Visit of the Marquis de Lafayette to the United States

From July 1824 to September 1825, the French Marquis de Lafayette, the last surviving major general of the American Revolutionary War, made a tour of the 24 states in the United States. He was received by the populace with a hero's welcome at many stops, and many honors and monuments were presented to commemorate and memorialize the visit.

Portrait of General Lafayette by Samuel Morse in 1826


External video
 1825 portrait by Matthew Harris Jouett
  Lafayette in America, 1824–1825, Alan R. Hoffman lectures on the Grand Tour, 1:03:14[1]

Lafayette led troops under the command of George Washington in the American Revolution over 40 years earlier, and he fought in several crucial battles, including the Battle of Brandywine in Pennsylvania and the Siege of Yorktown in Virginia. He had then returned to France and pursued a political career championing the ideals of liberty that the American republic represented.

He helped to write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen with Thomas Jefferson's assistance, which was inspired by the United States Declaration of Independence. He also advocated the end of slavery, in keeping with the philosophy of natural rights. After the storming of the Bastille in July 1789, he was appointed commander-in-chief of France's National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the years of the French Revolution. In August 1792, radical factions of the revolution took control of the government and ordered Lafayette's arrest, so he fled to the Austrian Netherlands. He was captured by Austrian troops and spent more than five years in prison. Lafayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release in 1797, though he refused to participate in Napoleon's government or his military conquests. After the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, he became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, a position which he held for most of the remainder of his life.

The Bourbon constitutional monarchy had been restored in France for at least ten years, but King Louis XVIII was reliant on a wheelchair in the spring of 1824 and suffering from severe health issues that proved fatal by late summer.[2] Further, Lafayette was being monitored by the dying king.[3] Lafayette left the French legislature in 1824, and President James Monroe invited him to tour the United States, partly to instill the "spirit of 1776" in the next generation of Americans[4] and partly to celebrate the nation's 50th anniversary.[5]

Lafayette visited all of the American states and traveled more than 6,000 miles (9,656 km),[6][7] accompanied by his son Georges Washington de La Fayette, named after George Washington, and others.[4] He was also accompanied for part of the trip by social reformer Frances Wright.[8] The main means of transportation were stagecoach, horseback, canal barge, and steamboat.[9]

Landing of General Lafayette at Castle Garden, New York, August 16, 1824

Different cities celebrated in different ways. Some held parades or conducted an artillery salute. In some places schoolchildren were brought to welcome the Marquis. Veterans from the war, some of whom were in their sixties and seventies, welcomed the Marquis, and some dined with him. While touring Yorktown, he recognized and embraced James Armistead Lafayette, a free man of color who adopted his last name to honor the Marquis (he was the first US double agent spy); the story of the event was reported by the Richmond Enquirer.[10] More than a century later, various towns continued to honor their own "Lafayette Day".


Lafayette left France on the American merchant vessel Cadmus, on July 13, 1824, and his tour began on August 15, 1824, when he arrived at Staten Island, New York. He toured the Northern United States the and Eastern United States in the fall of 1824, including stops at Monticello to visit Thomas Jefferson and Washington, D.C., where he was received at the White House by President James Monroe. He began his tour of the Southern United States in March 1825, arriving at the Fort Mitchell, Alabama crossing of the Chattahoochee River on March 31.[4]

A lighthouse clock made by Simon Willard to commemorate Lafayette's visit to the White House


