Vandalic language

Vandalic was the Germanic language spoken by the Vandals during roughly the 3rd to 6th centuries. It was probably closely related to Gothic, and as such is traditionally classified as an East Germanic language. Its attestation is very fragmentary, mainly due to Vandals' constant migrations and late adoption of writing. All modern sources from the time when Vandalic was spoken are protohistoric.

Vandalic
Native toSpain, North Africa
Extinct6th century AD
Language codes
ISO 639-3xvn
xvn
Glottologvand1245
The Vandals during the Migration period.

The Vandals, Hasdingi and Silingi established themselves in Gallaecia (northern Portugal and Galicia) and in southern Spain, following other Germanic and non-Germanic peoples (Visigoths, Alans and Suebi) in c. 410 before they moved to North Africa in the 430s. Their kingdom flourished in the early 6th century, but after their defeat in 536 they were placed under Byzantine administration and their language likely disappeared before the end of the century.

AttestationEdit

Very little is known about the Vandalic language other than various phrases and a small number of personal names of Vandalic origin, mainly known from documents and personal names in Spanish. The regional name Andalusia is traditionally believed to have derived from Vandalic, although this claim is contested. When the Moors invaded and settled on the Iberian Peninsula from the 8th century to the end of the 15th, the region was called Al-Andalus.

In one inscription from the Vandal Kingdom, the Christian incantation of Kyrie eleison is given in Vandalic as "Froia arme" ("Lord, have mercy!").[1] The same phrase appears in Collatio Beati Augustini cum Pascentio ariano 15 by Pseudo-Augustine: "Froja armes".[2]

The epigram De conviviis barbaris in the Latin Anthology, of North African origin and disputed date, contains a fragment in a Germanic language that some authors believe to be Vandalic,[3][4] although the fragment itself refers to the language as "Gothic". This may be because both languages were East Germanic and closely related; scholars have pointed out in this context[5] that Procopius refers to the Goths, Vandals, Visigoths, and Gepids as "Gothic nations" and opines that they "are all of the Arian faith, and have one language called Gothic".[6] The fragment reads:

Inter "eils" Goticum "scapia matzia ia drincan!"
non audet quisquam dignos educere versus.
Calliope madido trepidat se iungere Baccho.
ne pedibus non stet ebria Musa suis.[7]

Amid the Gothic "Hail! Let's get [something to] eat and drink"
nobody dares to put forth decent verses.
Calliope hurries to depart from wet Bacchus.
An inebriated Muse may not stand on her feet.

Other surviving Vandalic words are Baudus, "master" [8] and Vandalirice, "King of the Vandals".[9]

The tables below show various Vandalic words, phrases and forms that survive in (or as) names and various Latin texts. The majority of these were taken from Onesti's "Tracing the Language of the Vandals" (2015).

