bridge April 2012 Core i3-/i5-/i7-3000, Pentium G2xxx, Celeron G16xx
Sandy Bridge January 2011 Core i3-/i5-/i7-2000, Pentium Gxxx, Celeron Gxxx not supported not supported
Westmere January 2010 Core i3-/i5-/i7-xxx, Pentium G69xx, Celeron G1101
Imagination Technologies
PowerVR Series 8 February 2016 GE8200, GE8300 PowerVR Graphics SDK v4.1[177]
PowerVR Series 7 November 2014 GE7400, GE7800, GT7200, GT7400, GT7600, GT7800, GT7900 Apple A9, A9X, A10 Fusion, Helio X30 (MT6799)
PowerVR Series 6 January 2012 G6100, G6200, G6230, G6400, G6430, G6630, RK3368, G6050, G6060, G6100 (XE), G6110, GX6240, GX6250, GX6450, GX6650 Apple A7, A8, A8X, MediaTek MT8173, MT8176, MediaTek MT6595M, MT6595T, MT6595M, MT6795, MT8135, Helio X10 (MT6795), LG H13, Atom Z3460, Z3480, Z3530, Z3560, Z3570, Z3580
PowerVR Series 5 January 2009 SGX543, SGX544, SGX554 Apple S1, A5, A5X, A6, A6X, NovaThor L8540, L8580, L9540, TI OMAP 4470, 5430, 5432, MediaTek MT5327, MT6589M, MT6589T, MT6589, MT8117, MT8121, MT8125, MT8389, Atom Z2460, Z2520, Z2560, Z2580, Z2760, Exynos 5410 not supported
Qualcomm
Adreno 500 series Adreno 510, Adreno 530, Adreno 540

Adreno 512

Snapdragon 430, 625, 650, 652, 660,820, 821, 835 1.0[178]
Adreno 400 series Adreno 418,Adreno 420,Adreno 430 Snapdragon 415, 615, 616, 617, 805, 808, 810 1.0(Adreno 418,430)[179]
Adreno 300 series Snapdragon 200, 208, 210, 212, 400, 410, 412, 600, 800, 801 not supported
ARM
Bifrost[180] June 2016 Mali-G71, … Kirin 960, 970, Exynos 8895, MediaTek Helio P23 (MT6763T), Helio P30 1.0[181]
Midgard 4th Q4 2015 Mali-T860, Mali-T830, Mali-T880 Exynos 8890, Exynos 7880, Exynos 7870, Kirin 950, 955, MediaTek MT6738, MT6750, Helio X20 (MT6797), X25 (MT6797T), P10 (MT6755), P20 (MT6757)
Midgard 3rd October 2013 Mali-T760, … Exynos 7420, Exynos 5433, MT6752, MT6732, RK3288
Midgard 2nd August 2012 Mali-T600 series, T720 Exynos 5250, 5260, 5410, 5420, 5422, 5430, 5800, 7580, Mediatek MT6735, MT6753, Kirin 920, 925, 930, 935 not supported

See alsoEdit

  • Direct3D 12 – main competitor of Vulkan
  • OpenGL – another graphics API by the Khronos Group
  • OpenCL – a heterogeneous computing framework by the Khronos Group
  • Mantle – a low-level graphics and compute API from AMD, the foundation of Vulkan
  • Metal – a low-level graphics and compute API for iOS and macOS
  • AMDGPU – AMD's fully open-source unified graphics driver for Linux

NotesEdit

  1. ^ For Android Nougat and later.[165]
  2. ^ Drivers so far have supported Windows 7 and later.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Khronos Releases Vulkan 1.0 Specification". Khronos Group Press Release.
  2. ^ "Vulkan® 1.1.112 - A Specification".
  3. ^ https://github.com/KhronosGroup/Vulkan-Docs/blob/1.0/src/vulkan/vulkan.h
  4. ^ "Nintendo Switch Listed as Vulkan and OpenGL Conformant - My Nintendo News". December 19, 2016.