Gloves portraying Lafayette, possibly commemorating his visit to the United States in 1824
Lafayette's welcoming parade in Philadelphia
  • October 6 – Escorted to Wilmington, Delaware, by the Grand Lodge of Delaware Masons[26]
  • October 8[27] to October 11[28] – Toured Baltimore and met with surviving officers and soldiers of the Revolution
  • October 12 – Arrives in Washington, D.C., paraded into town, welcomed by the mayor in the U.S. Capitol rotunda, and celebrated with illuminations throughout the city and with a rocket show.[29][30]
  • October 15 – Spends the entire evening at Arlington House, although he returns to his hotel in Washington, D.C., at night
  • October 17 – Visits Mount Vernon and George Washington's tomb in Virginia
  • October 18–19 – Arrives by steamer in Petersburg, Virginia, for visit to Yorktown and festivities marking the 43rd anniversary of the battle; spent eight days in the Tidewater of Virginia (Norfolk and Portsmouth) area. This was one of his longest stays of the grand tour because it was the site of the American and French victory over the British at Yorktown. He arrived in Yorktown on October 18 on a ship where a water-borne honor guard escorted him to a specially constructed Yorktown wharf, where he was greeted by a crowd of 15,000 people. Gov. James Pleasants and Virginia militia general Robert Barraud Taylor (of the 1813 Battle of Craney Island) gave speeches in his honor. During the visit, the party visited temporary monuments, including a 45-foot tall arch at the site of his courageous assault at Redoubt #10 and a 76-foot tall obelisk at the site of the British surrender. A mass assembly greeted him at Surrender Field. He visited Williamsburg, Virginia and the College of William & Mary from October 19–22 and stayed in the Peyton Randolph House in Williamsburg. He attended an honorary banquet at Raleigh Tavern with Chief Justice John Marshall and Secretary of War John Calhoun. His party rode to Jamestown, Virginia and traveled to Portsmouth to see Norfolk Naval Shipyard. While in Hampton Roads, he visited the unfinished Fort Monroe, and then Colonel Abraham Eustis escorted him to inspect the Old Point Comfort stronghold, which had been designed by French-born engineer Simon Bernard. On October 25, he left the Tidewater area on a ship bound for Richmond.[31]
  • October 22 – Arrives in Norfolk, Virginia via steamer from Petersburg and spends four days there and in Portsmouth[32][33][34]
  • October – Arrives in Richmond, Virginia, on a steamer from Norfolk[35] Edgar Allan Poe is in the youth honor guard in Richmond that welcomed him when he arrived. Lafayette briefly reunites with James Armistead Lafayette when he spots him amongst the crowd of people.[36]
  • On November 2 – Left Richmond for Monticello to visit Jefferson[37]
  • November 8 – Attends a public banquet at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville[38]
  • November 20, 21, 22 – visits Fredericksburg, VA with several parties in his honor, including 2 in City Hall, now the Fredericksburg Area Museum. The following week he expected to spend time at Woodlawn near Mount Vernon, and at Mount Vernon. He expected to be in Annapolis on December 15. ref information in a letter in the Fredericksburg Museum, cited 2019/5/1. Letter is in Lafayette's handwriting.
  • Early December – Stays in Washington, D.C., visiting the White House, meeting several times with President Monroe and George Washington's relatives; visits the Washington Navy Yard
  • December 8 and 9 – Makes official visits to the Senate and addresses Congress at the House of Representatives[15]
  • December 15 – Feted at the first commencement ceremony of the Columbian College in the District of Columbia (now the George Washington University)[30][39]
  • December 17 – Arrives at Annapolis, Maryland, at 3 pm, is received in the Senate chamber and visits Fort Severn
  • December 20 – Received at the Maryland State House[40]
  • December 24 – Arrives at the Jug Bridge crossing the Monocacy River on the National Road east of Frederick, Maryland


Nathanael Greene Monument in Johnson Square
A postcard celebrating the 1825 visit of LaFayette, bearing a painting by Malcolm Parcell
Lafayette laying cornerstone of Bunker Hill Monument June 17, 1825
Original cornerstone of "South College" in Burlington

Honors received during the tripEdit

Fayetteville, North Carolina was named after Lafayette. The College of William and Mary conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on October 20, 1824. Late in the trip, he again received honorary citizenship of Maryland.[a] Congress voted him $200,000 and a township of land in Tallahassee, Florida, known as the Lafayette Land Grant.[89][90]

