Common Turkic Alphabet

  (Redirected from Uniform Turkic Alphabet)

Common Turkic Alphabet (Turkish: Ortak Türk Alfabesi) is a project of a single Latin alphabet for all Turkic languages based on a slightly modernized Turkish alphabet. The old system was developed in the Soviet Union and used in the 1920-1930s; the current system is an alphabet with 34 letters recognised by the Turkic Council.[1] Its letters are as follows:

Common Turkic Alphabet
Upper Case A Ä B C Ç D E F G Ğ H I İ J K L M N Ņ O Ö P Q R S Ş T U Ü V W X Y Z '
Lower Case a ä b c ç d e f g ğ h ı i j k l m n ņ o ö p q r s ş t u ü v w x y z '
IPA ɑ æ b d e f g ɣ h ɯ i ʒ c, k l m n ŋ o ø p q r s ʃ t u y v w x j z ʔ


In connection with the collapse of the USSR, in the newly formed republics in which the Turkic languages were the main ones, the ideas of Pan-Turkism became popular again, and, as a consequence, so did the movement for the restoration of the Latin alphabet. In order to unify, and at the initiative of Turkey in November 1991, an international scientific symposium was held in Istanbul on the development of a unified alphabet for the Turkic languages. It was completely based on the Turkish alphabet, but with the addition of some missing letters: ä, ñ, q, w, x. As a result, the alphabet consisted of 34 letters, 29 of which were taken from Turkish.

Azerbaijan was the first to adopt this alphabet in December 1991, later Turkmenistan in April 1993 and Uzbekistan in September 1993. In September 1993, at a regular conference in Ankara, representatives of Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan officially announced the transition to the new alphabet.

However, already in 1992, Azerbaijan was reforming its alphabet and replacing the letter ä with ə, taken from old Cyrillic and Yañalif.

In May 1995, the government of Uzbekistan completely abandoned the new alphabet in favor of a different one, based only on the standard 26-letter Latin alphabet. The same version is accepted for the Karakalpak language.

Turkmenistan also introduced its own alphabet in 1995, which is only partially similar to the general Turkic, but differs from it in a number of letters.

As a result, only Azerbaijani (1991, with one letter changed in 1992), Gagauz (1996), Crimean Tatar (1992, officially since 1997), Tatar in the Tatar Wikipedia (since 2013) and some mass media have used the common Turkic alphabet with minor changes (since 1999).[2][3]

The Tatar Latin script, introduced in September 1999 and canceled in January 2005, used a slightly different set of additional letters (ŋ instead of ñ, ə instead of ä), and the letter ɵ instead of Turkish ö. Since December 24, 2012, the common Turkic alphabet has been officially used as a means of transliterating the Tatar Cyrillic alphabet.[4]

Grapheme-phoneme correspondencesEdit

The orthographies of Turkic languages are largely phonetic, meaning that the pronunciation of a word can usually be determined from its spelling. This rule excludes recent loanwords such as proper names. The letters representing vowel sounds in Turkic dialects are, in alphabetical order, ⟨a⟩, ⟨ä⟩ and ⟨e⟩, ⟨ı⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨o⟩, ⟨ö⟩, ⟨u⟩, ⟨ü⟩.[5]