  5. ^ Palumbo, Alessio (December 19, 2016). "Nintendo Switch Officially Supports Vulkan, OpenGL 4.5 & OpenGL ES".
  6. ^ "The Khronos Group". April 28, 2018.
  7. ^ Bright, Peter & Walton, Mark (February 16, 2016). "Vulkan now official, with 1.0 API release and AMD driver [Updated]". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  8. ^ Valich, Theo (February 17, 2016). "Mantle Cycle is Complete as Khronos Releases Vulkan 1.0". VR World. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  9. ^ a b c d "More on Vulkan and SPIR - V: The future of high-performance graphics" (PDF). Khronos Group. p. 10. Retrieved June 27, 2015. Thanks AMD!
  10. ^ "Does Vulkan support 2D graphics?". LunarG. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  11. ^ Hruska, Joel. "Next-generation Vulkan API could be Valve's killer advantage in battling Microsoft". ExtremeTech. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  12. ^ "Vulkan: Graphics and compute Belong Together" (PDF). Khronos Group. March 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  13. ^ a b c "Vulkan - Graphics and compute belong together". Khronos Group. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  14. ^ Smith, Ryan. "Khronos Announces Next Generation OpenGL Initiative". Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  15. ^ Batchelor, James (March 3, 2015). "glNext revealed as Vulkan graphics API". Develop.
  16. ^ Shilov, Anton. "AMD: Vulkan absorbed 'best and brightest' parts of Mantle". KitGuru. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  17. ^ Mah Ung, Gordon (March 6, 2015). "Mantle is a Vulkan: AMD's dead graphics API rises from the ashes in OpenGL's successor". PC World.
  18. ^ "AMD Gaming: One of Mantle's Futures: Vulkan | AMD Blogs". AMD. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  19. ^ Hruska, Joel (March 4, 2015). "Not dead yet: AMD's Mantle powers new Vulkan API, VR efforts". ExtremeTech. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  20. ^ "AMD's Mantle Lives On In Vulkan - Lays The Foundation For The Next OpenGL". Wccftech. June 20, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  21. ^ Kirsch, Nathan. "Is AMD Mantle Dead As We Have Known It? Vulcan API Uses Mantle Technology for OpenGL". Legit Reviews. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  22. ^ "MoltenVK, popular Vulkan development tool for macOS, goes open-source". Neowin. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  23. ^ "Vulkan graphics will enable faster games and apps on Apple platforms". VentureBeat. February 26, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  24. ^ "Vulkan Is Now Available On macOS/iOS By MoltenVK Being Open-Sourced, Vulkan SDK for Mac - Phoronix". www.phoronix.com. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  25. ^ a b "MoltenVK". Molten. Retrieved April 5, 2016.
  26. ^ "Khronos Group Announces The Next-Generation 'Vulkan' Graphics And Compute API". Tom's Hardware. March 3, 2015.
  27. ^ "Vulkan: High efficiency on mobile". Imagination Technologies. November 5, 2015.
  28. ^ "Vulkan: Scaling to multiple threads". Imagination Technologies. November 24, 2015.
  29. ^ Kessenich, John. "An Introduction to SPIR-V" (PDF). Khronos Group. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  30. ^ "FOSDEM 2016 - Vulkan in Open-Source". FOSDEM. Retrieved February 27, 2016.
  31. ^ "Transitioning from OpenGL to Vulkan". Nvidia.
  32. ^ "AMD Vulkan API". AMD.
  33. ^ "Vulkan Next will bring better support for VR and multiple GPUs". PC World.
  34. ^ Smith, Daniel Williams, Ryan. "Ashes of the Singularity Revisited: A Beta Look at Direct3D 12 & Asynchronous Shading". AnandTech.