1824: Visit to MonticelloEdit

Lafayette arrived at Monticello on November 4 in a carriage provided by Jefferson with a military escort of 120 men. Jefferson waited outside on the front portico. By this time some 200 friends and neighbors had also arrived for the event. Lafayette's carriage pulled up to the front lawn where a bugle sounded the arrival of the procession with its revolutionary banners waving. Lafayette was advanced in age and slowly stepped down from the carriage. Jefferson was 81 and in ill health, and he slowly descended the front steps and began making his way towards his old friend. His grandson Randolph was present and witnessed the historic reunion: "As they approached each other, their uncertain gait quickened itself into a shuffling run, and exclaiming, 'Ah Jefferson!' 'Ah Lafayette!', they burst into tears as they fell into each other's arms." Everyone in attendance stood in respectful silence, many of them stifling sobs of their own. Jefferson and Lafayette then retired to the privacy of the house and began reminiscing over the many events and encounters which they shared years before.[91]

The next morning, Jefferson, Lafayette, and James Madison rode to the Central Hotel in Charlottesville in Jefferson's landau. They were escorted by mounted troops and followed by the local townspeople and other friends. They were greeted and honored with speeches, then departed the hotel at noon and set out for a banquet at the University of Virginia which Jefferson was anxious for Lafayette to see; he had postponed the commencement of classes for the event. After a three-hour dinner, Jefferson had someone read a speech that he had prepared for Lafayette, as his voice was weak and could not carry very far. This proved to be Jefferson's last public speech. Lafayette later accepted Jefferson's invitation for honorary membership to the university's Jefferson Literary and Debating Society. Lafayette bid Jefferson goodbye after an 11-day visit.[92][93][94]

1825: Return to FranceEdit

Lafayette returned to France aboard the USS Brandywine

Lafayette had expressed his intention of sailing for home sometime in the late summer or early autumn of 1825. President John Quincy Adams decided to have an American warship carry him back to Europe, and he chose a recently built 44-gun frigate named Susquehanna for this honor. However, it was renamed USS Brandywine to commemorate the battle in which the Frenchman had shed his blood for American freedom and as a gesture of the nation's affection for Lafayette. Brandywine was launched on June 16, 1825, and christened by Sailing Master Marmaduke Dove; she was commissioned on August 25, 1825, with Captain Charles Morris in command.

Lafayette enjoyed a last state dinner to celebrate his 68th birthday on the evening of September 6, and then embarked in the steamboat Mount Vernon on the 7th for the trip downriver to join Brandywine. On the 8th, the frigate stood out of the Potomac River and sailed down Chesapeake Bay toward the open ocean. As he sat on the Brandywine ready to depart, General Isaac Fletcher conveyed greetings from Revolutionary War compatriot General William Barton, and also explained that Barton had been in debtors' prison in Danville, Vermont, for 14 years. Lafayette promptly paid Barton's fine and thus allowed him to return to his family in Rhode Island.[95]

After a stormy three weeks at sea, the warship arrived off Le Havre, France, early in October, and, following some initial trepidation about the government's attitude toward Lafayette's return to a France now ruled by King Charles X, Brandywine's honored passenger returned home.

In 1829, Auguste Levasseur, Lafayette's private secretary, published his travel's notes and memoirs in two volumes with the title of Lafayette en Amérique, en 1824 et 1825 ou Journal d'un voyage aux États-Unis. That same year, one translation appeared in German and two in English (New York City and Philadelphia), titled Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825: Journal of a Voyage to the United States. A fourth translation, this time in Dutch, was published in 1831. Since then, Levasseur's work has been an important source of information to historians.


  1. ^ Lafayette was already a "natural born" American citizen via his pre-Constitution Maryland citizenship.[88]