Primary graphemes of Turkic languages in alphabets based on the modern Common Turkic Alphabet (CTA)
Common A Ä Ë E B C Ç J D D F G Ğ Ģ H X I İ K Q L Ļ M N Ņ Ñ O Ö P R S S Þ Ş Ț T T U Ü V W Y Z Ź Ż
Turkish A - E E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K - L - M N - - O Ö P R S S - Ş - T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Azerbaijani alphabet A - Ə E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K Q L - M N - - O Ö P R S S - Ş - T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Turkmen A Ä Ä, E E B J Ç Ž D D - F G - - H - - Y I K - L - M N - Ň O Ö P R - - S Ş - T T U Ü W - Ý - - Z
Gagauz A - Ä E B C Ç J D D - F G - - H - - I İ K - L - M N - - O Ö P R S S - Ş Ţ T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Crimean Tatar A - E E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş - T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Tatar A A Ä E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş - T T U Ü V W Y Z Z -
Bashkir A Ä Ä E B - Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S Ś Ş - T T U Ü V W Y Z Z Ź
Kumyk A Ä Ä E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş Č, Ţ T T U Ü - W Y Z Z -
Karachay-Balkar A - E E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş Ţ T T U Ü V W Y Z Z -
Karaim A - E Ė B Č Ž D D DZ F D' G - H - CH Y I T' K L L' M N Ń - O Ö P R S Ś - Š C T T U Ü V - J Z Ź -
Kazakh A Á E E B - CH J D D - F G Ǵ - H - H Y İ K Q L - M N - Ń O Ó P R S S - SH TS T T U Ú V Ý I Z Z -
Karakalpak A Á Á E B - CH J D D - F G Ǵ - H - X Í I K Q L - M N - Ń O Ó P R S S - SH C T T U Ú V W Y Z Z -
Nogai A Ä Ä E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - - I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş Ţ T T U Ü - W Y Z Z -
Kyrgyz A - E E B C Ç - D D - F G Ğ - H - Q I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş Ţ T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Uzbek O A - E B - CH J D D - F G - H - X - I K Q L - M N - NG O P R S S - SH - T T U - V - Y Z Z -
Uyghur A - E Ë B J CH ZH D D - F G GH - H - X - I K Q L - M N - NG O Ö P R S S - SH - T T U Ü V - Y Z Z -
Salar A - E E B C Ç J D D - F G Ğ - H - X I İ K Q L - M N - Ñ O Ö P R S S - Ş - T T U Ü V V Y Z Z -
Salar (new official orthography) A - E E B J/ZH Q/CH R D D - F G G - H - K I I K K L - M N - NG O Ö P R S S - X/SH - T T U Ü V W Y Z Z -
Arabic script
















































Cyrillic script А Ә Ә Е Б Џ Ч Ж Д Д Ѕ Ф Г Ғ, Ҕ Һ Ҳ Х Ы И К Қ Л Љ М Н Њ Ң О Ө П Р С Ҫ Ш Ц Т Т У Ү В Ў Ј З З́ Ҙ
IPA /ɑ/10 /a/ /ɛ/ /æ/ /e/ /b/ /d͡ʒ/ /t͡ʃ/ /ʒ/ /d/ /dʲ/ /d͡z/ /f/ /ɡ/ /ɟ/ /ɣ/ /ʁ/ /ʕ/ /h/ /ħ/ /x/ /χ/ /ɯ/ /i/ /k/ /c/ /q/ /ɢ/ /l/ /ɫ/ /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/ /ɴ/ /o/ /ø/ /p/ /r/ /s/ /sʲ/ /θ/ /ʃ/ /t͡s/ /t/ /tʲ/ /u/ /y/ /v/ /w/ /j/ /z/ /zʲ/ /ð/
  1. Ää=Əə=Эə
  2. Č=J
  3. Þ=θ and Ż=Đ
  4. Ț=T+S and =D+Z
  5. =ص and =ض
  6. =ط and Ż=ظ
  7. Long: Â, Ê, Î, Ô, Û.
  8. Soft: Ă, Ĕ, Ĭ, Ŏ, Ŭ.
  9. Thin: Grave (ˋ) - Consonant letters
  10. /ɒ/ in Uzbek
  • Semi-vowels (Glottal Letters) are shown with a breve (or caron in Chuvash): Ă, Ĕ, Ĭ, Ŏ, Ŭ.
  • The /θ/ phoneme (Latin Š or Ť, Arabic ث, Cyrillic Ҫ) is only present in the Bashkir language.
  • The /ð/ phoneme (Latin Ž or Ď, Arabic ذ, Cyrillic Ҙ) is only present in the Bashkir language.
  • Ä is sometimes written as Əə or Ǝǝ (Latin glyphs).[6][7][8]
  • The phonemes /t͡s/ (Ț) and /d͡z/ () are represented in the Lipka Tatars Belarusian Arabic alphabet.[9][10][11]
  • Some handwritten letters have variant forms. For example: Čč=Jj, Ķķ=, and =.[12]
  • The Cyrillic Ѕ, Љ, and Њ may be written as Ӡ, Ԡ, and Ԣ respectively.
  • ٯ = ق (representing /q/) or ڨ (representing /ɢ/).
  • (ص), Ż (ظ), and (ط) are used to represent the front and back variants of the letters S, Z, and T/D respectively. They are commonly found at the beginning of words to indicate all following vowels will be back vowels. If the sounds S, Z, T, or D occur in the middle of a word with exclusively back vowels, they may appear in their "soft" or neutral forms of S (س), Z (ز), T (ت) or D (د). (The letter (ط) can represent the back vowel variants of T and D). Unlike Turkish, Arabic does not have vowel-dependent placement rules for these letters; they appear wherever emphatic consonants occur and can thus be seen in any part of the word. Some examples include Ṡahib, Ṡabun, Huṡuṡ, Ṡabr, etc.