  35. ^ "Khronos Group Releases Vulkan 1.1". The Khronos Group (Press release). March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  36. ^ a b c d Larabel, Michael (March 7, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1 Released As The First Major Update To This Graphics/Compute API". Phoronix. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  37. ^ Larabel, Michael (September 19, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1.85 Released With Raytracing, Mesh Shaders & Other New NVIDIA Extensions". Phoronix. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  38. ^ Larabel, Michael (November 4, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1.91 Released With NV_ray_tracing, AMD Memory Overallocation Behavior". Phoronix. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  39. ^ Bright, Peter (March 7, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1 out today, with multi-GPU support, better DirectX compatibility". Ars Terchnica. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  40. ^ Michaud, Scott (May 16, 2017). "Breaking: OpenCL Merging Roadmap into Vulkan PC Perspective". PC Perspective. Retrieved May 17, 2017.
  41. ^ SIGGRAPH 2015: 3D Graphics API State of the Union (Video). YouTube. SIGGRAPH 2015: Khronos Group. September 16, 2015. Event occurs at 57:24. Retrieved November 12, 2015.
  42. ^ "US Patent and Trademark Office". Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  43. ^ Batchelor, James. "glNext revealed as Vulkan graphics API | Latest news from the game development industry | Develop". Develop. Retrieved March 5, 2015.
  44. ^ Larabel, Michael (March 5, 2015). "Valve Developed An Intel Linux Vulkan GPU Driver". Phoronix. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  45. ^ Larabel, Michael (March 12, 2015). "Learning More About The Intel Vulkan Driver, Linux Vulkan Plans". Phoronix. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  46. ^ "Evan Odabashian on Twitter". Retrieved July 22, 2015.
  47. ^ Woods, Shannon (August 12, 2015). "Low-overhead rendering with Vulkan". Android Developers Blog.
  48. ^ "Unity engine adds Vulkan support for a big performance boost".
  49. ^ "Croteam will take its games cross-platform with Vulkan support".
  50. ^ Palumbo, Alessia (March 19, 2017). "Cloud Imperium Now Only Intends To Support Vulkan, Instead of DirectX 12, for Star Citizen". Wccftech. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  51. ^ "CryEngine welcomes Vulkan API support to latest build".
  52. ^ Bright, Peter (February 26, 2018). "Vulkan is coming to macOS and iOS, but no thanks to Apple". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  53. ^ https://www.khronos.org/assets/uploads/developers/library/2018-siggraph/Vulkan-and-OpenGL-BOF-SIGGRAPH_Aug18.pdf
  54. ^ Larabel, Michael (February 26, 2018). "Vulkan Is Now Available On macOS/iOS By MoltenVK Being Open-Sourced, Vulkan SDK for Mac". Phoronix. Retrieved February 26, 2018.
  55. ^ Larabel, Michael (March 26, 2018). "V-EZ: AMD Releases New Easy-To-Use Vulkan Middleware, Simplified API". Phoronix. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
  56. ^ Lahoti, Sugandha (August 27, 2018). "AMD open sources V-EZ, the Vulkan wrapper library". Phoronix. Retrieved August 27, 2018.
  57. ^ Larabel, Michael (August 1, 2018). "GLOVE: OpenGL ES Over Vulkan As Open-Source". Phoronix. Retrieved August 1, 2018.
  58. ^ "Khronos Group Releases Vulkan 1.1". The Khronos Group (Press release). March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  59. ^ Larabel, Michael (September 19, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1.85 Released With Raytracing, Mesh Shaders & Other New NVIDIA Extensions". Phoronix. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  60. ^ Larabel, Michael (November 4, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1.91 Released With NV_ray_tracing, AMD Memory Overallocation Behavior". Phoronix. Retrieved November 4, 2018.
  61. ^ Bright, Peter (March 7, 2018). "Vulkan 1.1 out today, with multi-GPU support, better DirectX compatibility". Ars Terchnica. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  62. ^ "Vulkan 1.0.111 - A Specification".
  63. ^ "Vulkan 1.1.111 - A Specification".
  64. ^ "New Aerofly FS 2 Update: Vulkan as the new Graphics API".