  1. ^ "Lafayette in America, 1824–1825". YouTube. May 5, 2014. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
  2. ^ "1824." The People's Chronology. Ed. Jason M. Everett. Vol. 1. Gale Cengage, 2006. December 12, 2012.
  3. ^ Kent, Emerson. "The Man With 'Great Zeal to the Cause of Liberty'". Emerson Kent. Retrieved December 12, 2012. Lafayette was very much against the Bourbon Restoration, including their excessive spending, and began to plot against the King, who in turn tried to monitor him closely.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Lafayette's Visit to Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. May 18, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  5. ^ Glatthaar, Joseph T.; James Kirby Martin (2007). Forgotten Allies, The Oneida Indians and the American Revolution. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8090-4600-3., p.3
  6. ^ a b Clary, David (2007). Adopted Son: Washington, Lafayette, and the Friendship that Saved the Revolution. New York, New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-80435-5., pp. 443–444
  7. ^ Loveland, Anne (1971). Emblem of Liberty: The Image of Lafayette in the American Mind. LSU Press. ISBN 0-8071-2462-1., p. 3
  8. ^ "Frances Wright". Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  9. ^ a b c d e Barcousky, Len (March 9, 2008). "Eyewitness 1825: Pittsburgh honors 'The Nation's Guest'". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  10. ^ Kimball, Gregg D. (2000). "4. The Shaping of Black Memory in Antebellum Virginia 1790–1860". In William Fitzhugh Brundage (ed.). Where These Memories Grow: History, Memory, and Southern Identity. UNC Press Books. p. 60. ISBN 978-0807848869. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Levasseur, Auguste. Alan R. Hoffman (trans.) Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825. Lafayette Press, Manchester, NH (2006).
  12. ^ An Officer in the Late Army A Complete History of Marquis de Lafayette Major-General in the American Army in the War of the Revolution. Columbus: J. & H. Miller, Publishers, 1858.
  13. ^ a b FOLLOW THE FRENCHMEN | EPISODE 9 – NIAGARA FALLS, retrieved April 17, 2023
  14. ^ Stauffer, John (2002). The Black Hearts of Men: Radical Abolitionists and the Transformation of Race. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. pp. 86-87. ISBN 0-674-00645-3.
  15. ^ a b c d e William Jones (November 2007). "Rekindling the Spark of Liberty: Lafayette's Visit to the United States, 1824–1825". Retrieved September 13, 2011.
  16. ^ Nutt, John J., Newburgh, her Institutions, Industries, and Leading citizens (Newburgh: Ritchie & Hull, 1891), 55–56.
  17. ^ a b "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. April 22, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  18. ^ Platt, Edmund. "Lafayette's Visit", The Eagle's History of Poughkeepsie (Platt & Platt, 1905), 98–99
  19. ^ "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. August 5, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  20. ^ "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. October 19, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  21. ^ "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. April 25, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  22. ^ "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. October 21, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  23. ^ "LAFAYETTE'S TOUR". William G. Pomeroy Foundation. October 21, 2022. Retrieved April 17, 2023.
  24. ^ "General Lafayette's Dinner Invitation Letter – L42-252 | Livingston Masonic Library". Retrieved December 24, 2022.
  25. ^ "Newspaper Article of General Lafayette Dinner – L44-253 | Livingston Masonic Library". Retrieved December 24, 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Gould's History of Freemasonry Throughout the World – Volume 5". Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  27. ^ Sherman, Mark (July 5, 2014). "Poe and Independence Day (blog post from Saturday, July 05, 2014)". The Poe Museum. Retrieved March 6, 2018. "While in Baltimore during the same United States tour, Lafayette visited Poe's grandfather's grave. According to J. Thomas Scharf's Chronicles of Baltimore (1874) "..
  28. ^ Scharf, John Thomas (1874). The Chronicles of Baltimore: Being a Complete History of "Baltimore Town ". Baltimore: Turnbull Brothers. p. 415. On the 11th General LaFayette left the city with an escort for Washington.