Vandalic words attested outside of names
Attested
Vandalic form
Gothic cognate Gloss of Vandalic form
arme *𐌰𐍂𐌼𐌰𐌹 (*armai)
(form of 𐌰𐍂𐌼𐌰𐌽 (arman))
'have mercy!'
baudus
(cf. -baudes)
'ruler, master'
drincan 𐌳𐍂𐌹𐌲𐌺𐌰𐌽 (drigkan) 'drink (inf.)'
eils 𐌷𐌰𐌹𐌻𐍃 (hails) 'hail!' (greeting)
ia 𐌾𐌰𐌷 (jah) 'and'
froia 𐍆𐍂𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌰 (frauja) 'lord, (the) Lord'
matzia 𐌼𐌰𐍄𐌾𐌰𐌽 (matjan) 'eat (inf.),
have one's meal (inf.)'
scapia *𐍃𐌺𐌰𐍀𐌾𐌰𐌽 (*skapjan),
cf. 𐌲𐌰𐍃𐌺𐌰𐍀𐌾𐌰𐌽 (gaskapjan)
'make, create'
vandalirice 'king of the Vandals'
Vandalic words and forms attested in or as personal names
Attested
Vandalic form(s)
Gothic cognate Proto-Germanic
etymon
Old English cognate Gloss of Vandalic form
ari 𐌷𐌰𐍂𐌾𐌹𐍃 (harjis) *harjaz here 'army'
baudes
(cf. baudus)
*baudiz 'master, ruler'
bere 𐌱𐌰𐌹𐍂𐌰- (baira-) *bera- bera- 'bear, carry'
bluma 𐌱𐌻𐍉𐌼𐌰 (blōma) *blōmô *blōma 'bloom, flower'
dagila *𐌳𐌰𐌲𐌹𐌻𐌰 (*dagila)
cf. 𐌳𐌰𐌲𐍃 (dags)
*dag- (dæg) 'day (dim.)'
frida
frede
feua
*𐍆𐍂𐌹𐌸𐌿𐍃 (*friþus) *friþu- friþ(u)
(cf. MnE †frith)
'peace'
geis *𐌲𐌰𐌹𐍃 (*gais)
cf. 𐌿𐍃𐌲𐌰𐌹𐍃𐌾𐌰𐌽 (usgaisjan)
('frighten, scare')
*gaiza- gār
(cf. MnE garlic)
'spear'
gunda
guntha
*gunþjo gūþ 'battle'
hildi-, -ild 𐌷𐌹𐌻𐌳𐌹- (hildi-) *hildjō hild 'battle'
mir
mer
*𐌼𐌴𐍂𐍃 (*mērs) *mēraz, mērijaz mǣre
(cf. MnE ‡mere)
'famous'
munds *mundō mund
(cf. MnE ‡mound)
'defender'
mut 𐌼𐍉𐌸𐍃 (mōþs)
('mood, anger')
*moda- mōd
(cf. MnE mood)
'courage'
oa 𐌷𐌰𐌿𐌷𐍃 (hauhs) *hauha- hēah 'high'
osta
hostra
*𐌰𐌿𐍃𐍄𐍂𐌰- (*austra-) *austra- ēast 'east'
rit
rith
-𐍂𐌴𐌳𐌰𐌽 (-rēdan)
('to advise')
*rēdaz rǣd, rēd
(cf. MnE †rede)
'advice, counsel'
rix
ricus
𐍂𐌴𐌹𐌺𐍃 (reiks) *rīk- rice ('dominion') 'king'
runa 𐍂𐌿𐌽𐌰 (rūna) *rūnō rūn
(cf. MnE †roun, rune)
'secret'
scarila *skarō scearu
(cf. MnE share)
'band (dim.)'
sifila 𐍃𐌹𐌱𐌾𐌰 (sibja) *sibjō sibb
(cf. MnE sibling)
'kindred (dim.)'
sindi- 𐍃𐌹𐌽𐌸𐍃 (sinþs)
('time, occurrence')
*sinþa- sīþ
(cf. MnE send)
'travel, path'
trioua 𐍄𐍂𐌹𐌲𐌲𐍅𐌰 (triggwa) *triwwa trīewu 'loyal, true (f.)'
teus 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐍃 (þius) *þewaz þēow
(cf. MnE †thew)
'slave, servant'
theudo 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 (þiuda) *þeudō þēod
(cf. MnE †thede)
'folk'
vili, guilia 𐍅𐌹𐌻𐌾𐌰 (wilja) *wiljô willa 'will (noun)'
uit-
guit-
*𐍅𐌴𐌹𐍄𐌹- (*weiti-) *wīti- 'struggle, combat'
vult 𐍅𐌿𐌻𐌸𐌿𐍃 (wulþus) *wulþu- wuldor 'glory'

GrammarEdit

Very little is known about Vandalic grammar, but some things can be extracted from Vandalic names.

Phonology and sound changesEdit

The phonological features of Vandalic are similar to those of Gothic.

VowelsEdit

The Proto-Germanic long vowel *ē is often preserved in Vandalic names (Gunthimer, Geilimer), but it could become i when unstressed: Geilamir, Vitarit.

The Proto-Germanic short vowel *e turned into i in Vandalic when it was not preceded by */r, h, w/. For example, Sigisteun contains -i because g precedes the vowel, but Beremut retains the *e since r precedes the vowel.

Proto-Germanic *ō turns into /u/ in Vandalic, while it is retained as /oː/ in Gothic: Blumarit (compare Proto-Germanic *blōmô), Vilimut.

The Proto-Germanic diphthong *eu tends to come down to Vandalic as eu. Take for example the form theudo- ('people'), as opposed to the Gothic 𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰 (þiuda), where it has changed to /iu/.