  65. ^ Larabel, Michael (July 25, 2016). "Quake 1 Ported To Run On Vulkan". Phoronix. Phoronix Media. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  66. ^ Gneiting, Axel [@axelgneiting] (July 30, 2016). "vkQuake 0.20 Windows binaries t.co/uUTSImUTqr t.co/cTLg1j8aEH" (Tweet). Retrieved January 1, 2017 – via Twitter.
  67. ^ Kondrak, Krzysztof [@k_kondrak] (December 20, 2018). "vkQuake2 released to public" (Tweet). Retrieved December 20, 2018 – via Twitter.
  68. ^ Kondrak, Krzysztof [@k_kondrak] (January 19, 2019). "vkQuake2 gets Linux support" (Tweet). Retrieved January 19, 2019 – via Twitter.
  69. ^ Kondrak, Krzysztof [@k_kondrak] (January 9, 2019). "vkQuake2 gets MacOS support" (Tweet). Retrieved February 9, 2019 – via Twitter.
  70. ^ Quake-III-Arena-Kenny-Edition v1.1
  71. ^ Kharytoniuk, Artem (June 7, 2017). "Quake 3 Vulkanized". Retrieved June 7, 2017.
  72. ^ "API:Enum/GraphicsMode". Roblox Wiki. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  73. ^ "Dota 2 Update - May 23rd 2016". Steam. Valve Corporation. May 23, 2016. Retrieved July 6, 2016.
  74. ^ Bright, Peter. "Vulkan is coming to macOS and iOS, but no thanks to Apple". Ars Technica. Retrieved February 27, 2018.
  75. ^ "New ETA for GRID Autosport, coming to iOS and Android". Feral Interactive. May 25, 2017. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  76. ^ Nestor, Marius (May 26, 2017). "GRID Autosport Racing Game for Android to Come with Vulkan Boost Under the Hood". Softpedia. Retrieved May 27, 2017.
  77. ^ Stahie, Silviu (February 17, 2016). "The Talos Principle Is the First Game Ready for Vulkan". Softpedia. SoftNews NET. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  78. ^ Williams, Daniel & Smith, Ryan (February 17, 2016). "Quick Look: Vulkan Performance on The Talos Principle". Anandtech. Retrieved February 19, 2016.
  79. ^ a b c d Ion, Florence (August 2, 2016). "Samsung's Galaxy Note 7 will come bundled with free Vulkan-ready games". Greenbot. IDG Consumer & SMB. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  80. ^ @firsttouchgames (August 6, 2015). "We're hugely excited to announce our new game, Score! Hero, is released today! t.co/bH74zFcI2e #scorehero t.co/lRbOJG3U5d" (Tweet). Retrieved May 26, 2017 – via Twitter.
  81. ^ @firsttouchgames (September 16, 2016). "Android users with #Vulkan capable devices will be pleased to learn Score! Hero @GooglePlay has initial #VulkanAPI support #scorehero #1st" (Tweet). Retrieved May 26, 2017 – via Twitter.
  82. ^ First Touch (October 14, 2016). "Dream League Soccer - Android Apps on Google Play". Google Play. Archived from the original on November 5, 2016. Retrieved May 26, 2017. Version 3.09 [...] * Initial Vulkan Support
  83. ^ Draginol, Draginol (August 24, 2017). "Ashes of the Singularity: Vulkan and more!". steamcommunity. Stardock. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  84. ^ vkDOOM3 v0.90.0
  85. ^ Larabel, Michael (August 11, 2017). "VkNeo: Open-Source Doom 3 Now Has A Vulkan Renderer". Phoronix. Phoronix Media. Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  86. ^ Chacos, Brad (July 11, 2016). "Doom's new Vulkan patch makes a fast, beautiful game faster and more beautiful". PCWorld. IDG Consumer & SMB. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
  87. ^ "The Magnum Opus advances — join the public Beta for Mad Max powered by Vulkan". Feral Interactive. March 30, 2017. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  88. ^ Dawe, Liam (March 30, 2017). "Mad Max meets Vulkan in a new fully public beta for Linux". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved March 30, 2017.
