Venison originally meant the meat of a game animal, and now especially means a deer or antelope (in South Africa). Venison can be used to refer to any part of the animal, so long as it can be consumed, including the internal organs. Venison, much like beef or pork, is categorized into specific cuts, including roast, sirloin, and ribs.
The word derives from the Latin venari ('to hunt or pursue'). This term entered English through Norman in the 11th century, following the Norman conquest of England, and the establishment of Royal Forests.
Venison originally described meat of any game animal killed by hunting, and was applied to any animal from the families Cervidae (deer), Leporidae (hares), and Suidae (wild pigs); and certain species of the genus Capra (goats and ibex).
Venison may be eaten as steaks, tenderloin, roasts, sausages, jerky, and minced meat. It has a flavor reminiscent of beef, but is richer and can have a gamey note. Cuts of venison tend to have a finer texture and be leaner than comparable cuts of beef. However, like beef, leaner cuts can be tougher as well. Venison burgers are typically so lean as to require the addition of fat in the form of bacon, beef, olive oil, or cheese, to achieve parity with hamburger cooking time, texture, and taste. Organ meats (offal) of deer can also be eaten. Traditionally, they are called umbles (originally the Middle English noumbles). This is supposedly the origins of the phrase "humble pie", meaning a pie made from the organs of the deer.
Venison is widely considered by modern nutritionists to be a very healthful meat for human consumption. Since deer are inherently wild animals living on grass and wild plants, their meat can be consumed as part of a naturally healthy diet. Venison is higher in moisture and protein, and the protein is more diverse in amino acids and lower in calories, cholesterol, and fat than most cuts of grain-fed beef, pork, or lamb.
Since it is unknown whether chronic wasting disease (CWD), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy among deer (similar to mad cow disease), scienifically known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, can pass from deer to humans through the consumption of venison, there have been some fears of dangerous contamination of the food supply from wild deer carrying CWD. The disease has been found among farmed deer in the US and western Canada, but New Zealand has not identified the disease among its herd.
Deer farmers have had tests developed especially for the particular species they raise to obtain better results than those used on cattle. Hunters are advised not to shoot a deer that appears sick or is acting strangely, and are also advised to take general precautions in examining the meat from deer they have killed.
Venison jerky can be purchased in some grocery stores or ordered online, and is served on some airlines.
Historically, venison was considered to be a status symbol among many Europeans. In England, for example, hunting rights were restricted in an effort to preserve property rights. As a result, the possession and sale of venison was tightly regulated under English law. Venison is widely available in European supermarkets during the traditional hunting season: October to December. The main cuts available to European consumers are derived from the saddle and the hind leg.
In the United States, venison is less common at retail due to the requirement that the animal be first inspected by USDA inspectors. There are very few abattoirs which process deer in North America, and most of this venison is destined for restaurants. Most venison sold through retail in the United States comes farmed from New Zealand and Tasmania. It is available through some high-end specialty grocers and some chains which focus on more "natural" meats. Non-retail venison is often obtained through hunting and self-processing, or contracting to small meat processing facilities to do the processing for the hunter, but sale of the finished meat is usually illegal.
The U.S. meaty sandwich chain Arby's gained some attention in October 2016 when word leaked through social media that they were about to test a venison sandwich. Arby's later confirmed that they had selected 17 stores in Georgia, Michigan, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, and Wisconsin (all major deer hunting states) to offer a venison sandwich during a four-day test during those states' hunting seasons. Both due to curiosity and heavy demand from hunters, the sandwiches sold out in all markets on the very first day of the test.
Venison consumption is sometimes stigmatized by reference to the 1942 Disney movie Bambi, which personifies wild deer as good creatures and includes a scene where the title character's mother gets shot and killed by a human hunter, ignoring the concept of the hunter gaining nutritional sustenance from the deer's meat. The film implicitly portrays hunters as cold-hearted and anti-conservationist. Controversy was somewhat renewed when Disney released a long-awaited sequel to the movie in 2006.
Nevertheless, there has been an overall increase in the acceptance and promotion of venison procured through hunting in recent years due to the cited nutritional benefits of wild deer meat and a growing trend toward the belief that hunting an animal for its meat is more environmentally "correct" than the production of meat through "factory farming".
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