  29. ^ a b Clark, Allen C. (1919). "General Roger Chew Weightman". In John B. Larner (ed.). Records of the Columbia Historical Society. pp. 67–75.
  30. ^ a b Kayser, Elmer Louis (1970). Bricks without Straw: The Evolution of George Washington University. Washington, DC: The George Washington University. pp. 52–54. ISBN 0-390-49615-4. Retrieved May 14, 2020.
  31. ^ Erickson, Mark St. John (October 22, 2014). "Hampton Roads swooned over Lafayette's 1824 return as a Revolutionary War icon". Daily Press. Retrieved March 6, 2018.
  32. ^ "Customs Today". Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  33. ^ "History's Safe Harbor, Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 31, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  34. ^ "History Engine: Tools for Collaborative Education and Research | Episodes". Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  35. ^ "Newspaper Article: The Life of Edgar Allan Poe – Part 2". January 13, 1935. Archived from the original on December 1, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  36. ^ Jacoby, Oren (Director) (2010). Lafayette: The Lost Hero (Television). Archived from the original on September 25, 2019.
  37. ^ Agee, Helene. Facets of Goochland County's History, Richmond, VA: Dietz Press, 1962
  38. ^ "Marquis de Lafayette, Th. Jefferson Encyclopedia, Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc". October 15, 2008. Archived from the original on February 1, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  39. ^ "Lafayette Hall – GWUEncyc". Archived from the original on February 22, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  40. ^ Niles' Register December 25, 1824, 27:259.
  41. ^ Niles' Register January 22, 1825, 27:386.
  42. ^ History of Perseverance Lodge : No. 21, F. & A. M., Penn'a., at Harrisburg January 31, 1825
  43. ^ "Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette – Entries – KnowLA, Encyclopedia of Louisiana".
  44. ^ a b c d e f "Lafayette's Visit – NCpedia".
  45. ^ "An 1825 Interview with Lafayette".
  46. ^ a b "Marker: A-65".
  47. ^ "Marker: E-68".
  48. ^ Catherine Bishir; Jerry L. Cross & Walter D. Best (June 1979). "The Cellar" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places – Nomination and Inventory. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. Retrieved January 1, 2015.
  49. ^ Murray, Elizabeth Reid (1983). Wake [Capital County of North Carolina]. Vol. 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: Capital County Publishing Company. pp. 222–226. ASIN B000M0ZYF4.
  50. ^ Levasseur, Auguste Reid (1829). Lafayette in America in 1824 and 1825 [Journal of a Voyage to the United States]. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea.
  51. ^ Beaufort: A History. The History Press. 2005. ISBN 978-1596290273. Retrieved February 24, 2013.
  52. ^ a b "Georgia History Timeline / Chronology 1825". Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  53. ^ "Owens-Thomas House". Official Georgia Tourism & Travel Website | Explore Retrieved October 23, 2020.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g "Marquis de Lafayette in Georgia".
  55. ^ Northen, William J.; Graves, John Temple (January 1, 1910). Men of Mark in Georgia: A Complete and Elaborate History of the State from Its Settlement to the Present Time, Chiefly Told in Biographies and Autobiographies of the Most Eminent Men of Each Period of Georgia's Progress and Development. A. B. Caldwell – via Internet Archive.
  56. ^ a b c d "Lafayette in Louisiana | Entries | KnowLA, Encyclopedia of Louisiana". Retrieved November 7, 2012.
  57. ^ Fortier, Alcée (1904). A History of Louisiana. New York: Manzi, Joyant & Co., vol. 3, p. 207.
  58. ^ "General Lafayette's 1825 Visit to Baton Rouge". Historical Baton Rouge blog. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  59. ^ O'Neil, Tim. "A Look Back • Lafayette receives joyous welcome to St. Louis in 1825".
  60. ^ Butterworth, Hezekiah (1907). In The Boyhood of Lincoln. New York: D. Appleton and Company.
  61. ^ "Centennial of the Visit of General Lafayette to Shawneetown". Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society. 18 (2): 350–362. July 1925. JSTOR 40187193.