  89. ^ Deep Silver. "Galaxy on Fire 3 - Manticore". deepsilver.com. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  90. ^ Gordon, Scott Adam (May 18, 2017). "Space shooter Galaxy on Fire 3 – Manticore now available at Google Play". Android Authority. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  91. ^ The War Thunder Team (August 30, 2017). "[Development] Answers from developers! - News - War Thunder". warthunder.com. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  92. ^ Dawe, Liam (September 1, 2017). "War Thunder may replace OpenGL and DirectX 9 with Vulkan in "the near future"". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  93. ^ Vitzz (May 16, 2017). "1.3.6 - Playing with friends". Steam Community. Retrieved May 16, 2017.
  94. ^ a b Ante[CT] (February 8, 2017). "Serious Wednesday update". Steam Community. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  95. ^ Ck ONEVISION (April 27, 2017). "EARLY ACCESS ROADMAP". Steam Community. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  96. ^ Dawe, Liam (May 15, 2017). "ESSENCE, a first-person non-violent exploration adventure arrives on Linux, Vulkan support possible in future". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved October 5, 2017.
  97. ^ "Hammer of steel and fire: Dawn of War III for macOS and Linux forged with next-generation graphics technology | Feral News". www.feralinteractive.com. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
  98. ^ "nGlide - Compatibility list". www.zeus-software.com. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  99. ^ "nGlide 2.00 released with a new Vulkan API backend". www.zeus-software.com. Retrieved March 17, 2018.
  100. ^ @feralgames (October 27, 2017). "Elite racing and the latest technology are natural partners. F1™ 2017 on Linux is fuelled by the @VulkanAPI" (Tweet). Retrieved October 27, 2017 – via Twitter.
  101. ^ Larabel, Michael (October 30, 2017). "F1 2017 Will Be The First Vulkan-Only Linux Game". Phoronix. Phoronix Media. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  102. ^ Sekulić, Dean (May 25, 2017). Getting Serious with Vulkan (PDF) (Speech). 2017 Khronos UK Vulkanised. Cambridge, UK: Khronos Group. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
  103. ^ "Total War: WARHAMMER II – Vulkan Performance Review". Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  104. ^ "Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus". Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  105. ^ Papadopoulos, John (October 29, 2017). "Wolfenstein II: The New Colossus PC Performance Analysis - GPU, CPU metrics, Graphics & Screenshots - DSOGaming". DSOGaming. Retrieved October 29, 2017.
  106. ^ Sousa, Tiago [@idSoftwareTiago] (June 12, 2017). "yep!" (Tweet). Retrieved June 14, 2017 – via Twitter.
  107. ^ a b Dawe, Liam (June 2, 2017). "Breaking Point, an Arma 3 mod is moving to Unreal Engine 4 with Kickstarter, Linux & Vulkan planned". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved November 1, 2017.
  108. ^ Croteam (March 21, 2017). "Serious Sam Fusion 2017 beta is live! - Croteam". www.croteam.com. Retrieved March 31, 2017.
  109. ^ Dawe, Liam (March 20, 2017). "Serious Sam Fusion 2017 (beta) for The First Encounter is now available, with Linux support". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
  110. ^ Feral Interactive [@feralgames] (February 13, 2018). "This spring, embark upon a dramatic action-adventure in Rise of the @TombRaider for macOS and Linux" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  111. ^ Feral Interactive (February 13, 2018). "Rise of the Tomb Raider: 20 Year Celebration". feralinteractive.com/. Retrieved February 13, 2018.
  112. ^ a b Michael Larabel (June 5, 2018). "THRONES OF BRITANNIA Launching For Linux On Thursday, Another Vulkan Game". phoronix.com/. Retrieved June 11, 2018.
  113. ^ "Vulkan API Support? - Questions - Escape from Tarkov Forum". forum.escapefromtarkov.com. April 9, 2017. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  114. ^ Buyanov, Nikita (June 3, 2017). Стрим с главой компании Battlestate Games Никитой Буяновым [Stream with the head of the Battlestate Games company Nikita Buyanov] (Podcast) (in Russian). Event occurs at 1:40:38. Retrieved July 10, 2017. We tried to build with Vulkan, but everything crashes, so we decided to delay it for now.
