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Volvariella volvacea (also known as paddy straw mushroom or straw mushroom) is a species of edible mushroom cultivated throughout East and Southeast Asia and used extensively in Asian cuisines. They are often available fresh in Asia, but are more frequently found in canned or dried forms outside their nations of cultivation. Worldwide, straw mushrooms rank third in consumption, although their use in the West is somewhat uncommon and usually confined to use in Oriental cooking. [2]

Paddy straw mushrooms
Straw mushrooms, with some still in their veils, while others have opened and reveal the cap inside
Scientific classification
V. volvacea
Binomial name
Volvariella volvacea
(Bul.) Singer (1951)[1]
  • Agaricus volvaceus Bull. (1786)
  • Amanita virgata Pers. (1797)
  • Vaginata virgata Gray (1821)
  • Volvaria volvacea P. Kumm. (1871)
Volvariella volvacea
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Mycological characteristics
gills on hymenium
cap is conical or umbonate
hymenium is free
stipe has a volva
spore print is salmon
ecology is saprotrophic
edibility: choice


Straw mushrooms are grown on rice straw beds and are most commonly picked when immature (often labeled "unpeeled"), during their button or egg phase and before the veil ruptures.[3] They are adaptable and take four to five days to mature, and are most successfully grown in subtropical climates with high annual rainfall. No record has been found of their cultivation before the 19th century.[4]


In their button stage, straw mushrooms resemble poisonous death caps, but can be distinguished by several mycological features, including their pink spore print (spore prints of death caps are white). The two mushrooms have different distributions, with the death cap generally not found where the straw mushroom grows natively, but immigrants, particularly those from Southeast Asia to California and Australia, have been poisoned due to misidentification.[5][6]


  1. ^ "Species Fungorum - GSD Species".
  2. ^ "Straw Mushrooms".
  3. ^ Chang, S. T.; Chang, Shu-ting; Quimio, T. H. (9 January 1982). "Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature and Cultivation Methods". Chinese University Press – via Google Books.
  4. ^ Hsiung, Deh-Ta (2006). The Chinese Kitchen. London: Kyle Cathie Ltd. pp. 186–87. ISBN 1-85626-702-4.
  5. ^ Money NP. (2004). Mr. Bloomfield's Orchard: The Mysterious World of Mushrooms, Molds, and Mycologists. Oxford University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-19-517158-7.
  6. ^ Gardiner, Stephanie (3 January 2012). "Two die after eating death cap mushrooms". The Sydney Morning Herald.

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