Non-Turkic (Cyrillic or Arabic) LettersEdit

Examples of Latin Turkic alphabets 1922-1940
  • Ţ (T-cedilla, minuscule: ţ) is a letter originating as part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian and Moldovan phoneme /t͡s/, the voiceless alveolar affricate (like ts in bolts).[13] It is written as the letter T with a small comma below and it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants. It is also a part of the Gagauz alphabet and the Livonian alphabet.[14] The letter corresponds to Cyrillic Tse (Ц) in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets.
  • (D-cedilla, minuscule: ) is a letter originating as part of the old Romanian alphabet, used to represent the old Romanian and Moldovan sound /d͡z/, the voiced alveolar affricate.[15] It is written as the letter D with a small comma below, and it has both lower-case and the upper-case variants. It is also a part of the Livonian alphabet. The letter corresponds to Cyrillic Dze (Ѕ) in the romanisation of Cyrillic Turkic alphabets.
  • (ض) is only used for Arabic transcriptions; the emphatic consonant it represents does not exist in Turkic languages. For example: Ramaḋan, Kaḋı, Kaḋa, Ḋarb, Ḋarbe, Arḋ, etc.
  • The Latin letter Ë (E-umlaut) has no relation to the Cyrillic letter Ё (Yo). The Latin letter Ë represents the sound sequence /je/ and thus corresponds to the Cyrillic letter Є in Ukrainian or Е in Russian.
  • The Cyrillic Ѕ, Љ and Њ all originate in the Serbian and Macedonian alphabets and represent the same phonemes as in the CTA.

In the USSREdit

The New Turkic Alphabet was a Latin alphabet used by non-Slavic peoples of the USSR in the 1920-1930s. The alphabet used letters from Jaꞑalif as it was also a part of the uniform alphabet. The new alphabet utilised the basic Latin letters excluding "w", as well as some additional letters.

New Turkic Alphabet
Upper case A B C Ç D E Ə F G Ƣ H X I J K Q L M N O Ɵ P R S Ş T U Y V Z Ƶ Ь
Lower case a ʙ c ç d e ə f g ƣ h x i j k q l m n o ɵ p r s ş t u y v z ƶ ь


  • Heinz F. Wendt: Fischer Lexikon Sprachen, 1961 (ISBN 3-596-24561-3)
  • Bilal N. Şimşir: Türk Yazi Devrimi, Ankara 1992, S. 119
  • Helmut Glück (Hrsg.): Metzler Lexikon Sprache, 2005 [S. 417] (ISBN 3-476-02056-8)
  • Proceedings of the International Symposium of Contemporary Turkish Alphabet (Milletlerarası Çağdaş Türk Alfabeleri Sempozyumu Bildirisi), 1991, İstanbul, M.Ü. Türkiyat Araştırmaları Enstitüsü, 1992 [2].
  • Zentrum für Türkeistudien, Essen: Aktuelle Situation in den Turkrepubliken – Innenpolitik, Sicherheitspolitik, Wirtschaft, Umwelt, Bevölkerung (Working Paper 14, 1994)
  • FSP Entwicklungssoziologie, Bielefeld: Formen der Transvergesellschaftung als gegenläufige Prozesse zur Nationsbildung in Usbekistan (Working Paper 334, 2000)
  • Der Fischer Welt Almanach '94 – Zahlen, Daten, Fakten, 1993 (S. 846)
  • Mehmet Tütüncü: Alphabets for the turkic languages
  • Herbert W. Duda: Die neue türkische Lateinschrift. I. Historisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1929, Spalten 441–453. – II. Linguistisches. In: Orientalistische Literaturzeitung 1930, Spalten 399–413.
  • F.H. Weißbach: Die türkische Lateinschrift. In: Archiv für Schreib- und Buchwesen 1930, S. 125–138.
  • Yakovlev N.F. "Development and succeeding problems in Latinizing alphabets", No 2, 1936, pp. 25–38 (In Russian) Н.Ф. Революция и письменность
  • Луначарский. Латинизация русской письменности
  • Статья «Новый алфавит» в Литературной энциклопедии
  • Nevzat Özkan, Gagavuz Türkçesi Grameri, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları, 1996
  • Jaꞑalif/Яңалиф". Tatar Encyclopedia. (2002). Kazan: Tatarstan Republic Academy of Sciences Institution of the Tatar Encyclopaedia
  • Закиев. Тюрко-татарское письмо. История, состояние, перспективы. Москва, "Инсан", 2005
  • G.A Gaydarci, E.K Koltsa, L.A.Pokrovskaya B.P.Tukan, Gagauz Türkçesinin Sözlüğü, TC Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları
  • Nevzat Özkan, Gagauz Destanları, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları
  • Prof. Dr. Mustafa Argunşah-Âdem Terzi-Abdullah Durkun, Gagauz Türkçesi Araştırmaları Bilgi Şöleni, Türk Dil Kurumu Yayınları
  • Gagauzum Bucaktır Yerim, Tatura Anamut Ocak Yayınları
  • Yakovlev N.F. "Development and succeeding problems in Latinizing alphabets", "Revolution and script" No 2, 1936, pp. 25–38 (In Russian) Н.Ф. ЯКОВЛЕВ: «О развитии и очередных проблемах латинизации алфавитов», Революция и письменность, № 2, 1936, стр. 25–38
  • Minglang Zhou (2003). Multilingualism in China: the politics of writing reforms for minority languages, 1949–2002. Volume 89 of Contributions to the sociology of language (illustrated ed.). Published Walter de Gruyter. p. 174. ISBN 3-11-017896-6. Retrieved 2011-01-01.