The Proto-Germanic diphthong *ai is preserved as /ai/, but tends to become /ei/ later on. For example, the name Gaisericus changes to Geiseric in later documents.

ConsonantsEdit

The Proto-Germanic *z is also preserved in the language as a sibilant (always found written s or as part of x), as opposed to having undergone rhotacism as it has in North or West Germanic. For example, compare the Vandalic form geis (as in Geiseric) 'spear' to Old English gār.

The word-initial /h/ inherited from Proto-Germanic seems to have been lost early in Vandalic (e.g., the element ari in Arifridos and Guntari, from Proto-Germanic *harja- 'army'). However, royal names on Vandal coins use a conservative official spelling, with the h always being written.

The Proto-Germanic cluster *-ww- can be found strengthened to -g.

The Proto-Germanic cluster *-tj- can become [tsj], as in matzia from Proto-Germanic *matjaną.

Declension and word-formationEdit

The original Proto-Germanic *-z used to mark mark the nominative masculine singular in nominals, which was lost in West Germanic early on, is attested within some preserved Vandalic forms as -s or as part of -x (occasionally found Romanized in some name attestations as -us). This marker is potentially to be deemed an archaic feature since it is lost in most words, with complete lost within Ostrogothic names from the 6th century onward.

Similar to Gothic, Vandalic does not seem to have i-umlaut. One example of items that demonstrate the lack of umlaut are names that contain the form *ari (< Proto-Germanic *harjaz 'army'): Ariarith, Arifridos, Guntari, Raginari vs. Old English here, the latter of which does does show umlaut with the Proto-Germanic *a having shifted to e.

The epithet Vandalirice 'king of the Vandals' gives possible attestation of a genitive plural ending -e (cf. Gothic -ē), albeit written as i within this form. Old Germanic languages outside of East Germanic have -a (as in Old English and Old Norse) or -o (as in Old Dutch or Old High German) as their equivalents of this ending instead; compare Old English Wendla against the potential Vandalic form *Vandali.

Some elements found within names are attested in declined forms. For example, the genitive of *rith is attested as ridos.

Latin influenceEdit

  • The Proto-Germanic fricatives *þ and *ð often turned into t or d, but there are also some names in which they were retained or otherwise represented distinctly: Thrasamundus, Guntha.
  • Initial h- was also lost under Latin influence; however, it is still found included in the spelling of some royal names on Vandalic coins.
  • Initial w- sometimes changed into [gw-] (Guiliaruna, < Proto-Germanic *wilja-, Guitifrida, < *wīti-); in other instances, it is spelled as v (pronounced [w]): vult- (from Proto-Germanic *wulþuz).
  • Vandalic names could contain Latin elements or suffixes (Mauritta, Bictoricus, etc.)[10]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Berndt, Guido M. (2016-04-15). Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed. Routledge. ISBN 9781317178651.
  2. ^ Steinacher, Roland (2008). "Gruppen und Identitäten. Gedanken zur Beichnung "vandalisch"" (PDF). In Berndt, Guido M.; Steinacher, Roland (eds.). Das Reich der Vandalen und seine (Vor-)Geschichten. 2005. Vienna: Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. p. 254. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 March 2012.
  3. ^ "Indogermanistik Wien: Quellentexte". Archived from the original on October 17, 2010. Retrieved 2017-09-02.
  4. ^ Greule, Albrecht and Matthias Springer. Namen des Frühmittelalters als sprachliche Zeugnisse und als Geschichtsquellen. P. 49-50.
  5. ^ Greule, Albrecht and Matthias Springer. Namen des Frühmittelalters als sprachliche Zeugnisse und als Geschichtsquellen. P. 48
  6. ^ Procopius of Caesarea, THE VANDALIC WAR I,2-8
  7. ^ Quoted in Magnús Snædal, 'The "Vandal" Epigram', in Filologia Germanica/Germanic Philology, 1 (2009), 181-213 (pp. 183-84).
  8. ^ Anthologia Latina No. 307, I. 5
  9. ^ Anthologia Latina No. 215, 523-543
  10. ^ https://www.academia.edu/1516556/THE_LANGUAGE_AND_NAMES_OF_THE_VANDALS, Nicoletta Onesti, "THE LANGUAGE AND NAMES OF THE VANDALS", https://www.academia.edu, 2009, 3, 22 February 2015