  62. ^ Lloyd's Steamboat Directory and Disasters on the Western Waters, Cincinnati, Ohio; James T. Lloyd & Co, 1856, pp. 260–261; cited by, "Cannelton (Lafayette Spring), IN Steamer MECHANIC Sinking, May 1825". Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  63. ^ Rietveld, Ronald D. (2006). "Abraham Lincoln's Thomas Jefferson". In Pederson, William D.; Williams, Frank J. (eds.). The Great Presidential Triumvirate at Home and Abroad: Washington, Jefferson and Lincoln. New York: Nova Science Publ. p. 42. ISBN 1600213189.
  64. ^ Neal, Andrea (May 19, 2014). "Indiana at 200 (25): Marquis de Lafayette a Big Hit in Jeffersonville". Indiana Policy Review. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  65. ^ Kleber, John E., The Kentucky Encyclopedia, University Press of Kentucky, 1992, pp. 528–529
  66. ^ "A City of Presidents. A Self-Guided Walking Tour" (Issuu). Washington & Jefferson College. Retrieved January 20, 2014.
  67. ^ Erie Gazette June 16, 1825
  68. ^ Erie Dispatch June 25, 1825
  69. ^ Lavasseur Chapter XII published 1829
  70. ^ FOLLOW THE FRENCHMEN | EPISODE 11 – SYRACUSE, NY, retrieved April 17, 2023
  71. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. LaFayette, on his way to Maine, passed the night of June 23, 1825, in Dover, N.H. On the evening of that day, a committee of citizens of South Berwick waited on 'him and invited him to breakfast with them the next morning, which invitation he accepted.
  72. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206.
  73. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. He, was then escorted to Cleaves' H ot-el in Saco
  74. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. From Cleaves' Hotel, he was escorted to the house of Captain Seth Spring in Biddeford, who was a soldier of the revolution, and in the battle of Bunker Hill
  75. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. On Saturday morning, at 7 o'clock, he was escorted by a numerous cavalcade as far as the village of Scarborough, where he was received with the same feeling of gratitude by the people, that had cheered him on all his journey through the States
  76. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. and about 9 o'clock a.m. (June 24, 1825), General LaFayette entered the town of Portland.
  77. ^ "General Lafayette in Maine". Sprague's Journal of Maine History. Vol. 2. p. 206. LaFayette left town Sunday morning about 7 o'clock without any parade and returned to Saco on his way to Vermont. He took breakfast at Captain Spring's in Biddeford, ... he set out for Concord, where he arrived the same night.
  78. ^ a b c Jay Read Pember, A Day with Lafayette in Vermont (1911.)
  79. ^ The History of University of Vermont Buildings: 1800–1947 The J.L. Hills papers. Burlington, Vermont: Special Collections Department, University of Vermont Libraries. 1949. pp. 6, 68.
  80. ^ "Morris County NJ, Sansay House". Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved July 14, 2013.
  81. ^ William P. Tuttle, Bottle Hill and Madison (1916)
  82. ^ Frank Esposito, The Madison Heritage Trail (1985)
  83. ^ Tuttle, Samuel B. (1855). A History of the Presbyterian Church, Madison, N.J. A Discourse Delivered on Thanksgiving Day, November 23, 1854. M. W. Dodd. p. 116. madison nj waverly house tuttle. p. 117
  84. ^ Lafayette's Visit to Germantown, July 20, 1825: An Address ..." By Charles Francis Jenkins
  85. ^ "Home – Wyck". Wyck. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
  86. ^ Family history written record
  87. ^ Mount Vernon Estate & Gardens. "Washington & Lafayette". Archived from the original on 17 June 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  88. ^ Speare, Morris Edmund (September 7, 1919). "Lafayette, Citizen of America" (PDF). New York Times. Retrieved December 12, 2012.
  89. ^ "Historic Markers Program of America". Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  90. ^ Holbrook, Sabra (1977). Lafayette, Man in the Middle. Atheneum. ISBN 0-689-30585-0. lafayette man in the middle., p. 177
  91. ^ Mapp, Alf J. (1991). Jefferson: Passionate Pilgrim. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 328. ISBN 9780517098882.
  92. ^ Malone, Dumas (1981). The Sage of Monticello. Jefferson and His Time. Vol. 6. Little Brown. pp. 403–04. ISBN 978-0-316-54478-8.
  93. ^ Brodie, Fawn (1974). Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 360. ISBN 9780393317527.
  94. ^ Crawford, Alan Pell (2008). Twilight at Monticello: The Final Years of Thomas Jefferson. Random House Digital. pp. 202–03. ISBN 9781400060795.
  95. ^ Jay Read Pember, A Day with Lafayette in Vermont (1911) pp. 17–18


External linksEdit