  1. ^ Türk Keneş ve Türk Dünyasının 34 Harfli Ortak Alfabe Sistemi - Abdülvahap Kara
  2. ^ " — elektron gazetası". Archived from the original on 2017-07-27. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
  3. ^ ""Tatar-inform" MA Tatarstan Respubliqası mäğlümat ağentlığı". Archived from the original on 2015-06-26. Retrieved 2015-09-27.
  4. ^ "Закон 1-ЗРТ "Об использовании татарского языка как государственного языка Республики Татарстан"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2013-08-25.
  5. ^ The vowel represented by ⟨ı⟩ is also commonly transcribed as ⟨ɨ⟩ in linguistic literature.
  6. ^ ИЗ ИСТОРИИ ПИСЬМА АЗЕРБАЙДЖАНСКИХ ТЮРКОВ, Мансур Рахбари (Южный Азербайджан, Иран), Bextiyartuncay. Э(ə) harfi için örnek - "э(ə)СРи : леорард ( Китаб аль – Идрак ли – Лисан аль – Атрак ), тигр (Махмуд Кашгари)"
  7. ^ Eesti Keele Instituut / Institute of the Estonian Language KNAB: Kohanimeandmebaas / Place Names Database, Taadi / Tat / Жугьури Džuhuri latinisatsioon / romanization: KNAB 2012-09-30 - Notes-2: "In the earlier Azerbaijani Cyrillic there were variations: ə (= э)."
  8. ^ Examples: Ämäk/Эmək/Əmək, Ämir/Эmir/Əmir, Äsas/Əsas/Эsas...
  9. ^ Ilya Yevlampiev, Karl Pentzlin and Nurlan Joomagueldinov, N4072 Revised Proposal to encode Arabic characters used for Bashkir, Belarusian, Crimean Tatar, and Tatar languages, ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2, 20 May 2011. [1]
  10. ^ Janka Stankievic. Mova rukapisu Al Kitab. Casc I. Fonetyka. New York 1954
  11. ^ Вольскі В. Асноўныя прынцыпы арабскай транскрыпцыі беларускага тэксту ў "Кітабах". "Узвышша" 1927. №6
  12. ^ Lorna A. Priest, Proposal to Encode Additional Latin Orthographic Characters for Uighur Latin Alphabet, 2005
  13. ^ Marinella Lörinczi Angioni, "Coscienza nazionale romanza e ortografia: il romeno tra alfabeto cirillico e alfabeto latino ", La Ricerca Folklorica, No. 5, La scrittura: funzioni e ideologie. (Apr., 1982), pp. 75–85.
  14. ^ Ulutaş, İsmail. 2004. Relative clauses in Gagauz syntax. Istanbul: Isis Press. ISBN 975-428-283-8
  15. ^ Negruzzi, Constantin, Studii asupra limbei române, in vol. "Alexandru Lăpuşneanul", Ed. Pentru Literatură, Bucharest, 1969.

External linksEdit

See alsoEdit