  115. ^ PSION (June 1, 2017). "Patch". Steam. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  116. ^ Dawe, Liam (July 11, 2017). "Geocore, another six degrees of freedom shooter has Linux & Vulkan support". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved July 12, 2017.
  117. ^ Brown, Ali (March 18, 2017). "PROGRAMMING (Engine, API, Hardware, etc) - Page 6 - RSI Community Forums". forums.robertsspaceindustries.com. Retrieved April 15, 2017.
  118. ^ Walker, Alex (March 20, 2017). "Star Citizen Ditches DirectX 12 For Vulkan". kotaku.com.au. Retrieved March 20, 2017.
  119. ^ Stone, Tim (January 26, 2018). "The Flare Path: Jets, Jungle, and Jack Yards". Rock Paper Shotgun. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  120. ^ @billykhan (August 10, 2018). "Yes, it's #Vulkan only on PC. #Vulkan is the best API if you want to achieve the absolute highest frame rates on PC" (Tweet). Retrieved August 12, 2018 – via Twitter.
  121. ^ "Strange Brigade is the first game to support the Vulkan API with Multi-GPU systems".
  122. ^ "Pre-purchase X4: Foundations on Steam". store.steampowered.com. Retrieved November 29, 2018.
  123. ^ "System Requirements". Steam. Valve Corporation. December 1, 2018. Retrieved December 1, 2018.
  124. ^ "X-Plane 11.32". X-Plane Developer. February 23, 2019. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
  125. ^ Yesterday, Raevenlord; Discuss, 15:05. "Quantic Dreams' Detroit: Become Human to Make use of Vulkan API on PC, System Requirements Revealed". TechPowerUp. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
  126. ^ "Beetle/Mednafen PSX". Libretro Wiki. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  127. ^ "Vulkan Backend by stenzek · Pull Request #3935 · dolphin-emu/dolphin". GitHub. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  128. ^ "Mupen64plus". Libretro. Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  129. ^ Kollar, Philip (March 3, 2015). "Valve announces Source 2 engine, free for developers". Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  130. ^ Mahardy, Mike (March 3, 2015). "GDC 2015: Valve Announces Source 2 Engine". IGN. Retrieved March 3, 2015.
  131. ^ "The Talos Principle will support Vulkan". February 4, 2016.
  132. ^ "Epic Games adds Vulkan support to Unreal Engine 4". Bit-Tech. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  133. ^ "Epic Games Unveils ProtoStar at Samsung Galaxy Unpacked". Epic Games. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  134. ^ "Closing in on 3.9". Forums. Torque 3D.
  135. ^ "Reddit response from a Torque3D developer". Reddit.
  136. ^ Kharytoniuk, Artem (May 16, 2019), The cradle of Quake III Arena. Contribute to kennyalive/Quake-III-Arena-Kenny-Edition development by creating an account on GitHub, retrieved May 16, 2019
  137. ^ "Vulkan DOOM 3 port based on DOOM 3 BFG Edition". July 2018.
  138. ^ Duffy, Robert. "DOOM – Vulkan Support Now Live". Bethesda.net. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
  139. ^ "Xenko 1.7β released!". July 1, 2016.
  140. ^ liamdawe (March 31, 2017). "Unity 5.6 is now available with full Vulkan support". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  141. ^ "Crytek launches CryEngine 5.4 with Vulkan support". Bit-Tech. September 24, 2017.
  142. ^ "Intrinsic - Cross-platform Game and Rendering Engine". Archived from the original on October 27, 2016. Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  143. ^ liamdawe (April 13, 2017). "The UNIGINE engine will get Vulkan support this year". GamingOnLinux. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
  144. ^ "Vulkanised! Manticore with Vulkan on Mobile Device - May 2017". YouTube. The Khronos Group. May 31, 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017.
  145. ^ "Banshee 3D - Home". Retrieved August 12, 2017.
  146. ^ Linietsky, Juan (February 26, 2018). "Godot Engine - Moving to Vulkan (and ES 2.0) instead of OpenGL ES 3.0". Godot. Retrieved March 7, 2018.
  147. ^ "Flax Facts #25 – Vulkan". April 16, 2019.
  148. ^ "Rage 2 Uses Just Cause Series' Engine Instead of idTech". Shacknews. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  149. ^ "GPUPerfStudio Vulkan Tools". AMD. Archived from the original on January 29, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
  150. ^ "gskvulkanrenderer.c".
  151. ^ "RenderDoc Version v0.27".
  152. ^ Anvil on GitHub
  153. ^ Ashes on GitHub
  154. ^ GLOVE on GitHub
  155. ^ MoltenVK on GitHub
  156. ^ V-EZ on GitHub
  157. ^ Vulkano on GitHub
  158. ^ PasVulkan on GitHub
  159. ^ NVK on GitHub
  160. ^ "Vulkan 1.0 specification released with day-one support for Wayland". February 16, 2016.
  161. ^ "Vulkan Overview" (PDF). Khronos Group. June 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2015. p. 19 "Vulkan Status"
  162. ^ "Android N's second preview build supports Vulkan and new emoji". Ars Technica.
  163. ^ "Final Developer Preview before Android 7.0 Nougat begins rolling out". July 19, 2016.
  164. ^ https://www.xda-developers.com/vulkan-graphics-api-1-1-android-p/
  165. ^ "The Android platform includes an Android-specific implementation of the Vulkan API specification from the Khronos Group". April 5, 2016.
  166. ^ Larabel, Michael (October 27, 2016). "AMDGPU-PRO 16.40 Released For Ubuntu & Red Hat Linux Systems". Phoronix. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  167. ^ "Radeon GPUs are ready for the Vulkan graphics API". Community. AMD.
  168. ^ Larabel, Michael (August 30, 2016). "Testing The Open-Source "RADV" Radeon Vulkan Driver vs. AMDGPU-PRO". Phoronix. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  169. ^ "AMD Radeon Software version 16.15.1009 supports Vulkan". February 16, 2016. Archived from the original on February 25, 2016. Retrieved February 18, 2016.
  170. ^ https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?page=article&item=gcn10-tww2-radv&num=1
  171. ^ "NVIDIA DRIVERS Linux x64 (AMD64/EM64T) Display Driver". Nvidia.
  172. ^ a b "Vulkan Driver Support". NVIDIA Developer. Nvidia. Retrieved April 4, 2016.
  173. ^ a b "android: add vulkan build for intel". January 31, 2017.
  174. ^ a b "Open-source Vulkan drivers for Intel hardware". February 16, 2016.
  175. ^ a b Larabel, Michael (July 8, 2016). "Mesa 12.0 Released With OpenGL 4.3 Support, Intel Vulkan & Many Other Features". Phoronix. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
  176. ^ "15.45.14.4590: Intel Graphics Driver for Windows 7/8.1/10 (Vulkan Support)". Intel.
  177. ^ "Imagination announces Vulkan SDK for PowerVR Rogue GPUs". Imagination Blog. PowerVR Developer Technology Team. March 16, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2018.
  178. ^ "Qualcomm announces Vulkan API support for Adreno 5xx and 4xx GPUs".
  179. ^ "Vulkan Hardware Database".
  180. ^ "ARM Bifrost GPU Architecture". May 30, 2016.
  181. ^ "ARM® Mali™GPUs with Vulkan Conformance".

Further readingEdit

  • Vulkan Programming Guide: The Official Guide to Learning Vulkan (OpenGL), Nov 10, 2016, by Graham Sellers and John Kessenich ISBN 978-0-1344-64541
  • Introduction to Computer Graphics and the Vulkan API, Jul 1, 2017, by Kenwright ISBN 978-1-5486-16175
  • Vulkan Cookbook, Apr 28, 2017, by Pawel Lapinski ISBN 978-1-7864-68154